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Corning Specialty Optical Fibers for Elevated Temperature Applications

Corning Specialty Fiber Group developed new optical fibers with acrylate type coating materials for elevated temperature applications (up to +200C). Available single or dual coat designs, hermetic carbon coating, bend insensitive single-mode and multimode fiber glass designs expand application areas for fiber optics. Presenter Valery Kozlov

Eurocae WG-72 Activities

The presentation provides an overview about the activities of Eurocae Working Group 72 (WG-72) starting with a brief synopsis of the context which suggested why such a committee should be established in 2006. It then goes into further detail about the drivers for the work of the committee, which call for the products to be delivered. It addresses some of the challenges with respect to its users. It points out that one of the lessons the committee learned was importance of the focus on the users, such that the products provide their maximum utility. Hence, the users should better be among the participants to achieve this objective. Other industries have dealt with the subject of Information System (or Cyber-Physical) Security long before this industry was forced to consider it. Consequently there are many industry standards and national or international norms, which may help to develop what is deemed needed for Civil Aviation.

Ice Phobic Coatings for Control and Covered Surfaces

Silicones have been utilized in multiple industries in the last 50 years and their applications are still expanding as technology grows. Ice phobic coatings, as an example, have been utilized on lock walls, navigation channels, wind turbines, hydropower intakes, and aircraft. Without protection these applications have a high risk of failure in the functions they perform. For example, ice build up on an aircraft?s aerodynamic surfaces increases drag which reduces lift during flight operations. Utilizing a silicone ice phobic coating significantly reduces the adhesion of ice to aerodynamic surfaces. Compared to other polymeric materials, silicones are known for their broad operating temperature range and lend themselves to excellent performance in a variety of harsh environments. Especially in low temperatures where ice adhesion is a concern, silicones retain their elastomeric physical properties and low modulus.

Using the Beer-Lambert Law and Kubelka-Munk Theory to Model Percent Transmittance of Multilayer Composite Coatings

Transmission of light through automotive topcoat and primer layers can lead to degradation of the underlying electrocoat layer and to topcoat delamination. In order to protect against this, it is critical that transmission of both ultraviolet wavelengths and certain visible wavelengths be effectively blocked by the topcoat and primer layers. The clearcoat, basecoat and primer each have their own role and combine to protect against light transmission. The transmittance of these combined layers is typically measured by the Integrating Sphere UV-Visible Spectrophotometer. It would both simplify measurement of the topcoat systems and allow better system modeling if these layers could be measured separately and combined mathematically. We demonstrate here that absorbing and reflecting pigments can be effectively modeled using the Beer-Lambert law while results for scattering pigments are consistent with the Kubelka-Munk theory.

Development of Scratch Resistant Clear Coat for Automotive

Scratch resistance is one of the most important customer requirements for automotive painting. Scratches occur as a result of a load being imposed on a paint film, which then destroys or deforms it. In order to improve the scratch resistance properties of clear coat, a specially developed molecular that act to accelerate closslinking reaction was added to the clear coat main resin. This developed molecular facilitates closslinking between multiple molecules and creates an unprecedentedly fine molecular structure. The result is a soft, highly elastic, and durable clear coat with improved resistance to light and acid as well as enhanced deformation recovery properties. It requires no special maintenance, prevents luster degradation caused by surface scratches and helps to prolong new-car color and gloss. Developmental Clear Coat is introduced into the flagship of the Lexus range - the LS as Self-restoring Coat in 2009. Presenter Junya Ogawa, Developmental Center

Polycarbonate Glazing - Accelerated Wiper Testing, Surface Characterization and Comparison with On-Road Fleet Data

Exatec� PC glazing technology team, has developed advanced weathering and abrasion resistant coatings technology that can be applied to protect polycarbonate. It is of particular interest to quantify and understand the factors that determine the surface abrasion performance of coated PC in rear window and backlight applications that have a wiper system. In the present study we describe Exatec's lab scale wiper testing equipment and test protocols. We also describe adaptation of optical imaging system to measure contrast and nano-profiling using nano-indenter, as post wiper surface characterization methods. These methods are more sensitive to fine scratches on glazing surface than standard haze measurement and mechanical profilometry. Three coating systems were investigated; Siloxane wetcoat (A), Siloxane wetcoat (B), and Siloxane wetcoat (B) plus plasma coat (Exatec� E900 coating). The performance comparisons were made using all these surface characterization methods.

