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Journal Article

Elaborate Measuring System for Sensitivity Analyses and In-Depth Investigations of a Squealing Brake System

Brake squeal is an elusive problem which has been the subject of investigation for many decades, but there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the excitation mechanisms. New vehicle solutions, for instance the electrical vehicle, will have a lower general noise level. Thus, silent brake systems will gain in importance. To obtain such systems, in-depth investigations of the brake disc/pad contact are required. For these investigations a new sensor has been developed. The guide pins of the caliper are replaced by modified ones which measure the friction force. Additionally, eddy current sensors are installed for contact-free measurement of the pad movement. Furthermore, triaxial acceleration sensors are mounted in the disc vents. Thus, it is possible to evaluate the operational deflection shapes of the disc. Next, an extensive sensibility analysis is performed. Parameters such as environmental conditions, friction coefficient and many others are thereby changed.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Solutions for Range Extenders - From Concept Considerations to Practical Experiences

For a broad acceptance of electric vehicles, the trade-off between all electric range and battery cost respectively weight represents the most important challenge. The all electric range obtained under real world conditions most often deviates significantly from the nominal value which is measured under idealized conditions. Under extreme conditions - slow traffic and demanding requirements for cabin heating or cooling - the electrical range might become less a question of spatial distance but even more of total operation time. Whereas with conventional powertrain, high flexibility of the total driving range can be obtained without sacrificing cost, with a pure battery vehicle this results in extreme high cost and weight of the energy storage. Therefore the difference between the typical daily driving range (e.g. in Germany 80-90% is below 50 km) and the minimum total range requested by most customers for acceptance of battery vehicles (200- 250 km), becomes essential.
Technical Paper

Parameterization Process of the Maxwell Model to Describe the Transient Force Behavior of a Tire

The present technical article deals with the modeling of dynamic tire forces, which are relevant during interactions of safety relevant Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Special attention has been paid on simple but effective tire modeling of semi-physical type. In previous investigations, experimental validation showed that the well-known first-order Kelvin-Voigt model, described by a spring and damper element, describes good suitability around fixed operation points, but is limited for a wide working range. When aiming to run vehicle dynamics models within a frequency band of excitation up to 8 Hz, these models deliver remarkable deviations from measured tire characteristics. To overcome this limitation, a nonlinear Maxwell spring-damper element was introduced which is qualified to model the dynamic hardening of the elastomer materials of the tire.
Technical Paper

Big Data-Based Driving Pattern Clustering and Evaluation in Combination with Driving Circumstances

Car driver’s behavior and its influence on driving characteristics play an increasing role in the development of modern vehicles, e.g. in view of efficient powertrain control and implementation of driving assistance functions. In addition, knowledge about actual driving style can provide feedback to the driver and support efficient driving or even safety-related measures. Driving patterns are caused not only by the driver, but also influenced by road characteristics, environmental boundary conditions and other traffic participants. Thus, it is necessary to take the driving circumstances into account, when driving patterns are studied. This work proposes a methodology to cluster and evaluate driving patterns under consideration of vehicle-related parameters (e.g. acceleration and jerk) in combination with additional influencing factors, e.g. road style and inclination. Firstly, segmentation of the trip in distance series is performed to generate micro cycles.
Technical Paper

“Pedestrian in the Loop”: An Approach Using Augmented Reality

A large number of testing procedures have been developed to ensure vehicle safety in common and extreme driving situations. However, these conventional testing procedures are insufficient for testing autonomous vehicles. They have to handle unexpected scenarios with the same or less risk a human driver would take. Currently, safety related systems are not adequately tested, e.g. in collision avoidance scenarios with pedestrians. Examples are the change of pedestrian behaviour caused by interaction, environmental influences and personal aspects, which cannot be tested in real environments. It is proposed to use augmented reality techniques. This method can be seen as a new (Augmented) Pedestrian in the Loop testing procedure.
Technical Paper

Robot-Based Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles

Automated, conductive charging systems enable both, the transmission of high charging power for long electric driving distances as well as comfortable and safe charging processes. Especially by the use of heavy and unhandy cables for fast charging, these systems offer user friendly vehicle charging - in particularly in combination with autonomously driving and parking vehicles. This paper deals with the definition of requirements for automated conductive charging stations with standard charging connectors and vehicle inlets and the development of a fully-automated charging robot for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. In cooperation with the project partners BMW AG, MAGNA Steyr Engineering, KEBA AG and the Institute of Automotive Engineering at Graz University of Technology, the development and implementation of the prototype took place in the course of a governmental funded research project titled “Comfortable Mobility by Technology Integration (KoMoT)”.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Occupant Simulation Through the Coupling of PC-Crash and MADYMO

