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Standard

Engine Oil Tests

2016-06-28
CURRENT
J304_201606
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to describe test conditions and performance evaluation factors for both diesel and gasoline engine tests. Specifically, the tests described in this document are used to measure the engine performance requirements for engine oils described by the API Service Categories described in API Publication 1509, ASTM D 4485, SAE J183, and SAE J1423 standards, U.S. military specifications, and ILSAC GF Standards.
Standard

Engine Oil Tests

2007-03-26
HISTORICAL
J304_200703
The purpose of this SAE Information Report is to describe test conditions and performance evaluation factors for both diesel and gasoline engine tests. Specifically, the tests described in this document are used to measure the engine performance requirements for engine oils described by the API Service Categories described in API Publication 1509, ASTM D 4485, SAE J183 and SAE J1423 standards, U.S. military specifications, and ILSAC GF Standards.
Collection

In-Cylinder Processes, 2017

2017-03-28
Classical diesel engine combustion with relatively short ignition delay, including papers dealing with low CR and high EGR calibrations. Papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, combustion control, and mode change are part of this collections.
Standard

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vehicle Fuel

2018-02-12
CURRENT
J2699_201802
This SAE Information Report applies to liquefied natural gas used as vehicle fuel and requires LNG producers to provide the required information on the fuel composition and its “dispense by” date.
Standard

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vehicle Fuel

2011-07-08
HISTORICAL
J2699_201107
This SAE Information Report applies to liquefied natural gas used as vehicle fuel and requires LNG producers to provide the required information on the fuel composition and its “dispense by” date.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of a 16V Pent-Roof Engine Fueled by Gasoline and CNG

2001-03-05
2001-01-1191
A systematic experimental investigation was undertaken to compare the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of a production SI engine fueled by either gasoline or compressed natural gas (CNG). The investigation was carried out on a two-liter four-cylinder engine featuring a fast-burn pent-roof chamber, one centrally located spark plug, four valves per cylinder and variable intake-system geometry. The engine was originally designed at Fiat to operate with unleaded gasoline and was then converted at Politecnico di Torino to run on CNG. A Magneti Marelli IAW electronic module for injection-duration and spark-advance setting was used to obtain a carefully controlled multipoint sequential injection for both fuels.
Technical Paper

DAF Euro-4 Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with TNO EGR system and CRT Particulates Filter

2001-05-07
2001-01-1947
This paper reports on a study of the TNO venturi EGR system and the Johnson Matthey CRT particulates trap on a DAF 355 kW engine. The results obtained indicate that this EGR-CRT combination is an effective means to achieve EURO-4 emission level, while maintaining good fuel economy. EGR strategy, injection timing and air-fuel ratio were optimised in such a way that good regeneration conditions were obtained across most of the engine operating map. Also transient EGR control is optimised to combine low NOx emission during the ETC with good driveability and good engine out particulates emission. The size of the oxidation catalyst in the CRT was investigated. It appeared that the larger oxidation catalyst showed a better regeneration performance during a low temperature duty-cycle. Negative aspects of a larger oxidation catalyst are increased costs and increased NO2 emission (because of the catalyst ability to oxidise more NO into NO2).
Technical Paper

Measurements and Modeling of Residual Gas Fraction in SI Engines

2001-05-07
2001-01-1910
The residual gas in SI engines is one of important factors on emission and performance such as combustion stability. With high residual gas fractions, flame speed and maximum combustion temperature are decreased and there are deeply related with combustion stability, especially at Idle and NOx emission at relatively high engine load. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the residual gas fraction as a function of the engine operating parameters. A model for predicting the residual gas fraction has been formulated in this paper. The model accounts for the contribution due to the back flow of exhaust gas to the cylinder during valve overlap and it includes in-cylinder pressure prediction model during valve overlap. The model is derived from the one dimension flow process during overlap period and a simple ideal cycle model.
Technical Paper

Reducing Exhaust HC Emission at SI Engine Using Continuous and Synchronized Secondary Air Injection

2000-06-12
2000-05-0296
The effect of secondary air injection (SAI) on exhaust hydrocarbon (HC) emission has been investigated in a spark-ignition (SI) single cylinder engine operating at steady-state cold condition. Both continuous SAI and synchronized SAI, which corresponds to intermittent secondary air injection to exhaust port, are tested. Oxidation characteristics of HC are monitored with a FID analyzer and exhaust gas temperatures with thermocouples. Effects of exhaust air-fuel ratio (A/F), location of SAI, and engine-A/F have been investigated. Results show that HC reduction rate increases as the location of SAI is closer to the exhaust valve for both synchronized and continuous SAIs. HC emission decreases with increasing exhaust-A/F when exhaust-A/F is rich, and is relatively insensitive when exhaust-A/F is lean. In synchronized SAI, SAI timing has significant effect on HC reduction and exhaust gas temperature. Optimum SAI timing observed is ATDC 100° and 230°.
Technical Paper

