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Technical Paper

Studies on Anti-Slip Regulation Technologies for AMT Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1314
In order to improve the tractive ability, steering capability and directional stability, etc. of automated mechanical transmission (AMT) vehicles running on the wet and slippery road, the anti-slip regulation (ASR) technologies for AMT vehicles are developed. The significance of ASR for AMT vehicles is introduced; a road friction recognition method based on the deceleration of driving wheels is investigated; a fuzzy anti-slip control system based on adjustment of engine torque is developed and the corresponding experimental verification is conducted. The experimental results denote that the proposed method is effective to eliminate the excessive slip when the AMT vehicle travels on the low friction road.
Technical Paper

A computer-based simulation and test system for the calibration of EFI engine

2000-06-12
2000-05-0094
When the EFI system is used in a specific engine, lots of experiments are needed to optimize the control data (MAP). This work is time and financial consuming. This paper aims to develop a computer-based simulation and test system, which can produce the initial control MAP with good accuracy, and calibrate the ECU on-line. So the experiments are reduced and calibration is accelerated. In order to improve the accuracy of the initial control data, the mathematical models are built not only based on theoretical equations, but also on the control data of typical operation points, which is obtained by the on- line calibration of specific engines. This system can also perform some special calibrations, like "constant pulse width" and "square wave modulation."
Technical Paper

Vehicle electric power simulator for optimizing the electric charging system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0054
The electrical power system is the vital lifeline to most of the control systems on modern vehicles. The demands on the system are highly complex, and a detailed understanding of the system behavior is necessary both to the process of systems integration and to the economic design of a specific control system or actuator. The vehicle electric power system, which consists of two major components: a generator and a battery, has to provide numerous electrical and electronic systems with enough electrical energy. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands, and the driving environment such as road, season, and vehicle weight are required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. An easy-to-use and inexpensive simulation program may be needed to avoid the over/under design problem of the electric power system. A vehicle electric power simulator is developed in this study.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Powertrain Control Strategy for Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2007-08-05
2007-01-3472
The series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV), which employs a planetary gear set to combine one internal combustion engine(ICE) and two electric motors(EMs), can take advantages of both series and parallel hybrid system. The efficient powertrain operating point of the system can be obtained by the instantaneous optimization of equivalent fuel consumption. However, heavy computational requirements and variable constraints of the optimization process make it difficult to build real-time control strategy. To overcome the difficulty, this study suggests the control strategy which divides the optimization process into 2 stages. In the first stage, a target of charge/discharge power is determined based on equivalent fuel consumption, then in the second stage, an engine operating point is determined taking power transfer efficiency into account.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pulse Width Modulation Pressure Control System for Automatic Transmission

2002-03-04
2002-01-1257
Generally, the widely used hydraulic control system in automatic transmissions is pulse width modulation (PWM) type. It consists in a PWM solenoid valve and a reducing type second stage valve, so called pressure control valve (PCV), to amplify pressure or flow rate. In this study, the mathematical models of the PWM solenoid valve and the PCV with moderate complexity are proposed. Then, their behavior is analyzed from the steady state characteristics. Finally, we find that there are good matches between the dynamic simulation results and the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Thermal Load in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with EUI System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0492
High pressure fuel injection systems, such as common rail (CR) systems and electronically-controlled unit injector (EUI) systems, have been widely applied to modern heavy duty diesel engines. They are shown to be very effective for achieving high power density with high fuel efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions. However, the increased peak combustion pressure gives additional structural stress and thermal load to engine structure. Thus, proper material selection and thermal analysis of engine components are essential in order to meet the durability requirements of heavy-duty diesel engines adopting a high pressure injection system. In this paper, thermal analysis of a 12.9 ℓ diesel engine with an EUI system was studied. Temperatures were measured on a cylinder head, a piston and a cylinder liner. A specially designed linkage system was used to measure the piston temperatures. A radio-tracer technique was also used to verify the rotation of piston rings.
Technical Paper

Scavenger free three-way catalyst with low hydrogen sulfide emission

2000-06-12
2000-05-0308
This study suggests new types of catalysts that show low hydrogen sulfide emission without scavenger such as NiO. Hydrogen sulfide can be reduced by changing the physicochemical properties of washcoat components. Synthesized gas activity tests were performed to investigate the effect of modified washcoat on hydrogen sulfide formation and catalytic activity. BET surface area tests, X- ray diffraction tests, and gas chromatography tests were also carried out to examine the characteristics of catalysts. Preparation methods for catalysts were focused on minimizing the adsorption of sulfur species on catalysts. The first approach is heat treatment of cerium oxide to reduce adsorption sites for sulfur compounds. But this leads to deterioration of CO and NOx conversion efficiencies. The second one is adding new types of promoters that increase thermal durability and dynamic oxygen storing function of cerium oxide.
Technical Paper