During recent years the accident simulation program PC-Crash was developed. This software simulates vehicle movement before, during and after the impact, using 3D vehicle and scene models. When reconstructing car accidents, quite often questions arise regarding occupant movement and loading. Especially important is the influence of different types of restraint systems on the occupant. MADYMO® is a software tool which was developed by TNO in the Netherlands and which is well known in the automotive industry for the simulation of occupant movement. It allows the simulation of all kinds of modern restraint systems such as airbags and seatbelts with and without pretensioners. As the software is used in the automotive industry quite extensively, a huge validated database of dummy and human models is available. Since MADYMO® demands the setup of quite complicated input files, its use normally requires a high level of expertise.
Technical Paper

Vibration Comfort Control for HEV Based on Machine Learning

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with a power-split system offer a variety of possibilities in reduction of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. Power-split systems use a planetary gear sets to create a strong mechanical coupling between the internal combustion engine, the generator and the electric motor. This concept offers rather low oscillations and therefore passive damping components are not needed. Nevertheless, during acceleration or because of external disturbances, oscillations which are mostly influenced by the ICE, can still occur which leads to a drivability and performance downgrade. This paper proposes a design of an active damping control system which uses the electric motor to suppress those oscillations instead of handling them within the ICE control unit. The control algorithm is implemented as part of an existing hybrid controller without any additional hardware introduced.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) in Automotive Software Quality Management

A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
Technical Paper

Precise Dummy Head Trajectories in Crash Tests based on Fusion of Optical and Electrical Data: Influence of Sensor Errors and Initial Values

Precise three-dimensional dummy head trajectories during crash tests are very important for vehicle safety development. To determine precise trajectories with a standard deviation of approximately 5 millimeters, three-dimensional video analysis is an approved method. Therefore the tracked body is to be seen on at least two cameras during the whole crash term, which is often not given (e.g. head dips into the airbag). This non-continuity problem of video analysis is surmounted by numerical integration of differential un-interrupted electrical rotation and acceleration sensor signals mounted into the tracked body. Problems of this approach are unknown sensor calibration errors and unknown initial conditions, which result in trajectory deviations above 10 centimeters.
Technical Paper

Concept Study of Range Extender Applications in Electric Scooters

Nowadays, politicians are forced by air pollution prevention to demand zero emission vehicles (ZEV) in the form of pure electric vehicles. The poor capacity to weight factor of actual batteries compared to any kind of liquid or gaseous hydro-carbon fuel is the main reason for the retarded implementation of ZEV. Solutions offered by automobile manufacturers are mild to full hybrid powertrains based on the well established ICE platform. The difficulty of those approaches of electrification is to compete with the performance and benefit costumers expect from standard automobiles. Pure electric vehicles are rare and often disappointing regarding range and/or performance. Additionally the costs for such vehicles, which are mainly driven by the battery prices, are comparatively high, impeding their market entrance and acceptance. Low price electric city scooters are actually offered as pure electric vehicles in a wide variety of different models.
Technical Paper

Real World Operation of a Standard Lawn Mower Engine from a Scientific Perspective

This paper introduces a research project on a spark ignition engine used in non-road applications. The aim is to illustrate the present situation as basis for comparison and to identify possible improvement potential in terms of performance, efficiency or exhaust and noise emissions. The study is carried out in two steps. First a standard walk-behind lawn mower is equipped with measuring instrumentation for recording the cutting forces and the engine variables during real world operation. The tests are carried out on three different lawn types and two different blade types are investigated. Consequently, in a second step the engine is analysed on the engine test bench in stationary and transient operating mode. A complete engine mapping is done regarding all relevant variables. Additionally to the outdoor tests, fuel consumption and engine out emissions are measured on the engine dynamometer. The recorded data enables a detailed analysis of the engine behaviour.
Technical Paper

Highly Dynamic Intake and Exhaust Back Pressure Control

Measuring emissions of internal combustion engines-not only at steady-state conditions, but also with highly dynamic test cycles-is an important issue in modern engine development. Due to the fact that ambient conditions have an essential influence on power and emissions of internal combustion engines, test beds used for such measurements typically incorporate intake air and exhaust back pressure control for reasons of repeatability, accuracy and comparability. As test cycle dynamics get faster and legal pressure tolerances get narrower, pressure control becomes more demanding and simple PI control schemes are pushed to their limits; therefore, more sophisticated control schemes are necessary. In this paper, a linearised model is first derived and then used to both simplify and optimise PI controller tuning. This is done by means of frequency domain methods. Limitations to such controllers and possible approaches to overcome them are discussed.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Reduction in Small Capacity Two- and Four-Stroke Engine Technologies