Air Charge Estimation in Camless Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0581
An electromechanically driven valve train offers unprecedented flexibility to optimize engine operation for each speed load point individually. One of the main benefits is the increased fuel economy resulting from unthrottled operation. The absence of a restriction at the entrance of the intake manifold leads to wave propagation in the intake system and makes a direct measurement of air flow with a hot wire air meter unreliable. To deliver the right amount of fuel for a desired air-fuel ratio, we therefore need an open loop estimate of the air flow based on measureable or commanded signals or quantities. This paper investigates various expressions for air charge in camless engines based on quasi-static assumptions for heat transfer and pressure.
Technical Paper

Mixing Control and Combustion in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines for Reducing Cold-Start Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0550
A two-stage combustion is one of the Mitsubishi GDI™ technologies for a quick catalyst warm-up on a cold-start. However, when the combustion is continued for a long time, an increase in the fuel consumption is a considerable problem. To solve the problem, a stratified slight-lean combustion is newly introduced for utilization of catalysis. The stratified mixture with slightly lean overall air-fuel ratio is prepared by the late stage injection during the compression stroke. By optimizing an interval between the injection and the spark timing, the combustion simultaneously supplies substantial CO and surplus O2 to a catalyst while avoiding the soot generation and the fouling of a spark plug. The CO oxidation on the catalyst is utilized to reduce the cold-start emissions. Immediately after the cold-start, the catalyst is preheated for the minimum time to start the CO oxidation by using the two-stage combustion. Following that, the stratified slight-lean combustion is performed.
Technical Paper

High-Energy Spark-Flow Coupling in an IC Engine for Ultra-Lean and High EGR Mixtures

2001-03-05
2001-01-0548
The role of high-energy ignition in the combustion of ultra-lean and high EGR air-fuel mixtures has been misunderstood as a result of neglecting a critical component to ignition: the coupling of the spark to a flowing mixture. Coupling of a suitably designed high-energy spark to the mixture flow in an engine not only increases spark energy delivery but significantly increases the lean burn capability of an engine. Tests in a single cylinder, two-valve, homogeneous charge gasoline engine designed with high squish flow and dual high-energy spark plugs located in the high flow field have resulted in considerable extension of the lean misfire limit of the engine to 30 to one air-fuel ratio (λ=2), with significantly improved fuel economy at light engine loads and lower emissions throughout the entire engine operating range.
Technical Paper

A Production Wide-Range AFR Sensor Response Diagnostic Algorithm for Direct-Injection Gasoline Application

2001-03-05
2001-01-0558
A wide-range Air-Fuel Ratio sensor (WRAF) response diagnostic algorithm was developed for production application in Gasoline Direct Injection (Gas-DI) powertrains to fulfill On Board Diagnostic (OBD) legislative requirements [1] for wide-range oxygen sensors. The algorithm measures the response of a wide-range air-fuel ratio (AFR) sensor signal to an input AFR signal of known amplitude to determine whether degradation in sensor responsiveness is severe enough to cause a failure of legal emissions requirements. A practical IIR (Infinite Impulse Response) digital bandpass filter design was used in series with a rectifier and low-pass filter to process the AFR sensor signal for comparison to a reference signal amplitude. The IIR filter was designed with a moveable pass-band to enable the algorithm to be used at variable frequencies during intrusive and non-intrusive sensor diagnostic tests.
Technical Paper

