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Technical Paper

Management System for Continuously Variable Valve Lift Gasoline Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1200
A continuously variable valve lift gasoline engine can improve fuel consumption by reducing pumping loss and increase maximum torque by optimizing valve lift and cam phase according to engine speed. In this research, a new control system to simultaneously ensure good driveability and low emissions was developed for this low fuel consumption, high power engine. New suction air management through a master-slave control made it possible to achieve low fuel consumption and good driveability. To regulate the idle speed, a new controller featuring a two-degree-of-freedom sliding-mode algorithm with cooperative control was designed. This controller can improve the stability of idle speed and achieve the idle operation with a lower engine speed. To reduce emissions during cold start condition, an ignition timing control was developed that combine I-P control with a sliding mode control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Liquid Phase Thermometry of Common Rail Diesel Sprays Impinging on a Heated Wall

2007-07-23
2007-01-1891
An experimental study was carried out on visualization of liquid phase temperature distributions in high-pressure diesel sprays impinging on a heated wall. Naphthalene/TMPD-exciplex fluorescence method and pyrene-excimer fluorescence method were utilized for the thermometry. The sprays were injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature gaseous environment. The nozzle hole diameter was 0.100 mm or 0.139 mm. The results showed that cool pockets were formed at the tip and in the impinging part of the sprays. The spray for the nozzle with 0.100 mm hole was heated up faster near the nozzle than for the nozzle with 0.139 mm hole.
Technical Paper

Development Procedure for Interior Noise Performance by Virtual Vehicle Refinement, Combining Experimental and Numerical Component Models

2001-04-30
2001-01-1538
This paper summarizes the development of a predictive vibro-acoustic full vehicle model of a mid-size sedan and focuses on the engineering analysis procedures used to evaluate the design performance related to engine induced noise and vibration. The vehicle model is build up from a mixture of test-based and finite element component models. FRF Based Substructuring is used for their assembly. The virtual car model is loaded by engine forces resulting from indirect force identification. This force-set includes combustion, inertia, piston slap and crank bearing forces, for engine harmonics from 0.5 to 10th order. Such forced response analysis yields vibration levels at every component, at every interface between components, and interior noise predictions. The target is to provide the vehicle NVH manager with the insight required to identify major causes for peak noise levels and to set targets and develop an action plan for every component design team.
Technical Paper

Development of Hydraulic Servo Brake System for Cooperative Control with Regenerative Brake

2007-04-16
2007-01-0868
A new brake system, able to make efficient use of regenerative braking while maintaining excellent brake feel, has been developed to increase the fuel economy of hybrid vehicles. A hydraulic servo was used as a base to enable mechanical operation of the service brakes; solenoid valves and brake fluid pressure sensors were added to this base to make it possible to control brake line pressure as demanded. The use of a stroke simulator in the hydraulic servo prevents brake feel from being affected by the control of the brake pressure. In addition, high-accuracy brake pressure control that functions cooperatively with the regenerative brakes is enabled, resulting in stable braking effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Improvement of visibility for vulnerable parties in traffic accidents

2001-06-04
2001-06-0142
More than half of fatalities in traffic accidents in Japan are the vulnerable parties in such accidents (pedestrians, motorcycles, bicycles). In most of these accidents, the cause is collision involving automobiles. Therefore, reasoning that early detection of such vulnerable parties would lead to a reduction in accidents, we conducted research on the following three systems: - Honda Night Vision System - For night-time detection of pedestrians using infrared cameras. - Active Headlights - For assuring night-time field of vision by directing illumination in the direction of vehicle travel through lights coupled with steering wheel turn and so on. - Inter-Vehicle Motorcycle-Automobile Communication System (IVCS) - Notifies drivers of each other's presence by providing information through communications systems installed on both vehicles. The results from research on these systems show that their use can be expected to have a positive effect in reducing the occurrence of accidents.
Technical Paper

