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Technical Paper

A Study on Active Hydraulic Engine Mount to Reduce Interior Car Noise and Vibration over Wide Frequency Band

2011-05-17
2011-01-1636
A lot of countermeasures have been developed in order to reduce interior noise. For example, improvements of rubber mount characteristics and other measures have been implemented. Recently electromagnetic active engine mounts based on a hydraulic engine mount have been developed. They are significantly effective for the reduction of the booming noise which is unpleasant for passengers. Although the LMS algorithm has been generally used for the active control, it has been used only for reducing booming noise. The authors developed a new control method in order to reduce not only the booming noise but also the noise and the vibration over wide frequency band for comfortable vehicle interior space. The authors studied the method which determines the feedback gain according to various conditions by modifying LMS algorithm. In this modified LMS algorithm, only an error signal was used as an input signal.
Technical Paper

A Computational Approach to Evaluate the Vehicle Interior Noise from Greenhouse Wind Noise Sources - Part II

2011-05-17
2011-01-1620
For most car manufacturers, aerodynamic noise is becoming the dominant high frequency noise source (≻ 500 Hz) at highway speeds. Design optimization and early detection of issues related to aeroacoustics remain mainly an experimental art implying high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the development of a reliable numerical prediction capability. This paper presents a computational approach that can be used to predict the vehicle interior noise from the greenhouse wind noise sources, during the early stages of the vehicle developmental process so that design changes can be made to improve the wind noise performance of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Design of a Quiet Inlet for a 6×6 Boundary Layer Flow Duct

2011-05-17
2011-01-1617
The turbulent boundary layer (TBL) that forms on the outer skin of the aircraft in flight is a significant source of interior noise. However, the existing quiet test facilities capable of measuring the TBL wall pressure fluctuations tend to be at low Mach numbers. The objective of this study was to develop a new inlet for an existing six inch square (or 6×6) flow duct that would be adequately free from facility noise to study the TBL wall pressure fluctuations at higher, subsonic Mach numbers. First, the existing flow duct setup was used to measure the TBL wall pressure fluctuations. Then the modified inlet was successfully used to make similar measurements up to Mach number of 0.6. These measurements will be used in the future to validate wall pressure spectrum models for interior noise analysis programs such as statistical energy analysis (SEA) and dynamic energy analysis (DEA).
Technical Paper

Investigating Parameters Influencing Interior Noise of a Vehicle and Ways of Improving It

2011-05-17
2011-01-1601
One of the most important factors that must be taken into account during vehicle design is the quality of noise and vibration produced by the vehicle. This is evident from manufacturer's attempt to produce quieter product. On the other hand, some of the vehicles have not good NVH properties and must be modified in order to be successful in the market. In this type of vehicles, no basic changes can be made, and focus must be on restricted improvements. In this research, a vehicle of this kind is selected and measures have been taken to improve its noise and vibration behavior. By implementing suspension techniques, some of the vibration characteristics of drive train and its influence on the interior noise at different engine speeds and under road load have been investigated. In addition, the effect of double layer instead of single layer muffler skin on the cabin noise has been probed.
Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

2011-05-17
2011-01-1600
Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Acoustic Simulation for the Components of an Intake System

2011-05-17
2011-01-1520
The reduction of intake noise is a very important factor in controlling the interior noise levels of vehicles, particularly at low and major engine operating speeds. A vehicle intake system generally consists of air cleaner box, hose, duct, and filter element. Also, resonators and porous duct are included, being used to reduce intake noise. For more accurate estimation of the transmission loss (TL), it seems important to develop a CAE model that accurately describes this system. In this paper, simple methods, which can consider the effects of filter element and vibro-acoustic coupling, are suggested which could remarkably improve estimation accuracy of the TL. The filter element is assumed as equivalent semi-rigid porous materials characterized by the flow resistivity defined by the pressure drop, velocity, and thickness.
Journal Article