Development of Second Generation of Gasoline P-ZEV Technolgy

2001-03-05
2001-01-1310
This paper describes the second generation of the partial zero emission vehicle (P-ZEV) technology that was developed for use on the Nissan Sentra CA sedan sold in California.1,2 The second-generation engine has been adopted on a mass-produced model marketed in Japan. Besides continuing the super ultra low emission vehicle (SULEV) performance of the Sentra CA, the second-generation technology incorporates a compact, two-stage HC trap catalyst system. The system has been substantially reduced in size and cost as a result of improving the catalyst and the substrate and reducing the total catalyst volume by optimizing the control method. Moreover, the second-generation P-ZEV technology includes an electrically actuated continuously variable swirl control valve of the high-speed jet type, a high-response electrically actuated EGR valve and catalyst model control based on the use of an air-fuel ratio sensor.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Mixing and Combustion of a Two-Stroke Direct-Injection Spark Ignition Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1228
Multi-Dimensional modeling was carried out for a Mercury Marine two-stroke DISI engine. Recently developed spray, ignition, and combustion models were applied to medium load cases with an air-fuel ratio of 30:1. Three injection timings, 271, 291 and 306 ATDC were selected to investigate the effects of the injection timing on mixture formation, ignition and combustion. The results indicate that at this particular load condition, earlier injection timing allows more fuel to evaporate. However, because the fuel penetrates further toward the piston, a leaner mixture is created near the spark plug; thus, a slower ignition process with a weaker ignition kernel was found for the SOI 271 ATDC case. The measured and computed combustion results such as average in-cylinder pressure and NOx are in good agreements. The later injection case produces lower NOx emission and higher CO emission; this is due to poor mixing and is in agreement with experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Vaporizing Continuous Multi-Component Fuel Sprays in a Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1231
Vaporization models for continuous multi-component liquid sprays and liquid wall films are presented using a continuous thermodynamics formulation. The models were implemented in the KIVA3V-Release 2.0 code. The models are first applied to clarify the characteristics of vaporizing continuous multi-component liquid wall films and liquid drops, and then applied to numerically analyze a practical continuous multi-component fuel - gasoline behavior in a 4-valve port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engine under warm conditions. Corresponding computations with single-component fuels are also performed and presented for comparison purposes. As compared to the results of its single-component counterpart, the vaporizing continuous multi-component fuel drop displays a larger vaporization rate initially and a smaller vaporization rate as it becomes more and more dominated by heavy species.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Fuel Film Compensation Algorithm on the Lamborghini Diablo 6.0 Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0609
This paper presents the experimental work and the results obtained from the implementation of a transient fuel compensation algorithm for the 6.0-liter V12 high-performance engine that equips the Lamborghini Diablo vehicles. This activity has been carried out as part of an effort aimed at the optimization of the entire fuel injection control system. In the first part of the paper the tests for fuel film compensator identification are presented and discussed. In this phase the experimental work has been conducted in the test cell. An automatic calibration algorithm was developed to identify the well-known fuel film model X and τ parameters, so as to define their maps as a function of engine speed and intake manifold pressure. The influence of engine coolant temperature has been investigated separately; it will be soon presented together with the air dynamics compensation algorithm. In the second part of the paper, the performance of the fuel dynamics compensation algorithm is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion with Reduced Nozzle Orifice Diameter

2001-05-07
2001-01-2010
Future emission legislation will require substantial reductions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines. The combustion and emission formation in a diesel engine is governed mainly by spray formation and mixing. Important parameters governing these are droplet size, distribution, concentration and injection velocity. Smaller orifices are believed to give smaller droplet size, even with reduced injection pressure, which leads to better fuel atomization, faster evaporation and better mixing. In this paper experiments are performed on a single cylinder heavy-duty direct injection diesel engine with three nozzles of different orifice diameters (Ø0.227 mm, Ø0.130 mm, Ø0.090 mm). Two loads (low and medium) and three speeds were investigated. The test results confirmed a substantial reduction in HC and soot emissions at lower loads for the small orifices.
Technical Paper

Gasoline direct injection: Review of latest developments

2000-06-12
2000-05-0059
With the introduction of the high-pressure, direct-injection (HPDI) technology in the European automotive market, and through partnerships with major European car manufacturers, Siemens Automotive S.A. has developed a complete and versatile gasoline direct-injection system, which has proved to be compliant with different car manufacturers approaches. One major problem for HPDI systems is the control of all the dispersions that can endanger the system performances. After describing the main dispersion sources and ranges, this paper makes therefore a review of the control solutions developed by Siemens Automotive S.A. for industrial HPDI system on the basis of two key topics: 1. Torque stability control through cylinder individual control of injection, using information out of engine roughness.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Engine Performance With Lean Mixture Ignited By Diesel Fuel Injection and Internal Egr

2000-06-12
2000-05-0076
The uniform lean methanol-air mixture was provided to the diesel engine and was ignited by the direct diesel fuel injection. The internal EGR is added to this ignition method in order to activate the fuel in the mixture and to increase the mixture temperature. The test engine was a 4-stroke, single- cylinder direct-injection diesel engine. The cooling system was forced-air cooling and displacement volume was about 211 (cm3). The compression ratio was about 19.9:1. The experiment was made under constant engine speed of 3000 (r/min). The boost pressure was maintained at 101.3 (kPa). Five values of mass flow rate of diesel fuel injection were selected from 0.060 (g/s) to 0.167 (g/s) and five levels of back pressure: 0), 26.7, 53.3, 80.0 and 106.6 (kPa) were selected for the experiment. The effect of internal EGR is varied by the back pressure level.
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