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Technical Paper

Reducing Particulate and NOx Emissions by Using Multiple Injections in a Heavy Duty D.I. Diesel Engine

An experimental study has been completed which evaluated the effectiveness of using double, triple and rate shaped injections to simultaneously reduce particulate and NOx emissions. The experiments were done using a single cylinder version of a Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty D.I. diesel engine. The fuel system used was a common rail, electronically controlled injector that allowed flexibility in both the number and duration of injections per cycle. Injection timing was varied for each injection scheme to evaluate the particulate vs. NOx tradeoff and fuel consumption. Tests were done at 1600 rpm using engine load conditions of 25% and 75% of maximum torque. The results indicate that a double injection with a significantly long delay between injections reduced particulate by as much as a factor of three over a single injection at 75% load with no increase in NOx. Double injections with a smaller dwell gave less improvement in particulate and NOx at 75% load.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on D.I. Diesel Emissions and Performance

An emissions and performance study was performed to show the effects of injection pressure, nozzle hole inlet condition (sharp and rounded edge) and nozzle included spray angle on particulate, NOx, and BSFC. The tests were conducted on a fully instrumented single-cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine at 75% and 25% load at 1600 RPM. The fuel system consisted of an electronically controlled, hydraulically actuated, unit injector capable of injection pressures up to 160 MPa. Particulate versus NOx trade-off curves were generated for each case by varying the injection timing. The 75% load results showed the expected decrease in particulate and flattening of the trade-off curve with increased injection pressure. However, in going from 90 to 160 MPa, the timing had to be retarded to maintain the same NOx level, and this resulted in a 1 to 2% increase in BSFC. The rounded edged nozzles were found to have an increased discharge coefficient.
Technical Paper

Reducing Particulate and NOx Using Multiple Injections and EGR in a D.I. Diesel

An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of EGR and multiple injections on particulate, NOx, and BSFC. EGR is known to be effective at reducing NOx, but at high loads there is usually a large increase in particulate. Recent work has shown that multiple injections are effective at reducing particulate. Thus, it was of interest to examine the possibility of simultaneously reducing particulate and NOx with the combined use of EGR and multiple injections. The tests were conducted on a fully instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty truck engine. Tests were done at high load (75% of peak torque at 1600 RPM where EGR has been shown to produce unacceptable increases in particulate emissions. The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware. The fuel system was capable of up to four independent injections per cycle.