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Technical Paper

Microfiber Knits for Catalytic Converters

Microfibers with high specific micro-surface can be knitted into two-dimensional structures with large internal porosity. Catalytically active metals can be deposited on the fibers with high dispersion by wet-impregnation, sol-gel or CVD, respectively. These microfiber knits may be used for exhaust gas treatment systems with a triple function: particle filtration, gas conversion and muffling. The total oxidation of propane on Pd and Pt coated fibers has been studied as a test reaction. Conversion temperature could be remarkably reduced compared to cellular structures. For a bimetallic (Pt-Pd) coating, the activity is independent of humidity or oxygen concentration. Thus a catalytic converter based on micro-fiber knits appears feasible. Its high mass and heat transfer prevent hot spots. And it functions as submicron filter for combustion aerosols. Integrated electric heating can also be provided in case of low gas temperatures. First tests on engines show promising results.
Technical Paper

VERT - Clean Diesel Engines for Tunnel Construction

Diesel engines are irreplaceable in tunnel construction. The particulate emissions of present day engines are so high that the imission limits valid since 1991 cannot be attained by ventilation alone. This problem had to be solved preparatory to the large tunnel projects in Switzerland, Austria and Germany. Several retro-fitting measures were investigated both in the laboratory and in field tests, within the scope of the Project VERT. Oxidation catalytic converters, exhaust gas recirculation, and the usage of special fuels cannot be recommended. Particulate trap deployment, in different systems, was mostly successful. Particular attention was focused on the dependable filtration of finest particulates < 200 nm. The VERT proved that exhaust gas after-treatment with particulate traps is feasible, cost effective and controllable in the field. Pertinent directives are in discussion.
Technical Paper

Passive Regeneration of Catalyst Coated Knitted Fiber Diesel Particulate Traps

Knitted fiber particulate traps facilitate deep-bed structures. These have excellent filtration properties, particularly for ultra-fine particulates. They are also suitable as substrate for catalytic processes. The two characteristics are: high total surface area of the filaments, and good mass transfer. These are prerequisites for intense catalytic activity. The deposited soot is uniformly distributed. Therefore, temperature peaks are avoided during regeneration. The tested coatings lower the regeneration temperature by about 200°C to burn-off temperatures below 350°C. Further improvements seem attainable. Thus, a purely passive regeneration appears feasible for most applications. The system is autonomous and cost effective. However, in extreme low load situations, e.g. city bus services, the necessary exhaust temperatures are not attained. Hence, burners or electrical heating is necessary for trap regeneration.
Technical Paper

VERT: Diesel Nano-Particulate Emissions: Properties and Reduction Strategies

Increasing concern, about the health risk due to solid aerosols from engine combustion, has provoked more stringent imission limits, for soot particles in the range of pulmonary intrusion, at critical work-places (e.g. tunnel sites, see Table 1). Within the scope of the joint European project VERT, these emissions were characterized and their effective curtailment through exhaust gas after-treatment investigated. Diesel engines, irrespective of design and operating point, emit solid particulates in the range of 100 nm, at concentrations above 10 million particulates per cm3. Engine tests showed that a drastic curtailment of pulmonary intruding particulates seems not feasible by further development of the engine combustion, nor by reformulation of fuels, nor by deployment of oxidation catalytic converters. Particulate traps, however, can curtail the total solid particulate count, in the fine particulate range 15-500 nm, by more than two orders of magnitude.
Technical Paper

The Knitted Particulate Trap: Field Experience and Development Progress

Ceramic fibers, in a knitted structure, offer an elastic deep-filter medium having a very high specific surface. The robustness of this trap, and its invulnerability to thermo-shock, was demonstrated during a further year of development and tests. By using new manufacturing techniques, the filtration efficiency was further improved, pressure losses reduced, and the required volume diminished. New insight was obtained regarding the employment of the fiber medium for catalysis. The filter concept permits regeneration either electrically or by fuel-additives. The layout versatility facilitates deployment on vehicular and stationary engines, in the pre-turbo position, too.
Technical Paper

Knitted Ceramic Fibers - A New Concept for Particulate Traps

Ceramic fibers with high specific surface area and adequate high-temperature strength are commercially available for filtration of diesel particulates and in-situ hot regeneration. The manufacturing of a deep bed filtration medium, using such brittle fibers, became possible after a special knitting technique was developed which forms the loops with minimum friction and pretension. Within this structure, the fibers are very little constrained and expose their active surface almost completely. Hence, high filtration efficiencies in the range of 95% could be demonstrated with favorable back-pressure characteristics. Blow-off phenomena were never observed. Endurance testing on engines, with full-flow burner regeneration, proved the high robustness to mechanical and thermo-mechanical loading. This is one of the particular advantages of the new concept.
Technical Paper

Supercharging with Comprex® to Improve the Transient Behavior of Passenger Car Diesel Engines

