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Technical Paper

Trends in Vehicle Information Displays in the Multimedia Era

1998-10-19
98C035
Flat panel displays for automobiles are facing a new era with the development of navigation systems. As navigation systems become more important as driver's assistance devices, development of birds-eye-view and 3D displays continues, as well as improvements for larger display screens and higher mounting positions. In response to the progress of mobile multimedia technologies, demands for larger display screens and larger aspect ratios have been increasing. Significance for improvements to anti-glare features or view angles has increased as they provide better visibility and the increase layout options. The use of human machine information interaction, which interfaces visual, audio and tactile senses, makes it possible to realize safer, more convenient and comfortable multimedia era vehicle
Technical Paper

Development of Side Impact Air Bag System for Head and Chest Protection

1998-05-31
986165
Most of the side impact air bag systems in the current market are designed to protect the thorax area only. The new Head and Thorax SRS Side Impact Air Bag system, which Nissan recently introduced into the market, was designed to help provide additional protection for the head in certain side impacts. The system may help protect occupant head contacts when the vehicle collides into a tree, or the high hood of a large striking vehicle. This paper introduces the additional features and function of the new Head and Thorax SRS Side Impact Air Bag system, and some evaluation results in laboratory testing.
Technical Paper

Interactive Information Delivery Navigation System

1998-10-19
98C029
In the past few years, car navigation and cellular phone system are rapidly increased in Japan and vehicle information and communication system (VICS), the public traffic information service started in 1996, accelerates realization of ITS world. This rapid movement causes drivers to want more information on not only traffic jam but also other versatile items like parking availability, weather report and the latest news, etc. via cellular phone network. This paper describes the on-demand information service with the interactive human interface by operators and the development of the information center and the in-vehicle system to realize it.
Technical Paper

The Development of Drowsiness Warning Devices

1985-01-01
856043
This paper describes a newly developed microcomputer-based drowsiness warning system, which detects changes in the driver's alertness through his steering behavior. In developing this system, we first quantified several levels of alertness based on such physiological factors as brain activity and blinking. Tests were then conducted in which drivers fell into different degrees of drowsiness. Using the quantified alertness levels, we defined the “drowsy driver” and found unique steering patterns that could not be seen in normal driving. These patterns were entered into the memory unit of the microcomputer. When the sensor built into the steering wheel detects a drowsy steering pattern, the microcomputer recognizes the driver's drowsiness and activates a buzzer to warn the driver. In this paper, the process of determining the alertness levels is explained, along with the steering characteristics of the drowsy driver.
Technical Paper

Development of Non-Rotating Steering Wheel-Switch

1985-11-11
852290
The expanded application of automotive electronics in recent years has increased the number of control switches, thus necessitating the optimization of their layout around the driver and improvement in operability. As an effective means in improving operability, switches mounted on the steering wheel have been developed, placing controls closer to drivers for easier access while driving. However, since the switches rotate along with the steering wheel, recognition and operation of those switches left a few things to be desired. Recently we developed a "steering wheel with a non-rotating center switch pad" where the pad section with the switches are kept stationary. In this paper we describe the general outline of this development.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Engine System with DPF for the European Market

2007-04-16
2007-01-1061
Nissan Motor has put on the European SUV market a 2.2-L direct-injection diesel engine with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) system that complies with the EURO IV emission regulations. This paper describes the DPF system, cooperative control of a variable geometry turbo (VGT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a high-accuracy lambda control adopted for this engine. In order to achieve a compact DPF, the high-accuracy lambda control was developed to reduce variation in engine-out particulate matter (PM) emissions. Moreover, the accuracy of the technique for predicting the quantity of PM accumulation was improved for reliable detection of the DPF regeneration. Prediction error for PM accumulation increases during transient operation. Control logic was adopted to correct the PM prediction according to lambda fluctuation detected by an observer for lambda at cylinder under transient operating conditions. The observer is corrected lambda sensor output.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Method for Predicting the Risk of Crossing-Collisions at Intersection

2008-04-14
2008-01-0524
The probability or risk of traffic accidents must be estimated quantitatively in order to implement effective traffic safety measures. In this study, various statistical data and probability theory were used to examine a method for predicting the risk of crossing-collisions, representing a typical type of accident at intersections in Japan. Crossing-collisions are caused by a variety of factors, including the road geometry and traffic environment at intersections and the awareness and intentions of the drivers of the striking and struck vehicles. Bayes' theorem was applied to find the accident probability of each factor separately. Specifically, the probability of various factors being present at the time of a crossing-collision was estimated on the basis of traffic accident data and observation survey data.
Technical Paper

Real World Injury Patterns in Narrow Object Frontal Crashes: An Analysis of US Field Data

2008-04-14
2008-01-0527
Analyses were performed using field data for belted drivers of light vehicles in frontal crashes to examine the frequency and severity of frontal crashes with narrow objects. This study examined the distribution of injuries by body region, crash severity, and single- versus multiple-vehicle crashes for narrow object and all other crashes. Factors influencing injuries in different types of frontal crashes were identified, and risk of injury to belted drivers in narrow object crashes versus other frontal crashes was examined. A detailed review of about 400 NASS cases involving narrow object crashes was also performed. Results indicate frontal crashes involving impact with poles, posts, or trees are relatively infrequent. Overall, the fatal risk for belted drivers is lower in narrow object crashes than in other types of frontal crashes.
Technical Paper