Tailored Conversion Coatings for Enhanced Adhesion to Metal

The use of silane chemistries tailored to promote the adhesion of performance and appearance coatings to metal substrates are requiring new methodologies for measuring, approving, and implementing on commercial aircraft. Engineering performance, lean manufacturing, environmental and employee safety considerations are driving the commercial aerospace industry to replace long standing conversion coating materials and processes. Tailored silane chemistries such as Boegel are being considered for many of these applications. Silanes work by reacting with metal oxides providing a strong covalent bond, cross linking to form a tough barrier and have an organic functional group tailored to react with the specific resin system in the subsequent coating. Traditionally conversion coatings such as anodize and chromate conversion coating performance is validated based on meeting standalone requirements.

High Speed Machining of CFRP Parts

High Speed Machining of CFRP Parts Investigation of the influence of new geometries, cutting datas and coolant capabilities on the surface finish of CFRP parts. State of the art: Different CFRP grades and machining conditions make geometry adjustments to the tool necessary. Mechanical failures through machining operations can be avoided in most of the cases. New unidirectional CFRP grades and dry machining processes again lead to machining problems. This study investigates new geometries to avoid heat damage with dry maching and air coolant in case of unidirectional CFRP. With help of a thermo camera and the surface investigation with a scanning electron microscope, heat damage can be analysed and therefore new geometries can be developed and tested. Target is to develop a new multi purpose CFRP geometry to meet the requirements of the future. The reduction of different geometries used leads to major cost savings. Presenter Ingo von Puttkamer, Guhring oHG
Technical Paper

Simulation Process for the Acoustical Excitation of DC-Link Film Capacitors in Highly Integrated Electrical Drivetrains

The advancing electrification of the powertrain is leading towards new challenges in the field of acoustics. Film capacitors used in power electronics are a potential source of high-frequency interfering noise since they are exposed to voltage harmonics. These voltage harmonics are caused by semiconductor switching operations that are necessary to convert the DC voltage of the battery into three-phase alternating current for the electrical machine. In order to predict the acoustic characteristics of the DC-link capacitor at an early stage of development, a multiphysical chain of effects has to be addressed to consider electrical and mechanical influences. In this paper, a new method to evaluate the excitation amplitude of film capacitor windings is presented. The corresponding amplitudes are calculated via an analytical force based on electromechanical couplings of the dielectric within film capacitors.

Temporary Protective Coating and Remover

This specification establishes requirements for an alkaline removable temporary protective coating intended to protect aluminum surfaces from damage and corrosion. This specification also establishes requirements for a temporary protective coating remover.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Piston/Bore Tribology: The Role of Surface Specifications, Ring Pack, and Lubricant

The continuing pursuit for better fuel efficiency stands behind many recent advancements in engine technology. "Downsize and charge" has become the major development paradigm alongside broad acceptance of fuel stratified injection, variable valvetrain, cylinder deactivation, 48V electric auxiliaries, powertrain hybridization, use of low-friction coatings and advanced surface finishing methods in component manufacture, etc. The introduction of higher power densities (in excess of 100 kW/L and 200 Nm/L in modern engines) raises performance requirements for engine oil. At the same time, the introduction of high-speed diesel engines justifies the move towards lower oil viscosities in order to reduce on-road greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
Technical Paper

Duralumin All-Metal Airplane Construction

PSYCHOLOGY of the public, as well as engineering structure and aerodynamics, is involved in commercial aviation. The public has confidence in metal. With quantity production in view, the author and his associates considered costs of production as related to quantity and also costs of maintenance at airports and in the field, and chose metal as the material of construction. Structural members are fashioned from sheet duralumin rather than from tubes and a type of construction was evolved that can be made with the minimum investment in tools, that is cheap to put together and that can be repaired with the smallest amount of equipment and labor. For compression loads, duralumin has a great deal more strength for a given weight than has steel. It cannot be used, however, for compression members in combination with steel in tension members because of the difference in coefficient of expansion.
Technical Paper