Transient conditions are typically encountered in passenger car engine operation, and they have a major impact on the control system driver/vehicle, as well as on emissions. While turbocharging generally deteriorates the transient behavior of a vehicle engine, supercharging with the pressure wave machine Comprex retains characteristics which are nearly equal to those of a naturally aspirated engine. The elements involved in the transient process are discussed, and their effect on road performance and emissions is shown on the basis of experimentally obtained data.
Technical Paper

Characteristics and Matching of the Pressure Wave Supercharger ComprexSr to a Passenger Car Engine

The Comprex pressure-wave machine is well qualified for supercharging automotive Diesel engines, demonstrating as it does, improvements in power output, fuel consumption and emissions. The special form of the charging characteristics is established from theoretical considerations of the pressure wave compression process. Data from the currently available production machines show, with the aid of supercharging parameters, such a pressure ratio, density ratio and adiabatic compression efficiency, the operating limits of the machine with respect to cell filling and pressure-wave tuning. A computer program, interpolating from measured data and using a simplified model of the engine, allows optimisation of an installation considering Comprex type, shaft drive ratio, charge air cooling and control system functions. The correlation of the program with measured values is adequate for the purpose of engine-to-Comprex matching.
Technical Paper

Testing of Combined DPF+SCR Systems for HD-retrofitting – VERTdePN

New Diesel exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, with combined DPF*) and deNOx (mostly SCR) systems represent a very important step towards zero emission Diesel fleet. These combined systems are already offered today by several suppliers for retrofitting of HD vehicles. Reliable quality standards for those quite complex systems are urgently needed to enable decisions of several authorities. The present report informs about the international network project VERT *) dePN (de-activation, de-contamination, disposal of particles and NOx), which was started in Nov. 2006 with the objective to introduce the SCR-, or combined DPF+SCR-systems in the VERT verification procedure. Examples of results for some of the investigated systems are given. These investigations included parameters, which are important for the VERT quality testing: besides the regulated gaseous emissions several unregulated components such as NH3, NO2 and N2O were measured.
Technical Paper

Filtration of Diesel Soot Nanoparticles and Reliability in Swiss HDV Retrofitting

Based on the emission inventory Fig. 1, the Swiss 1998 Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC) mandates curtailment of carcinogenic diesel particle emissions at type B construction sites [1]. Moreover, particle traps are compulsory at underground workplaces [2]. In compliance, more than 6,000 Diesel engines were retrofitted with various particle trap systems. Many traps surpassed 99% filtration efficiency and secondary emissions were mostly prevented. However, trap failure due to mechanical and thermal damage was initially rather high at about 10%. By the year 2000 the failure rate was halved to about 6%. Thanks to focussed improvements, the year 2003 statistics show yearly failures of “only” about 2%. The Swiss target is to retrofit 15,000 construction machines with traps, fully compliant with environmental directives, having 5,000 operating hours durability and failure rates below 1%. Traps must pass the VERT suitability test before deployment.
Technical Paper

Secondary Emissions Risk Assessment of Diesel Particulate Traps for Heavy Duty Applications

Most particulate traps efficiently retain soot of diesel engine exhaust but the potential hazard to form secondary emissions has to be controlled. The Diesel Particle Filter (DPF) regeneration is mainly supported by metal additives or metallic coatings. Certain noble or transition metals can support the formation of toxic secondary emissions such as Dioxins, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), Nitro-PAH or other volatile components. Furthermore, particulate trap associated with additive metals can penetrate through the filter system or coating metals can be released from coated systems. The VERT test procedure was especially developed to assess the potential risks of a formation of secondary pollutants in the trap. The present study gives an overview to the VERT test procedure. Aspects of suitability of different fuel additives and coating metals will be discussed and examples of trap and additive induced formation of toxic secondary emissions will be presented.
Technical Paper

Particulate Traps for Retro-Fitting Construction Site Engines VERT: Final Measurements and Implementation

1 The VERT project aimed at curtailing the construction site diesel emissions of ultra-fine particles to 1% of the raw emissions. Thus, compliance with occupational health legislation should be achieved. Particulate traps have attained this target. In contrast, engine tuning, reformulated fuels and oxidation catalytic converters are almost ineffective. This paper reports on the concluding project stage in which 10 traps were field tested during 2 years. Subsequent detailed measurements confirmed the excellent results: > 99% filtration rate was achieved in the nano-particulate range. The PAH, too, were very efficiently eliminated. Trap deployment becomes therefore imperative to fulfill VERT-targets.
Technical Paper

Best Available Technology for Emission Reduction of Small 4S-SI-Engines

1 Small off-road 4-stroke SI-engines have extraordinarily high pollutant emissions. These must be curtailed to comply with the new Swiss clean air act LRV 98. The Swiss environmental protection agency (BUWAL) investigated the state of the technology. The aim was a cleaner agricultural walk behind mower with a 10kW 4-stroke SI-engine. Two engine designs were compared: side-valve and OHV. A commercially available 3-way catalytic converter system substantially curtailed emissions: In the ISO 8178 G test-cycle-average, HC was minimized to 8% and CO to 5% of raw emissions. At part load points, the residual emission was < 1%. Simultaneously, fuel consumption improved 10%. Using a special gasoline (Swiss standard SN 181 163), the aromatic hydrocarbons were curtailed, e.g. Benzene < 1%, and fuel consumption further improved. Those results were confirmed in field tests. The engine is approved for retrofitting.
Technical Paper