69 Development of Gear Train Behavioral Analysis Technologies Considering Non-linear Elements

2002-10-29
2002-32-1838
A numerical calculation method, which enables the analysis of gear train behavior including non-linear elements in a motorcycle engine, was established. During the modeling process, it was confirmed that factors such as bearing distortion, radial bearing clearance and elastic deformation of a tooth flank could not be neglected because they effect the rotation behavior. To keep a high accuracy, those factors were included in the simulation model, after they were converted into the rigidity elements along the rotational direction of each gear model. In addition, the model was combined with a crankshaft behavior calculation model for a driving and excitation source. A time domain numerical integration method was used to perform the transient response simulation across a wide range of engine speeds. A jump phenomenon of response behavior of the driven gear was predicted that is a characteristic of non-linear response. The phenomenon was also observed in a physical test.
Technical Paper

49 Development of Pb-free Free-Cutting Steel Enabling Omission of Normalizing for Crankshafts

2002-10-29
2002-32-1818
Crankshafts of motorcycles require high strength, high reliability and low manufacturing cost. Recently, a reduction of Pb content in the free-cutting steel, which is harmful substance, is required. In order to satisfy such requirements, we started the development of Pb-free free-cutting steel which simultaneously enabled the omission of the normalizing process. For the omission of normalizing process, we adjusted the content of Carbon, Manganese and Nitrogen of the steel. This developed steel can obtain adequate hardness and fine microstructure by air-cooling after forging. Pb-free free-cutting steel was developed based on Calcium-sulfur free-cutting steel. Pb free-cutting steel is excellent in cutting chips frangibility in lathe process. We thought that it was necessary that cutting chips frangibility of developed steel was equal to Pb free-cutting steel. It was found that cutting chips frangibility depend on a non-metallic inclusion's composition, shape and dispersion.
Technical Paper

Development of the Motor-Assist System for the Hybrid Automobile--The Insight Development of the Motor-Assist System for a Hybrid Car--Insight

2000-11-01
2000-01-C079
A motor-assist system has been developed and employed for the "Insight' hybrid car. The system consists of an internal combustion engine as the primary power source, with an electric motor placed around the engine's crankshaft. Such construction reduces the system's volume significantly and offers more flexibility for the power plant layout. The system's functions include regeneration during braking, an idle stop mechanism, driving power assistance, and power supply for the 12V electrical system. A proper energy management method for various driving modes has been established by combining these functions, and fuel economy is significantly improved as a result. As another control feature, an active motor vibration control system compensates the idling vibration that is unique to three-cylinder engines.
Technical Paper

On-board Diagnostic Expert System via an Enhanced Fault Tree Model

2006-04-03
2006-01-1567
We propose to enhance reliability based diagnosis by enhancing the fault tree model with a sensor layer for capturing evidence. We recognized the need for an automated diagnostic process that can predict and report component failure in vehicles prior to total failure of any system in the vehicle. We also want to take advantage of evidence that can be derived from sensors to reduce the amount of tests required to identify failed components.
Technical Paper

Research and Analysis of ISG Belt-drive System for Idling Stop System

2006-04-03
2006-01-1501
To enable a belt-driven Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) to be used in an idle-stop system, the belt system must be capable of both driving the accessories and of starting the engine. Conventional belt systems required a higher tension setting to accomplish this, and the associated increase in friction opposed the achievement of better fuel economy. In this research, an auto-tensioner with a contraction suppression function that utilizes the incompressibility of fluid as well as a belt system that enables the auto-tensioner to be optimally located were proposed. The behavior of the belt system was measured in detail by testing, and the cause of the fluctuation of the belt tension was clarified by analysis. A method of controlling the ISG torque to flatten out tension fluctuations was devised, and its effectiveness was confirmed by simulation and testing. From the overall results of the research, a belt system that does not require a high tension setting was realized.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid System for 2006 Compact Sedan