A throttle/brake control law for vehicle intelligent cruise control

2000-06-12
2000-05-0369
A throttle/brake control law for the intelligent cruise control (ICC) system has been proposed in this paper. The ICC system consists of a vehicle detection sensor, a controller and throttle/brake actuators. For the control of a throttle/brake system, we introduced a solenoid-valve-controlled electronic vacuum booster (EVB) and a step-motor-controlled throttle actuator. Nonlinear computer model for the electronic vacuum booster has been developed and the simulations were performed using a complete nonlinear vehicle model. The proposed control law in this paper consists of an algorithm that generates the desired acceleration/deceleration profile in an ICC situation, a throttle/brake switching logic and a throttle and brake control algorithm based on vehicle dynamics. The control performance has been investigated through computer simulations and experiments.
Technical Paper

The development of in-vehicle unit of advanced vehicle information and communication system

2000-06-12
2000-05-0370
This paper presents an in-vehicle information system, AVICS in development. With AVICS, the driver could get the various information on traffic, news, weather, restaurants, and so on, which the AVICS information center provides via mobile telecommunication network. The driver requests the information to operator in center by voice with hands-free system or by handling the menu offered in the form of web-page. The in-vehicle unit for AVICS is designed to interface with wireless network with a built-in RF MODEM, to control NAVI system, and to display the information on the LCD monitor of AV system. The Internet browser is customized to parse specific HTML tags, application software is realized on 32-bit RISC processor. In this paper, we will overview the concept of AVICS and focus on development of in-vehicle unit of AVICS.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Turbocharged DI Engines Fueled with Blends of Biodiesel

2005-05-11
2005-01-2199
Turbocharged and intercooled DI engines, fueled with different blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, were chosen to conduct performance and emission tests on dynamometers. The properties of the test fuels were tested. The cylinder pressure and fuel injection pressure signals were recorded and combustion analysis was conducted. The engine exhaust emissions were measured. The results of the study indicated that HC, CO, PM and smoke emissions improvement was obtained. But there was an increase in fuel consumption and NOx emission, and a slight drop in power with the blends. The combustion analysis showed that biodiesel had a shorter ignition delay and a lower premixed combustion amount, but had an early start of injection caused by the fuel properties. The relationship between combustion and emissions was discussed.
Technical Paper

A study on Reducing the Computing Burden of Misfire Detection using a Conditional Monitoring Method

2004-03-08
2004-01-0722
This paper presents a conditional misfire monitoring method to reduce the computing burden of the motoring. In this conditional monitoring method, the ECU performs misfire detection only when there is high probability of misfire events. The condition for performing the misfire detection is determined by the pre-index which is defined as the deviation of the segment durations of the crankshaft in this paper. The quantity of the code of calculating the pre-index is 7 times less than that of a conventional monitoring method so that the computing burden can be reduced with the conditional monitoring method. The experimental results shown that the pre-index and the conditional monitoring method are valid.
Technical Paper

Turning Control and Analysis for a Tracked Vehicle with Electric Transmission System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1592
How to control and analyze the turning process of a tracked vehicle with electric transmission system is an important issue. In the paper two turning control methods are presented according to its study. The balance relations of its tractive effort and power versus radius are obtained by the calculation with using the mathematical model of basic turning dynamics and constraint conditions. The model of continuously variable radius turning is implemented by a RBF neural network which is of the better identifying ability, and the more turning results can be given from it. These turning analyses are significant for the electric transmission system.
Technical Paper

Modal Analysis of an Internal Combustion Engine with Finite Element Method based on Contact Calculation

2008-06-23
2008-01-1583
Contact dynamic characteristics of an internal combustion engine structure were studied by the finite element method and experimental verification. Based on theoretical analysis, contact modal calculation of an internal-combustion engine with finite element method is carried out by the ADINA software. Dynamic behavior of the entire engine structure was investigated. Rigid bar connection and coupling connection were introduced for the purpose of comparison with contact analysis and experiment results. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical analysis and FEM results. From the study, it can be demonstrated that dynamic behavior of the engine structure with a large preload shows linear characteristics. Compared with the other models, the procedure presented in this paper is more effective and useful in view of operational time and experience of analysts.
Technical Paper