Particulate Traps Used in City-Buses in Switzerland

1 Switzerland is enforcing the use of particulate traps for offroad applications like construction as well as for occupational health applications like tunneling. This decision is based on the results of the VERT-project (1994-1999), which included basic aerosol research, bench screening and field testing of promising solutions as well as the development of implementation tools like trap specification, certification scheems and field control measures. On the other hand there is no corresponding regulation for city-buses yet although PM 10 is about 2× above limit in most Swiss cities. Public pressure however is growing and city transport authorities have reacted by retrofitting Diesel city-buses instead of waiting for cleaner engine technology or CNG-conversions. The favored trap system with about 200 retrofits so far is the CRT.
Technical Paper

Particulate Traps for Construction Machines Properties and Field Experience

1 Occupational Health Authorities in Germany and Switzerland require the use of particulate traps (PT) on construction machines used in underground and in tunneling since 1994. Swiss EPA has extended this requirement 1998 to all construction sites which are in or close to cities. During the VERT*-project, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]**, traps systems were evaluated for this purpose and only those providing efficiencies over 95% for ultrafine particles < 200 nm have received official recommendation. 10 trap-systems are very popular now for these application, most of them for retrofitting existing engines. Efficiency data will be given as well as experience during a 2-years authority-controlled field test. LIEBHERR, producing their own Diesel engines in Switzerland and construction machines in Germany is the first company worldwide supplying particulate traps as OEM-feature (Original Equipment Manufacturing) on customers request.
Technical Paper

Particle Filter Properties after 2000 hrs Real World Operation

Diesel particle filters (DPFs) efficiently eliminate soot, fuel-, and oil-ash emissions of diesel engines, but little data are available with respect to long term aging or deterioration effects of DPFs under real world operating conditions. Aging of wash coat- and catalyst-materials, catalyst poisoning, ash sintering, adsorption and long lasting storage of semi- or non-volatile substances can take place, which over time may influence filtration and conversion properties of DPFs. Herein we report to what extent DPF aging may affect particle filtration characteristics. We compared particle number concentrations (PN), and particle mass (PM) emissions after a 2000 operating hours endurance test (VFT2). Such a controlled field test is required by VERT verification procedures, which lately were published as a national standard (SNR 277205).
Technical Paper

Urban Air Quality Improvements by Means of Vehicular Diesel Particle Filters

The project objective was to investigate the ultrafine solid particle emissions of the prevalent traffic, by performing field measurements at an urban traffic artery in Zurich/Switzerland. Subsequently, various scenarios were postulated to assess the potential of the diesel particle filters (DPF) to improve curbside air quality. Soot aerosols are known to be carcinogenic [1]. If all heavy-duty diesel vehicles were equipped with DPFs, then the number of particles emitted from the entire vehicle fleet could be reduced by 75 to 80%. For PM10, the curtailment scope is considerably lower, around 20%, because more than half of those emissions are not from the exhaust and therefore would not be filtered.
Technical Paper

NanoMet, a New Instrument for On-line Size- and Substance- Specific Particle Emission Analysis

Swiss EPA and European occupational health authorities have sponsored the development of a new sampling and measuring system designed to fulfil future requirements of differentiated particle analysis in field use and for certification purposes. The system suppresses the formation of condensates by applying hot dilution. Solid carbonaceous particles are distinguished from ash particles by means of two different sensors. Particles are size classified by their mobility; their active surface is measured. The measurable size ranges from less than 10 nm to 1 micrometer. The detection limit corresponds to a mass concentration of elemental carbon (EC) of about 0.1 μg/m3. The time resolution of 1 second is suitable for on-line analysis of particulate emission during all types of transient cycles, even no-load acceleration. The system includes a compact diluter with tunable dilution factor from 30 to 3000.
Technical Paper

Retrofitting TRU-Diesel Engines with DPF-Systems Using FBC and Intake Throttling for Active Regeneration

Transport Refrigeration Units (TRU) powered by small diesel engines emit high PM and cause locally high PM levels. The concomitant health risks spurred efforts to devise a cost-effective curtailment of these emissions. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) of ceramic honeycomb construction very efficiently trap PM emissions, even ultrafines in the lung penetrating size range of below 300 nm. A fuel borne catalyst (FBC) can facilitate trap regeneration, by lowering the exhaust temperature requirements, but cannot alone guarantee reliable regeneration under all operating conditions of the TRU. A Swiss development team together with industrial partners therefore developed a fully automatic active regeneration system for the California Air Resources Board.