Progress in Honing-Machines and the Honing Process

CYLINDER finishing by rough and finish-boring with wide tools, which was thought good enough during the first dozen years of the automobile-production period, was supplanted by reaming and grinding. Later, cast-iron and copper laps were used, but all these methods were slow and did not produce the fine finish for which a demand developed. Experiments were begun about 1920 with the process known as honing. Five years later the company with which the author is connected converted one of its drilling-machines into a single-spindle honing-machine. Other companies made similar conversions. The first honing-head was introduced in 1923. Not until three years ago, however, did honing begin to be regarded as a real production-method possibility. Since then, very rapid progress has been made and numerous improved machines, honing-heads and honing-stones have been produced.
Technical Paper

Service Characteristics of Light Alloys

ALUMINUM and magnesium, being the lightest commercial metals and therefore the most suitable for aircraft construction, are discussed in their pure and alloyed states. Physical properties of the pure metals and their alloys are given and the effects of adding small quantities of alloying elements are shown. Heat-treating as a means of increasing the strength per unit weight of the alloys is discussed at length, together with the effects of natural aging and artificial aging at elevated temperatures and of quenching in hot and in cold water after heat-treating. The several types of corrosion are considered and resistance to corrosion of the metals and their various alloys are discussed. Protection afforded to aluminum alloy by a surface coating of pure aluminum is described, and other methods are mentioned.
Technical Paper

Prevention of Corrosion in Duralumin Airplane Structures

AT first believed immune, aluminum alloys have been found extremely susceptible to both surface corrosion and intercrystalline corrosion. The latter goes on under paint that has been applied to imperfectly cleaned surfaces, and shows only as blisters. Because of this, it has become commonplace to break with the fingers the ribs and the trailing edges of duralumin lower wings and tail-surfaces. Contact of duralumin with brass or steel hastens corrosion, and protective paint coverings are dissolved by dope where fabric surfaces meet metal parts. All-duralumin structures are not considered suitable for sea-going aircraft unless all joints and seams are of water-tight construction, not only in hulls but in other members of the structure. Corrosion over the land is much less severe. Few manufacturers seem awake to the importance of corrosion. The fight to avoid it should begin with avoiding seams that are difficult to protect and hollow members that cannot be sealed hermetically.
Technical Paper

Manufacturing and Testing Rubber-Coated Automobile Fabrics

MORE than 13,000,000 yd. of rubber-coated top-material was produced in this Country in 1926, and, in addition, approximately 6,000,000 yd. of other types of material, including pyroxylin and oil-coated fabrics, was used for automobile tops. Principal ingredients entering into the manufacture of rubber-coated top and deck material are base fabrics, crude and reclaimed rubber, naphtha, sulphur, accelerators, antioxidants, inert fillers, softeners, and varnishes. Methods of manufacture are much like those used in the production of cellulose-nitrate or pyroxylin-coated fabrics, and the types of fabric used and their preparation are similar. Processes of preparing the rubber compound, applying it to the fabric, varnishing the surface and embossing the material are described briefly.
Technical Paper

Air-Transport Maintenance Problems from the Service Viewpoint

VIEWS of the maintenance chiefs of all major air-transport lines, based upon their experiences in this field and as transmitted by them through the Maintenance Committee of the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America, Inc., are embodied in the paper. Representing as it does the collective experience of the best minds in the field, the paper is particularly significant and worthy of the consideration of manufacturers, engineers and others directly concerned with the problems presented. As to fuselage and wing coverings, it is stated that fabric has a definite advantage when considering weight and emergency repairs. Airplanes covered with fabric can be restored to service quickly in cases where, with the same damage, replacement of other forms of covering would cause the plane to be laid up in the shop at a time when it is most needed. With the new improved finishes, fabric is said to be as satisfactory as any covering available.