Mobility at the Development of Exhaust System

2011-05-17
2011-01-1523
This document describes the advantages of using Mobility transfer function simulations during the development of exhaust systems. The automotive industry demands increasingly stringent levels of acceptable interior noise. The exhaust system is an important contributor to the total vehicle noise and vibration and thus is a target for noise reduction. The use of good vibration isolation systems makes it possible to decrease noise in the vehicle interior compartment. In other words, the vibratory motion in automotive structures results in tactile and acoustic responses. This occurs when the energy coming from the engine (source) is transferred by the Exhaust System (path) and then is transformed into Structural Borne Noise received by the Driver (receiver) through the hanging arrangement of the Exhaust System.
Technical Paper

Automobile Interior Noise Prediction Based on Energy Finite Element Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0507
For the purpose of predicting the interior noise of a passenger automobile at middle and high frequency, an energy finite element analysis (EFEA) model of the automobile was created using EFEA method. The excitations including engine mount excitation and road excitation were measured by road experiment at a speed of 120 km/h. The sound excitation was measured in a semi-anechoic chamber. And the wind excitation was calculated utilizing numeric computation method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The sound pressure level (SPL) and energy density contours of the interior acoustic cavity of the automobile were presented at 2000 Hz. Meanwhile, the flexural energy density and flexural velocity of body plates were calculated. The SPL of interior noise was predicted and compared with the corresponding value of experiment.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Analysis of Vehicle Body Panel Participation to Interior Acoustic Boom Noise

2011-04-12
2011-01-0496
A structural-acoustic finite element model of an automotive vehicle is developed and applied to evaluate the effect of structural and acoustic modifications to reduce low-frequency ‘boom’ noise in the passenger compartment. The structural-acoustic model is developed from a trimmed body structural model that is coupled with an acoustic model of the passenger compartment and trunk cavities. The interior noise response is computed for shaker excitation loads at the powertrain mount attachment locations on the body. The body panel and modal participation diagrams at the peak response frequencies are evaluated. A polar diagram identifies the dominant body panel contributions to the ‘boom’ noise. A modal participation diagram determines the body modes that contribute to the ‘boom’ noise. Finally, structural and acoustic modifications are evaluated to determine their effect on reducing the ‘boom’ noise and on the overall lower-frequency sound pressure level response.
Technical Paper

Influence of Tire Air-borne Noise on Vehicle Loudness Predicted during Design Phase Based on Hybrid Internal Noise Contribution Model

2012-11-25
2012-36-0635
The development of new technologies that reduce engine size and improve performance, combined with the introduction of hybrid and electric vehicles, make tire noise critically important for the new generation of automobiles. Tire noise transmission into the passenger compartment can be classified as either air-borne or structure-borne sound. Both of these mechanisms are very complex to predict because tires are highly non-linear, subject to large static, dynamic and centrifugal loads; they suffer from impact, stick and slip forces; and the pumping of air in the tire grooves is complicated. Customers today demand more sophistication of products in terms of interior noise; thus, sound quality metrics have earned an important role during the design phase allowing human perception of noise to be predicted and improved with reduced cost in a way that addresses consumer preferences.
Technical Paper

Advanced Methods for the Auralization of Vehicle Interior Tire-Road Noise

2012-11-25
2012-36-0640
Besides powertrain and aerodynamic noise, tire-road noise is an important aspect of the acoustic comfort inside a vehicle. For the subjective evaluation of different tires or vehicles in a benchmark, authentic sound examples are essential. They should be recorded on a real road rather than on a roller dynamometer (avoiding artificial and periodic sounds, especially in the case of a small roller circumference and a smooth surface). The challenge of on-road measurements is the need for separating the components of the interior noise generated by rolling tires, aerodynamic flow and powertrain. This allows for individual judgment of the noise shares. A common approach for eliminating the engine sound is shutting the engine off after acceleration to the desired maximum speed. Operational Transfer Path Analysis (OTPA) can then be used to auralize the tire-road noise at a certain receiver location, where an artificial head records the interior noise during this coast-down.
Technical Paper

Virtual Car Sound Synthesis Technique for Brand Sound Design of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