2006-04-03
2006-01-1503
An Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system for the 2006 Civic Hybrid has been developed, with the goal of having class leading fuel economy among compact vehicles and enhanced driving performance. The IMA system has been enhanced for greater power and efficiency. Combining the 3-stage i-VTEC engine with a higher power, higher efficiency electric motor assist mechanism enables an increase in deceleration regeneration energy and a drive mode powered by the electric motor alone. The engine is a newly developed 3-stage i-VTEC, based on the 1.3L SOHC i-DSI engine. The new 3-stage i-VTEC engine incorporates both a VTEC mechanism that switches cam profiles in low and high engine speed ranges, and a cylinder deactivation mechanism. The CVT has both an expanded ratio range and a higher final gear ratio. Through these technological enhancements, we have achieved the highest levels of fuel economy in the compact class and enhanced acceleration performance.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles

2006-10-16
2006-01-3381
Clarifying the impact of ETBE 8% blended fuel on current Japanese gasoline vehicles, under the Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAPII) we conducted exhaust emission tests, evaporative emission tests, durability tests on the exhaust after-treatment system, cold starting tests, and material immersion tests. ETBE 17% blended fuel was also investigated as a reference. The regulated exhaust emissions (CO, HC, and NOx) didn't increase with any increase of ETBE content in the fuel. In durability tests, no noticeable increase of exhaust emission after 40,000km was observed. In evaporative emissions tests, HSL (Hot Soak Loss) and DBL (Diurnal Breathing Loss) didn't increase. In cold starting tests, duration of cranking using ETBE 8% fuel was similar to that of ETBE 0%. In the material immersion tests, no influence of ETBE on these material properties was observed.
Technical Paper

R&D and Analysis of Energy Consumption Improvement Factor for Advanced Clean Energy HEVs

2005-10-24
2005-01-3828
Ultra-low energy consumption and ultra-low emission vehicle technologies have been developed by combining petroleum-alternative clean energy with a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. Their component technologies cover a wide range of vehicle types, such as passenger cars, delivery trucks, and city buses, adsorbed natural gas (ANG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and dimethyl ether (DME) as fuels, series (S-HEV) and series/parallel (SP-HEV) for hybrid types, and as energy storage systems (ESSs), flywheel batteries (FWBs), capacitors, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Evaluation tests confirmed that the energy consumption of the developed vehicles is 1/2 of that of conventional diesel vehicles, and the exhaust emission levels are comparable to Japan's ultra-low emission vehicle (J-ULEV) level.
Technical Paper

Electric Power Control System for a Fuel Cell Vehicle Employing Electric Double-Layer Capacitor

2004-03-08
2004-01-1006
A fuel-cell-vehicle has been provided with an electric-double-layer-capacitor system (capacitor) to act as a back-up power source. The fuel cells and the capacitor have different voltages when the system is started, and for this reason the system could not be reconnected by relays. A VCU (Voltage and current Control Unit) has been positioned in the path of electrical connection between the fuel cells and the capacitor as a method of dealing with this issue. The VCU enables the charging of the capacitor to be controlled in order to equalize the voltage of the two power sources and allow a connection.
Technical Paper

Control Device of Electronically Controlled Fuel Injection System of Air-cooled Engines for Small Motorcycles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0901
In conventional electronically controlled fuel injection systems, when the battery is inadequately charged, the small amount of electric power generated from the alternator by the kick starter operation is consumed by all electrical loads including the battery. This causes a voltage drop, hence the fuel injection system does not function due to a power shortage. To eliminate the power shortage, an installed relay circuit opens all electric loads other than the fuel injection system. This allows the fuel injection system to use all the electric power generated by the kick starter operation aided through using an additionally incorporated condenser. This type of electric power control system has been incorporated into the ECU. Thus, the control system has been realized that permits starting of an engine by using the kick-starter even when the battery is completely discharged.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid System for the V6 Midsize Sedan