State of the art technologies of 2 and 4 stroke engines have to fulfill severe future exhaust emission regulations, with special focus on the aspects of rising performance and low cost manufacturing, leading to an important challenge for the future. In special fields of applications (e.g. mopeds, hand held or off-road equipment) mainly engines with simple mixture preparation systems, partially without exhaust gas after treatment are used. The comparison of 2 and 4 stroke concepts equipped with different exhaust gas after treatment systems provides a decision support for applications in a broad field of small capacity engine classes.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Automated Fault Diagnosis at Engine Test Beds

Experimental investigations on engine test beds represent a significant cost in engine development. To reduce development time and related costs, it is necessary to check the quality of measurements automatically whenever possible directly on the test bed to allow early detection of faults. A fault diagnosis system should provide information about the presence, cause and magnitude of an inconsistency in measurement. The main challenge in developing such a system is to detect the fault quickly and reliably. However, only faults that have actually occurred should be detected because the user will only adopt a system that provides accurate results. This paper presents a methodology for automated fault diagnosis at engine test beds, starting with an explanation of the general procedure. Next, the methods applied for fault detection are introduced.
Technical Paper

The Patch-Transfer-Function (PTF) Method Applied to Numerical Models of Trim Materials Including Poro-Elastic Layers

In automotive industry, acoustic trim materials are widely used in order to reach passenger comfort targets. The dynamic behavior of the poro-elastic materials is typically modelled by the Biot theory, which however leads to expensive numerical finite element calculations. One way to deal with it is to use the Patch-Transfer-Function (PTF) sub-structuring method, which couples subdomains at their interfaces through impedance relations. This was done already for systems including locally reacting poro-elastic materials. In this paper, a methodology is presented allowing to numerically assess the PTF impedance matrices of non-locally reacting trim materials using the Biot based poro-elastic model solved by the finite element method (FEM). Simplifications of the trim impedance matrices are introduced resulting in considerable calculation cost reductions. The associated prediction errors are discussed by means of a numerical case study.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Design of In-Wheel Motor Driven Vehicles with Torque-Vectoring

Volatile oil prices and increased environmental sensitivity together with political concerns have moved the attention of governments, automobile manufacturers and customers to alternative power trains. From the actual point of view the most promising concepts for future passenger cars are based on the conversion of electrical into mechanical energy. In-wheel motors are an interesting concept towards vehicle electrification that provides also high potentials to improve vehicle dynamics and handling. Beside aspects concerning the electric system (e.g. motor type, energy storage, and control strategy), there are also some open questions related with the mechanical design of in-wheel motor driven vehicles that need to be solved before series production.
Technical Paper

Concepts for Mechanical Abuse Testing of High-Voltage Batteries

Currently lithium-batteries are the most promising electrical-energy storage technology in fully-electric and hybrid vehicles. A crashworthy battery-design is among the numerous challenges development of electric-vehicles has to face. Besides of safe normal operation, the battery-design shall provide marginal threat to human health and environment in case of mechanical damage. Numerous mechanical abuse-tests were performed to identify load limits and the battery's response to damage. Cost-efficient testing is provided by taking into account that the battery-system's response to abuse might already be observed at a lower integration-level, not requiring testing of the entire pack. The most feasible tests and configurations were compiled and discussed. Adaptions of and additions to existing requirements and test-procedures as defined in standards are pointed out. Critical conditions that can occur during and after testing set new requirements to labs and test-rigs.
Journal Article

State of the Art and Future Trends of Electric Drives and Power Electronics for Automotive Engineering

Discussions about the optimal technology of propulsion systems for future ground vehicles have been raising over the last few years. Several options include different types of technologies. However, those who are advocating conventional internal combustion engines are faced with the fact that fossil fuels are limited. Others favor hydrogen fuel as the solution for the future, either in combination with combustion engines or as an energy carrier for fuel cells. In any case, the production and storage of hydrogen is an ongoing challenge of numerous research works. Finally, there are battery-electric or hybrid propulsion systems in use, gaining more and more popularity worldwide. Ongoing advances in power electronics help to improve control systems within automotive applications. New developed or designed components enable more efficient system architectures and control.
Journal Article

A Model-Based Configuration Approach for Automotive Real-Time Operating Systems

Automotive embedded systems have become very complex, are strongly integrated, and the safety-criticality and real-time constraints of these systems raise new challenges. The OSEK/VDX standard provides an open-ended architecture for distributed real-time capable units in vehicles. This is supported by the OSEK Implementation Language (OIL), a language aiming at specifying the configuration of these real-time operating systems. The challenge, however, is to ensure consistency of the concept constraints and configurations along the entire product development. The contribution of this paper is to bridge the existing gap between model-driven systems engineering and software engineering for automotive real-time operating systems (RTOS). For this purpose a bidirectional tool bridge has been established based on OSEK OIL exchange format files.