2012-11-25
2012-36-0614
One of the practical consequences of the development of low CO₂ emission cars is that many of the traditional NVH sound engineering processes no longer apply and must be revisited. Different and new sound sources, new constraints on vehicle body design (e.g., due to weight) and new sound perception characteristics make that the NVH knowledge built on generations of internal combustion-powered vehicles cannot be simply transferred to Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEV). Hence, the applicability of tools must be reviewed and extensions need to be developed where necessary. This paper focuses on sound synthesis tools as developed for ICE-powered vehicles. Because of the missing masking effect and the missing intake and exhaust noise of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) in electric vehicles, on one hand electric vehicles are quieter than traditional vehicles.
Technical Paper

Driveline Boom Interior Noise Prediction Based on Multi Body Simulation

2011-05-17
2011-01-1556
It is important to develop powertrain NVH characteristics with the goal of ultimately influencing/improving the in-vehicle NVH behavior since this is what matters to the end customer. One development tool called dB(VINS) based on a process called Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) is used for determining interior vehicle noise based on powertrain level measurements (mount vibration and radiated noise) in combination with standardized vehicle transfer functions. Although this method is not intended to replace a complete transfer path analysis and does not take any vehicle specific sensitivity into account, it allows for powertrain-induced interior vehicle noise assessments without having an actual test vehicle available. Such a technique allows for vehicle centric powertrain NVH development right from an early vehicle development stage.
Technical Paper

Vehicle NVH Prediction Technique for Engine Downsizing

2011-05-17
2011-01-1565
As fuel prices continue to be unstable the drive towards more fuel efficient powertrains is increasing. For engine original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) this means engine downsizing coupled with alternative forms of power to create hybrid systems. Understanding the effect of engine downsizing on vehicle interior NVH is critical in the development of such systems. The objective of this work was to develop a vehicle model that could be used with analytical engine mount force data to predict the vehicle interior noise and vibration response. The approach used was based on the assumption that the largest contributor to interior noise and vibration below 200 Hz is dominated by engine mount forces. An experimental transfer path analysis on a Dodge Ram 2500 equipped with a Cummins ISB 6.7L engine was used to create the vehicle model. The vehicle model consisted of the engine mount forces and vehicle paths that define the interior noise and vibration.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element Method for Effective Reduction of Speaker-Borne Squeak and Rattle Noise in Automotive Doors

2011-05-17
2011-01-1583
Increasing sound quality with advanced audio technology has raised the bar for perceived quality targets for minimal interior noise and maximal speaker sound quality in a passenger vehicle. Speaker-borne structural vibrations and the associated squeak and rattle have been among the most frequent concerns in the perceived audio quality degradation in a vehicle. Digital detection of squeak and rattle issues due to the speaker-borne structural vibrations during the digital vehicle development phase has been a challenge due to the physical complexity involved. Recently, an effective finite element method has been developed to address structure-borne noise [1] and has been applied for detecting the issues of squeak and rattle in passenger vehicles due to vehicle-borne vibrations at vehicle, component and subcomponent levels [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8].
Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound Quality in Passenger Cars Using Artificial Neural Networks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1704
In this research, the interior noise of a passenger car was measured, and the sound quality metrics including sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were calculated. An artificial neural network was designed to successfully apply on automotive interior noise as well as numerous different fields of technology which aim to overcome difficulties of experimentations and save cost, time and workforce. Sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were estimated by using the artificial neural network designed by using the experiment values. The predicted values and experiment results are compared. The comparison results show that the realized artificial intelligence model is an appropriate model to estimate the sound quality of the automotive interior noise. The reliability value is calculated as 0.9995 by using statistical analysis.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Structure-Borne Road/Tire Noise Inside a Passenger Car Cabin Using Path Based Analysis

2013-11-27
2013-01-2858
Road/Tire noise is an important product quality criterion for passenger cars which are driving customers to decide upon the selection of a vehicle. Reduced engine noise and improvement in road conditions has resulted into more road/tire noise problem as average vehicle speed has gone up. Excitations from road surface travelling through the tire/suspension to vehicle body (structure-borne path) and air-pumping noise caused by tread patterns (air-borne paths) are the main contributor to tire noise issue inside the vehicle cabin [1]. A lot of emphasis is put on the component level design as well as its compliance with vehicle structure to reduce the cabin noise. The objective of this work is to establish a methodology for evaluating structure-borne road/tire noise by evaluating the tire structural behavior and its interface with the vehicle body and its suspension system and identifying the contributing critical paths.
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