Research on Control Strategy of Shifting Progress

2008-06-23
2008-01-1684
Based on BF6M1015CP electronic diesel engine (it is a supercharged, water-cooled engine. It has 6 cylinders and it is for heavy-duty vehicle) and HD4070PR electronic automatic transmission (it covers heavy-duty applications requiring high input horsepower and torque. It contains torque converter module, control module, planetary module and output module. It has 7 forward gears and a power-take -off (PTO) and a retarder), the paper analyzes the shift system of an electronic automatic transmission and sets up a mathematic module of the shifting process. With the model the shifting process is analyzed and the model can be used directly in shifting process control, and the rules of shifting process can be derived. To improve the shift quality, in the paper the different control methods in different phases are used and reviewed that Include the open-loop control, fixed ramp rate, and closed-loop control.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Real-time Dynamic AMT Test Bench for Simulating Total Road Forces of Vehicle

2008-06-23
2008-01-1682
In this paper the hardware and software of a real-time dynamic test bench for simulating the total road forces of vehicles fitted with Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT) is described. First, the purpose and meaning of this research are discussed. And then, we select the hardware components of the test bench system according to the application requirements and complete the system design. Statement of the structure, working principle and function of the system is also included in this part. According to the experimental procedure of simulating total road load forces of vehicle under real-time conditions on the dynamic test bench, the software system is designed using Visual C++ 6.0, CAN bus communication protocol, RS-232, and network technology. Finally, some experimental tests for the system are carried out with the results that this design corresponds to the real-time dynamic requirements.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Drift Investigation during Straight Line Accelerating and Braking

2008-04-14
2008-01-0588
A vehicle drifts due to several reasons from its intended straight path even in the case of no steering input. The multibody dynamic analysis of vehicle drift during accelerating and braking are performed. This paper focuses on modeling and evaluating effects of suspension parameters, differential friction, engine mounting and C.G. location of the vehicle under multibody dynamic simulation environment. Asymmetry of geometry and compliance between left and right side is considered cause of drift. The sensitivities of the suspension parameters are presented for each driving condition. In case of acceleration, the interaction of differential friction and driveshaft stiffness and their influence on drift are also studied. For braking condition, suspension parameters such as initial toe variation of rear coupled torsion beam axle type suspension and kingpin inclination deviation of front suspension are studied including the braking force difference.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1470
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Combustion and Particulate Emissions when Hydrogen is Aspirated into a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0580
A single-cylinder Gasoline Direct Injection Engine (GDI) engine with a centrally mounted spray-guided injection system (150 bar fuel pressure) has been operated with stoichiometric and rich mixtures. The base fuel was 65% iso-octane and 35% toluene; hydrogen was aspirated into a plenum in the induction system, and its equivalence ratios were set to 0, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1. Ignition timing sweeps were conducted for each operating point. Combustion was speeded up by adding hydrogen as expected. In consequence the MBT ignition advance was reduced, as were cycle-by-cycle variations in combustion. Adding hydrogen led to the expected reduction in IMEP as the engine was operated at a fixed manifold absolute pressure (MAP). An engine model has also been set up using WAVE. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were measured with a Cambustion DMS500 particle sizer.
Technical Paper

NVH Improvement of Vehicle Powertrain

2012-09-24
2012-01-2007
This paper provides an investigation to improve vehicle powertrain NVH performance via modification of excitation and radiation system of powertrain. First of all, considering different excitation mechanisms of the powertrain, the excitation forces are analyzed. The FEM/BEM coupled analysis and the acoustic transfer vector (ATV) calculation as well as panel contribution analysis are applied to investigating the acoustic characteristics of the powertrain. Then a hybrid approach which couples the transmission gear profile modification for attenuating gear system excitation and the transmission housing modification for reducing transmission housing noise radiation is proposed to improve powertrain NVH performance. Experiment validation is conducted in order to assess the modified results. The assessment shows that this hybrid approach can effectively predict and reduce powertrain noise and vibration.
Technical Paper

Powertrain-related vehicle sound development

2000-06-12
2000-05-0301
This paper reflects an efficient and comprehensive approach for vehicle sound optimization integrated into the entire development process. It shows the benefits of early consideration of typical vehicle NVH features and of intensive interaction of P/T and vehicle responsibilities. The process presented here considers the typical restriction that acoustically representative prototypes of engines and vehicles are not available simultaneously at the early development phase. For process optimization at this stage, a method for vehicle interior noise estimation is developed, which bases on measurements from the P/T test bench only, while the vehicle transfer behavior for airborne and structure-borne noise is assumed to be similar to a favorable existing vehicle. This method enables to start with the pre- optimization of the pure P/T and its components by focusing on such approaches which are mainly relevant for the vehicle interior noise.
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