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Real time Renewable Energy Availability for EV Charging

Battery Electric Vehicles and Extended Range Electric Vehicles, like the Chevrolet Volt, can use electrical energy from the Grid to meet the majority of a driver�s transportation needs. This has the positive societal effects of displace petroleum consumption and associated pollutants from combustion on a well to wheels basis, as well as reduced energy costs for the driver. CO2 may also be lower, but this depends upon the nature of the grid energy generation. There is a mix of sources � coal-fired, gas -fired, nuclear or renewables, like hydro, solar, wind or biomass for grid electrical energy. This mix changes by region, and also on the weather and time of day. By monitoring the grid mix and communicating it to drivers (or to their vehicles) in real-time, electrically driven vehicles may be recharged to take advantage of the lowest CO2, and potentially lower cost charging opportunities.
Technical Paper

Magnesium Powertrain Mount Brackets: New Application of Material Being used in this Sub-System for Vehicle Mass Reduction

The need for fuel economy gains is crucial in todays automotive market. There is also growing interest and knowledge of greenhouse gases and their effect on the environment. Paulstra's magnesium powertrain brackets were a solution that was presented not just to reduce the weight of the engine mounting system (which was already under its weight target before magnesium introduction), but in response of the OEM's desire to further reduce the weight of the vehicle for CAFE and weight class impact. This new engine mounting system has three powertrain mount brackets that are high-pressure die cast AZ91D magnesium alloy. This paper will show that these brackets to have a dramatic weight reduction compared to the standard aluminum die-cast material that they replaced. This paper describes the process of approval: concept and material sign-off by the OEM, FEA for strength and modal performance, corrosion, and the final product.
Technical Paper

Investigations into the Effects of Thermal and Compositional Stratification on HCCI Combustion – Part I: Metal Engine Results

This study utilized a 4-valve engine under HCCI combustion conditions. Each side of the split intake port was fed independently with different temperatures and reactant compositions. Therefore, two stratification approaches were enabled: thermal stratification and compositional stratification. Argon was used as a diluent to achieve higher temperatures and stratify the in-cylinder temperature indirectly via a stratification of the ratio of specific heats (γ = cp/cv). Tests covered five operating conditions (including two values of A/F and two loads) and four stratification cases (including one homogeneous and three with varied temperature and composition). Stratifications of the reactants were expected to affect the combustion control and upper load limit through the combustion phasing and duration, respectively. The two approaches to stratification both affect thermal unmixedness. Since argon has a high γ, it reached higher temperatures through the compression stroke [1].
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of the Unsteady Flow Field behind Two outside Rear View Mirrors

The unsteady flow fields behind two different automobile outside side rear view mirrors were examined experimentally in order to obtain a comprehensive data base for the validation of the ongoing computational investigation effort to predict the aero-acoustic noise due to the outside rear view mirrors. This study is part of a larger scheme to predict the aero-acoustic noise due to various external components in vehicles. To aid with the characterization of this complex flow field, mean and unsteady surface pressure measurements were undertaken in the wake of two mirror models. Velocity measurements with particle image velocimetry were also conducted to develop the mean velocity field of the wake. Two full-scale mirror models with distinctive geometrical features were investigated.
Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Automotive Assembly Tasks using the HUMOSIM Framework

Efficient methods for simulating operators performing part handling tasks in manufacturing plants are needed. The simulation of part handling motions is an important step towards the implementation of virtual manufacturing for the purpose of improving worker productivity and reducing injuries in the workplace. However, industrial assembly tasks are often complex and involve multiple interactions between workers and their environment. The purpose of this paper is to present a series of industrial simulations using the Human Motion Simulation Framework developed at the University of Michigan. Three automotive assembly operations spanning scenarios, such as small and large parts, tool use, walking, re-grasping, reaching inside a vehicle, etc. were selected.
Technical Paper

Objective Characterization of Vehicle Brake Feel

Historically, vehicle brake feel has usually been evaluated in a subjective manner. If an objective measure was used, it was pedal force versus the deceleration rate of the vehicle. Stopping distance is almost always used to characterize vehicle braking performance by the automotive press. This represents limit braking performance, but ignores braking performance under normal driving conditions experienced by customers most of the time. Evaluation of pedal feel by the press is generally limited to subjective adjectives such as “mushy”, “positive”, and “responsive”. A method will be presented, which is being used by General Motors, to translate customer brake feel expectations into objective performance metrics. These metrics are correlated to actual subjective ratings and are used to set objective, measurable requirements for performance.
Journal Article

Calculation of Heating Value for Gasoline Containing Ethanol

Ethanol for use in automotive fuels can be made from renewable feedstocks, which contributes to its increased use in recent years. There are many differences in physical and chemical properties between ethanol and petrochemicals refined from fossil oil. One of the differences is its energy content. The energy content, or heating value, is an important property of motor fuel, since it directly affects vehicle fuel economy. While the energy content can be measured by combustion of the fuel in a bomb, the test is time-consuming and expensive. It is generally satisfactory and more convenient to estimate that property from other commonly-measured fuel properties. Several standardized empirical methods have been developed in the past for estimating the energy content of hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel.
Journal Article

