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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of an Unmodified Naturally Aspirated Compression Ignition Engine on Blends of Diethyl Ether and Diesel

The world today is majorly dependent upon fossil fuels for power generation, of which diesel forms an integral part. Diesel engines, having the highest thermal efficiency of any regular internal or external combustion engine, are widely used in almost all walks of life and cannot be dispensed with in the near future. However, the limited availability of diesel and the adverse effects of diesel engine emissions like nitrogen oxide (NOx) and soot particles raise serious concerns. Hence, their performance and emission improvement continues to be an avenue of great research activity. In this research work, the effects of blending Diethyl Ether with diesel in various proportions (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume) were evaluated on engine performance and emissions of an industrial internal combustion engine.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Emission Characteristics of Blend of Algae Oil Methyl Ester with Diesel in a Medium Capacity Diesel Engine

Primary energy sources can be divided into non-renewable and renewable. The over-exploration of non-renewable sources for energy availability imposes considerable impacts on the environment. Reducing the use of fossil fuels would significantly reduce the carbon dioxide emissions and other pollutants produced. The future drift for sustainable production of renewable energy is cautiously thoughtful for it has been increasingly understood that first generation biofuels, majorly produced from food crops that are limited in their ability to achieve targets for biofuel production, climate change mitigation and economic growth. These concerns have increased the interest in developing second generation biofuels produced from non-edible feedstock such as microalgae, which potentially offers greatest opportunities in the longer term. Microalgae are considered a very promising feedstock for biodiesel production due to their very high yield and their no competition with food crops.
Technical Paper

Development of an Intake Runner of a CI Engine for Performance Enhancement and Emission Reductions Due to Variations in Air Flow Pattern within the Runner

Recent scenario of fossil fuel depletion as well as rising emission levels has witnessed an ever aggravating trend for decades. The solution to the problems has been addressed by investments and research in the field of fuels; such as the use of cleaner fuels involving biodiesel, alcohol blends, hydrogen and electric drivelines, as well as improvement in traditional technologies such as variable geometry systems, VVT load control strategies etc. The developments have highlighted the enormous potential present in such systems in terms of maximizing engine efficiency and emission reductions. The present paper aims at designing and implementing an intake runner system for a CI engine capable of providing flexibility with variations in operating conditions. Primarily, the design aims at altering the air flow phenomenon within the primary intake of the engine by inducing swirl in the runner through a secondary runner.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Characteristics of n-Butanol and Iso-Butanol Diesel Blend Comparison

The growing energy demand and limited petroleum resources in the world have guided researchers towards the use of clean alternative fuels like alcohols for their better tendency to decrease the engine emissions. To comply with the future stringent emission standards, innovative diesel engine technology, exhaust gas after-treatment, and clean alternative fuels are required. The use of alcohols as a blending agent in diesel fuel is rising, because of its benefits like enrichment of oxygen, premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) and enhancement of the diffusive combustion phase. Several researchers have investigated the relationship between LTC operational range and cetane number. In a light-duty diesel engine working at high loads, a low-cetane fuel allowed a homogeneous lean mixture with improved NOx and smoke emissions joint to a good thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Development of a Dedicated Hydrogen Port Injection Kit for Small Engines

The danger posed by climate change and the striving for securities of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Man's energy requirements are touching astronomical heights. The natural resources of the Earth can no longer cope with it as their rate of consumption far outruns their rate of regeneration. The automotive sector is without a doubt a chief contributor to this mayhem as fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. The harmful emissions from vehicles using these fuels are destroying our forests and contaminating our water bodies and even the air that we breathe. The need of the hour is to look not only for new alternative energy resources but also clean energy resources. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future to meet the stringent emission norms.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Characteristics of Isobutanol-Diesel Blend in Water Cooled CI Engine Employing EGR with EGR Intercooler

The increasing rate of fossil fuel depletion and large scale debasement of the environment has been a serious concern across the globe. This twin problem of energy crises has caused researchers to look for a variety of solutions in the field of internal combustion engines. In this current scenario the issue of fuel availability has increased the use alternative fuels, especially alcohol derived fuels. Alcohol-diesel blends can be been seen as a prominent fuel for CI engine in the near future. Previous research on the use of alcohol as an alternative fuel in CI engines is restricted to short branch alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol. Despite their comparable combustion properties longer chain alcohols, such as butanol, isobutanol and pentanol have been barely investigated. In the present study performance and emission characteristics of an isobutanol-diesel blend was studied. One of the major problems encountered by isobutanol in CI engines is its low cetane rating.
Technical Paper

Potential Utilization of the Blend of Orange Peel Oil Methyl Ester and Isopropyl Alcohol in CI Engine

Diesel engines are employed particularly in the field of heavy transportation and agriculture on account of their higher thermal efficiency and durability. As these engines, are the backbones of contemporary global transportation and accounts a 30% of world's energy consumption, which is second highest after the industrial sector. Therefore, the fossil fuel consumption becomes the prime concern. Following the global energy crisis and the increasingly stringent emission norms, the search for alternative renewable fuels has intensified. Currently, biodiesel (BD) has been identified as the most attractive and practical choice to replace fossil fuel as the main source of energy, due to the similarity in the properties with conventional diesel. However, its development and application have been hindered by the high cost of required feedstock. Therefore, in recent years, researchers have been seeking the alternative sources of non-edible oil which are economical.
Technical Paper