2005-04-11
2005-01-0274
The Accord Hybrid has been developed to offer the driving performance of a V6 midsize sedan while achieving Civic class fuel economy. The engine is based on a V6 3.0L SOHC VTEC engine, with VCM (variable cylinder management) system. The transmission is a thin 5-speed automatic transmission, modified to integrate with a hybrid system for idle stop, regeneration driving and so on. The IMA (Integrated Motor Assist) system is based on the model employed in the Civic Hybrid. During development the size of the thin DC brushless motor was increased and an IPM (Interior Permanent Magnet) rotor employed, resulting in an improvement of approximately 26% in maximum torque. Controls were developed to effectively utilize the deceleration energy regenerated by the IMA system that assist in providing expansion to the 3-cylinder operation zone, and increase the frequency of the 3-cylinder operation.
Technical Paper

Development of the IMA Motor for the V6 Hybrid Midsize Sedan

2005-04-11
2005-01-0276
The Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) technology used in Civic Hybrid or Insight is developed originally by Honda, and is mounted in a V6 Accord with the aim of enhancing fuel economy of a mid-size passenger car. The development goal was to realize a mid-size passenger car that provides acceleration performance superior to a V6 Accord and the fuel economy of a compact class vehicle. Various means are employed to achieve high torque and high efficiency simultaneously, including an Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) type rotor, low-loss electrical steel sheets as the stator material, and high maximum energy product magnets. These technologies increase the maximum power of the newly developed motor by approximately 20%, the maximum torque by 26% and motor efficiency over all ranges by approximately 1% to 3% compared to the current Civic Hybrid motor. Consequently, the maximum motor power of 14 kW and maximum motor torque of 136 Nm are achieved.
Technical Paper

Analysis on In-Cylinder Flow by Means of LDA, PIV and Numerical Simulation under Steady State Flow Condition

2008-04-14
2008-01-1063
This paper describes the evaluation of flow characteristics inside a model engine cylinder using particle image velocimetry (PIV), laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), and numerical simulation by Partial Cells in Cartesian coordinate (PCC) method. The main goal of the study is to clarify the differences in the velocity characteristics obtained by these methods. The model engine head has a four-valve system. Single- and dual- valve opening conditions of the model engine head were tested by a steady flow test rig. The flow structures were completely different for these valve opening conditions. The mean velocities and their distributions obtained by the three methods show satisfactory agreement. However, there were differences in the turbulence intensities under several conditions and measuring positions. Taylor's hypothesis in the integral length scale of turbulence was also compared with single LDA and PIV measurements.
Technical Paper

Advanced Hydro-Mechanical Transmission with High-Durability for Small Utility Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-0876
The new automatic transmission, A-HMT (Advanced Hydro-Mechanical Transmission) has been developed for the Honda ATV (All Terrain Vehicle), which is for wide applications such as utility, recreation, etc. The A-HMT system features high performance, durability and reliability attained by improving the structures from the original hydro-mechanical automatic transmission used for the scooter called “Juno”, which Honda had produced many years ago, working on the same principle. In addition to it, by applying the electronic control system, the highly responsive driveability that suits the requirements of ATV's has been realized. The A-HMT is installed in the new 500 cm3 ATV, FOURTRAX FOREMAN RUBICON, which has been introduced in the USA market since June 2000.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Selection of Materials for Brake Linings

2000-10-20
2000-01-2779
Friction materials used in the brake linings of automobiles, trucks, buses and other vehicles are required to satisfy a number of performance demands: they must provide a dependable, consistent level of friction, excellent resistance to wear, adequate heat dissipation, structural integrity, low cost and, if possible, light weight. No single material can meet all of these often conflicting performance criteria, and as a consequence, multiphase composites have been developed, consisting typically of a dozen or more different materials. The choice of materials is crucial in determining the performance attained, yet to date, braking material compositions have been developed largely on the basis of empirical observations.
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