Effect of Regenerative Braking on Foundation Brake Performance

Regenerative braking is one of the key enablers of improved energy efficiency and extension of driving range in parallel and series hybrid, and electric-only vehicles. It is still used in conjunction with friction brakes, due to the enormous amount of energy dissipated in maximum effort stops (and the lack of a competitive alternate technology to accommodate this power level), and to provide braking when on-board energy storage/dissipation devices cannot store enough energy to support braking. Although vehicles equipped with regenerative braking are becoming more and more commonly available, there is little published research on what the dramatic reduction in friction brake usage means to the function of the friction brakes themselves. This paper discusses -with supporting data from analysis and physical tests - some of the considerations for friction brakes related to usage on vehicles with regenerative braking, including corrosion, off-brake wear, and friction levels.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Methanol and Ethanol Sprays from Different DI Injectors by Using Mie-scattering and Laser Induced Fluorescence at Potential Engine Cold-start Conditions

A laser sheet imaging system with Mie-scattering and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) was used to investigate the spray characteristics of gasoline, methanol and ethanol fuels. A range of conditions found in today's gasoline engines were investigated including that observed during engine cold-start. Both a swirl injector and a multi-hole fuel injector were examined for each of the three fuels. A combination of the second harmonic (532 nm) and the fourth harmonic (266 nm) was generated simultaneously using a Nd:YAG laser system to illuminate the spray. The Mie-scattering technique was used to characterize the liquid phase of the spray while the LIF technique was used to detect a combination of liquid and vapor phases. While gasoline naturally fluoresced, the dopant TEA was added to the methanol and ethanol fuels as a fuel tracer. The Mie-scattering and LIF signals were captured simultaneously using a CCD camera along with an image doubler.
Technical Paper

Brake Response Time Measurement for a HIL Vehicle Dynamics Simulator

Vehicle dynamics simulation with Hardware In the Loop (HIL) has been demonstrated to reduce development and validation time for dynamic control systems. For dynamic control systems such as Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC), an accurate vehicle dynamics performance simulation system requires the Electronic Brake Control Module (EBCM) coupled with the vehicles brake system hardware. This kind of HIL simulation-specific software tool can further increase efficiency by means of automation and optimization of the development and validation process. This paper presents a method for HIL vehicle dynamics simulator optimization through Brake Response Time (BRT) correlation. The paper discusses the differences between the physical vehicle and the HIL vehicle dynamics simulator. The differences between the physical and virtual systems are used as factors in the development of a Design Of Experiment (DOE) quantifying HIL simulator performance.
Technical Paper

An Approach of the Engine Cylinder Block Material

The increasing demand for energy savings in cars of high production volume, especially those classified as emerging market vehicles, has led the automotive industry to focus on several strategies to achieve higher efficiency levels from their systems and components. One of the most diffuse initiatives is reducing weight through the application of the so-called light alloys. An engine cylinder block can contribute nearly two percent of the vehicle's total mass. Special attention and soon repercussion are given when someone decides to apply a light alloy such as the aluminum to this component. Nonetheless, it is known that peculiarities in terms of physical, chemical and mechanical properties, due to the material nature, associated with regional market characteristics make the initial feasibility analysis study definitely one of the most important stages for the material choice decision.
Technical Paper

Recycling Study of Post-Consumer Radiator End Caps

In June 1997, the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) and the American Plastics Council (APC) asked MBA Polymers to conduct a study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of recovering metals and plastics from end-of-life radiator end caps (RECs). The VRP worked with the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) to obtain samples of RECs from two metal recycling companies, SimsMetal America and Aaron Metals. MBA performed its standard Recyclability Assessment on the materials, which included a detailed density and material characterization study and an actual processing study using its pilot processing line. It was found that the polyamide from RECs could be recovered in reasonably high yield and purity using tight density separations. The recycling of the REC samples used for this study generated about 40% nonferrous metal, 19% mixed ferrous and nonferrous metal and about 20% polyamide flakes.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Camshaft Lobe Microstructure Obtained by Different Processing

The present work aims to characterize the microstructure of valvetrain camshaft lobes that are currently applied in the automotive industry, obtained by different processing routes. The cam lobe microstructure has been assessed by microscopy, whereas the mechanical properties by hardness profile measurements on the surface region. Microconstituents type and form, composing the final microstructure at the cam lobe work region, are defined by the casting route and/or post-heat treatment process other than alloy chemical composition, so that knowledge and control of processing route is vital to assure suitable valvetrain system assembly performance and durability. Most of the mechanical solicitations on the part occur at the interface between cam and follower; the actual contact area is significantly smaller than the apparent area. As a result, the microstructure at and near the surface performs a direct role on the performance of the valvetrain, cam lobe and its counterpart.
Technical Paper