Comparative Study of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Fish Oil and Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil Bio-Diesel in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

The world today is facing the effect of the dependence on fossil fuels. Also, the rate of consumption of Fossil derived fuels is alarming. The use of non-conventional energy sources is to be increased so as to tackle the global climatic changes, environmental pollution and also to lower down the rate of depletion of fossil fuels. The urgent need to replace the petroleum products having harmful emissions has leaded us to the Biodiesel. Biodiesel is a well-known alternative for diesel with an advantage over the later because of its biodegradable, less toxic nature, superior lubricity, better emission characteristics and in a way environment friendly. The present study focuses on the comparative study and analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a light duty diesel engine on blends of Fish oil Biodiesel in Diesel and Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil Biodiesel in Diesel.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Performance and Emission Characteristics of 1-Octanol/Diesel Fuel Blends in a Water Cooled Compression Ignition Engine

The interest of using alternative fuels in diesel engines has been accelerated exponentially due to a foreseen scarcity in world petroleum reserves, increase in the prices of the conventional fossil fuels and restrictions on exhaust emissions such as greenhouse gases from internal combustion (IC) engines initiated by environmental concerns. The constant trade-off between efficiency and emissions should be in proper balance with the conventional fuels in a fuel design process for future combustors. Unlike gasoline and diesel, alcohols act as oxygenated fuels. Adding alcohols to petroleum products allows the fuel to combust properly due to the presence of oxygen, which enhances premixed combustion phase, improves the diffusive combustion phase which increases the combustion efficiency and reduces air pollution. The higher activation energy of alcohols leads to better resistance to engine knocking that allows higher compression ratios and greater engine thermal efficiencies.
Technical Paper

Performance Analyses of Diesel Engine at Different Injection Angles Using Water Diesel Emulsion

Globally, transportation is the second largest energy consuming sector after the industrial sector and is completely dependent on petroleum products and alternative technologies. So, fossil fuel consumption for energy requirement is a primary concern and can be addressed with the fuel consumption reduction technologies. Transportation sector is mainly using diesel engines because of production of high thermal efficiency and higher torque at lower RPM. Therefore, diesel consumption should be targeted for future energy security and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines. Some of the fuel, which includes biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions etc. Among which the diesel water emulsion (DWE) is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel-Alcohol-Diesel Blends Fuelled in VCR Engine

The diesel engine has for many decades now assumed a leading role in both the medium and medium-large transport sector due to their high efficiency and ability to produce high torque at low RPM. Furthermore, energy diversification and petroleum independence are also required by each country. In response to this, biodiesel is being considered as a promising solution due to its high calorific value and lubricity conventional petroleum diesel. However, commercial use of biodiesel has been limited because of some drawbacks including corrosivity, instability of fuel properties, higher viscosity, etc. Biodiesel are known for lower CO, HC and PM emissions. But, on the flip side they produce higher NOx emissions. The addition of alcohol to biodiesel diesel blend can help in reducing high NOx produced by the biodiesel while improving some physical fuel properties.
Technical Paper

Enhancement in Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine by Adding Alloy Nanoparticle

Enhancement of combustion behavior of conventional liquid fuel using nanoscale materials of different properties is an imaginative and futuristic topic. This experiment is aimed to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine when lade with nanoparticles of Cu-Zn alloy. The previous work reported the effect of metal/metal oxide or heterogeneous mixture of two or more particles; less work had been taken to analyze the homogeneous mixture of metals. This paper includes fuel properties such as density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value and performance measures like brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and emission analysis of NOX, CO, CO2, HC. For the same solid concentration, nano-fuel is compared with base fuel at different engine loads; and its effect when lade at different concentrations.
Technical Paper

A Study on Homogeneous Combustion in Porous Medium Internal Combustion Engine: A Review

Rapid depletion in fuel resources owing to the low efficiency of current automobiles has been a major threat to future generations for fuel availability as well as environmental health. Advanced new generation of internal combustion (IC) engines are expected to have far better emissions levels both gaseous (NOx and CO) and particulate matter, at the same time having far lower fuel consumption on a wide range of operating condition. These criteria could be improved having a homogeneous combustion process in an engine. Homogeneous mixing of fuel and air in HCCI leads to cleaner combustion and lower emissions. Since peak temperatures are significantly lower than in typical SI engines, NOx levels and soot are reduced to some extent. Because of absence of complete homogeneous combustion but quasi homogeneous combustion present in HCCI, there is still a possibility of further reducing the emissions as well as enhancing the engine performance.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Application of Turbo Expansion in Light Duty Gasoline and Diesel Engines: A Review

Turboexpansion is a concept which is aimed at reducing the fuel consumption of pressure-charged combustion engines by providing over-cooled air to the engine prior to its induction in the combustion chamber. The performance of the engine is dependent on intake charge density which is preferred to be high at reduced charge air temperature. This becomes achievable through a cooling system known as a turbo expander which expands a high-pressure gas to produce work that is usually employed to drive a compressor. Though, initially used for the purpose of refrigeration in industries, for the past few decades various researches have proved its efficiency in internal combustion engines. In gasoline engines, it is usually employed to extend the knock limit and reduce carbon emissions. Also, an extension to the knock limit allows several improvements in parameters such as increased specific output, an increase in compression ratio and a reduction in the fuel consumption of the engine.