Effects of Altitude and Road Gradients in Boosted Hydraulic Brake Systems

Brake systems are strongly related with safety of vehicles. Therefore a reliable design of the brake system is critical as vehicles operate in a wide range of environmental conditions, fulfilling different security requirements. Particularly, countries with mountainous geography expose vehicles to aggressive variations in altitude and road grade. These variations affect the performance of the brake system. In order to study how these changes affect the brake system, two approaches were considered. The first approach was centered on the development of an analytical model for the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle during braking maneuvers. This model was developed at system-level, considering the whole vehicle. This allowed the understanding of the relation between the braking force and the altitude and road grade, for different fixed deceleration requirement scenarios. The second approach was focused on the characterization of the vacuum servo operation.
Technical Paper

Fast Gas Analyzer Observations of Stochastic Preignition Events

The goal of this study was to generate exhaust fast gas data that could be used to identify phenomena that occur before, during, and after stochastic preignition (SPI), also called low-speed preignition (LSPI), events. Crank angle resolved measurement of exhaust hydrocarbons, NO, CO, and CO2 was performed under engine conditions prone to these events. Fuels and engine operating strategies were varied in an attempt to understand similarities and differences in SPI-related behavior that may occur between them. Several different uncommon (typically occurring in less than 1% of engine cycles) features of the fast gas data were identified, and the correlations between them and SPI events were explored. Although the thresholds used to define and identify these observations were arbitrary, they provided a practical means of identifying behavior in the fast gas data and correlating it to SPI occurrence.
Technical Paper

Design for Crashworthiness of Vehicle Structures Using an Extended Hybrid Cellular Automaton Method

This paper introduces a design methodology to tailor the acceleration and displacement responses of a vehicle structure subjected to a dynamic crushing load. The proposed approach is an extension of the hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method, through which the internal energy density is uniformly distributed within the structure. The proposed approach, referred here to as an extended HCA (xHCA) method, receives the suitable combinations of volume fraction and a finite element meta-parameter for which the algorithm synthesizes the load paths that allow the desired crash response. Lower meta-parameter values lead designs obtained by traditional optimizers, while larger values lead to designs obtained by the HCA method. Simultaneous implementation of multiple values of meta-parameters is presented here as a further development of xHCA method.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization for Crashworthiness Using Hybrid Cellular Automata

Structures with multiple materials have now become one of the perceived necessities for automotive industry to address vehicle design requirements such as light-weight, safety, and cost. The objective of this study is to develop a design methodology for multi-material structures accountable for vehicle crash durability. The heuristic topology synthesis approach of Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA) framework is implemented to generate multi-material structures with the constraint on the volume fraction of the final design. The HCA framework is integrated with ordered-SIMP (solid isotropic material with penalization) interpolation, artificial material library, as well as statistical analysis of material distribution data to ensure a smooth transition between multiple practical materials during the topology synthesis.
Technical Paper

A Qualitative and Quantitative Aerodynamic Study of a Rotating Wheel inside a Simplified Vehicle Body and Wheel Liner Cavity

As automotive OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturer) struggle to reach a balance between Design and Performance, environmental legislations continues to demand more rapid gains in vehicle efficiency. As a result, more attention is being given to the contributions of both tire and wheels. Not only tire rolling resistance, but also tire and wheel aerodynamics are being shown to be contributors to overall efficiency. To date, many studies have been done to correlate CFD simulations of rotating wheels both in open and closed wheeled environments to windtunnel results. Whereas this ensures proper predictive capabilities, little focus has been given to thoroughly explaining the physics that govern this complex environment. This study seeks to exhaustively investigate the complex interactions between the ground, body, and a rotating tire/wheel.
Journal Article

Functional Requirements to Exceed the 100 kW/l Milestone for High Power Density Automotive Diesel Engines

The paper describes the challenges and results achieved in developing a new high-speed Diesel combustion system capable of exceeding the imaginative threshold of 100 kW/l. High-performance, state-of-art prototype components from automotive diesel technology were provided in order to set-up a single-cylinder research engine demonstrator. Key design parameters were identified in terms boost, engine speed, fuel injection pressure and injector nozzle flow rates. In this regard, an advanced piezo injection system capable of 3000 bar of maximum injection pressure was selected, coupled to a robust base engine featuring ω-shaped combustion bowl and low swirl intake ports. The matching among the above-described elements has been thoroughly examined and experimentally parameterized.
Technical Paper

Use of Single Point Interface Measures for Characterization of Attachments

Often components or subsystems are attached to other systems through multiple fasteners at multiple locations. Examples may include things like compressors, alternators, engine cradles, powertrain mounting systems, suspension systems, body structures or almost any other interface between components or subsystems. Often during early design stages, alternative component or subsystem configurations are being considered that can have very different interface characteristics, such as alternators with different number of mounting fasteners, or suspension systems with different number of body structure interface attachments. Given these different mounting configurations, it can be difficult to meaningfully compare the interface performance of the two components or subsystems.