Microfluidic Simulation of Diesel Exhaust Gas and Soot Oxidation in Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-03-25
2013-01-0009
Particulate matter (PM) including soot in diesel exhaust gas is a serious atmospheric pollutant, and stricter exhaust emission standards are being set in many countries. As one of the key technologies, a diesel particulate filter (DPF) for PM trap in the after-treatment of the exhaust gas has been developed. Typically, the inlet size of filter monolith is about 2 mm, and the thickness of the filter wall is only 0.2 mm, where soot particles are removed. It is impossible to observe the small-scale phenomena inside the filter, experimentally. Then, in the present study, we conducted microfluidic simulation with soot oxidation. Here, a real cordierite filter was used in the simulation. The inner structure of the filter was scanned by a 3D X-ray CT Computed Tomography) technique. The advantage is that it is non-intrusive system, and it has a high spatial resolution in the micrometer.
Journal Article

Connected Vehicle Accelerates Green Driving

2010-10-19
2010-01-2315
After the turn of the century, growing social attention has been paid to environmental concerns, especially the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and it comes down to a personal daily life concern which will affect the purchasing decision of vehicles in the future. Among all the sources of greenhouse gas emissions, the transportation industry is the primary target of reduction and almost every automotive company pours unprecedented amounts of money to reengineer the vehicle technologies for better fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emission. Besides those efforts paid for sheer improvements of genuine vehicle technologies, NISSAN testified that “connectivity” with outside servers contributed a lot to reduce fuel consumption, thus the less emission of GHG, with two major factors; 1. detouring the traffic congestions with the support of probe-based real-time traffic information and 2. providing Eco-driving advices for the better driving behavior to prompt the better usage of energy.
Technical Paper

Challenges of Widespread Marketplace Acceptance of Electric Vehicles -- Towards a Zero-Emission Mobility Society

2010-10-19
2010-01-2312
Curbing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), which is believed by many scientists to be a major contributor to global warming, is one of the top priority issues that must be addressed by automobile manufacturers. Automakers have set their own strategies to improve fuel economy and to reduce CO₂ emissions. Some of them include integrated approaches, focusing on not only improvement of vehicle technology, but also human factors (eco-driving support for drivers) and social and transportation factors (traffic management by intelligent transportation systems [ITS]). Among them, electric vehicles (EVs) will be a key contributor to attaining the challenging goal of CO₂ reduction. Mass deployment of EVs is required to achieve a zero-emission society. To accomplish that, new advanced technologies, new business schemes, and new partnerships are required.
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies on a Natural Gas Vehicle

1994-10-01
942005
This paper presents the results of several studies conducted on a natural gas vehicle. In one study of engine-out emissions performance, the exhaust emissions of the CNG engine were lower than those of the base gasoline engine. In another study of the conversion characteristics of three-way catalysts, it was found that the conversion efficiency of total hydrocarbons (THCs) was much lower in the lean-mixture region for the NGV. The reduced efficiency was traced to lower conversion and poor reactivity of low-end hydrocarbons and to a higher concentration of H2O.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Design/Control Parameters and Emission Control Systems on Specific Reactivity of S.I. Engine Exhaust Gases

1995-02-01
950807
In 1994, the California Air Resources Board implemented low-emission vehicle (LEV) standards with the aim of improving urban air quality. One feature of the LEV standards is the increasingly tighter regulation of non-methane organic gases (NMOG), taking into account ozone formation, in addition to the existing control of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Hydrocarbons and other organic gases emitted by S.I. engines have been identified as a cause of atmospheric ozone formation. Since the reactivity of each chemical species in exhaust emissions differs, the effect on ozone formation varies depending on the composition of the exhaust gas components. This study examined the effect of different engine types, fuel atomization conditions, turbulence and emission control systems on emission species and specific reactivity. This was done using gas chromatographs and a high-performance liquid chromatograph to analyze exhaust emission species that affect ozone formation.
Technical Paper

Practical Challenges on Yokohama Mobility “Project ZERO” - Towards next generation mobility for low-carbon future

2010-10-19
2010-01-2346
Reduction of greenhouse gases or CO2 is the global issue for sustainability. City of Yokohama, where 3.7 million people live, established the Yokohama Climate Change Action Policy “CO-DO30”, aiming to cut down on greenhouse gas emissions by over 30% per person by 2025, and by over 60% by 2050. “CO-DO30” includes 7 areas of approaches, such as Living, Businesses, Buildings, Transportation, Energies, Urban and Green, and City Hall. To achieve this challenging target, practical and effective action on transportation area is definitely required, because it emits 20% of total greenhouse gas emission in the city. In 2008, City of Yokohama and Nissan jointly started YOKOHAMA Mobility “Project ZERO” (YMPZ), a 5-year project aimed at realizing “Eco-Model City, Yokohama”.
Technical Paper

A New Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model Applicable to Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0544
Gasoline engines employ various mechanisms for improvement of fuel consumption and reduction of exhaust emissions to deal with environmental problems. Direct fuel injection is one such technology. This paper presents a new quasi-dimensional combustion model applicable to direct injection gasoline engine. The Model consists of author's original in-cylinder turbulence and mixture homogeneity sub model suitable for direct fuel injection conditions. Model validation results exhibit good agreement with experimental and 3D CFD data at steady state and transient operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Automatic Falling Occupant Protecting Net - Preliminary Study

1970-02-01
700452
An automatic, falling, occupant-protecting net is being developed for spreading in front of automobile occupants in the time interval between vehicle impact and occupant collision. The device is designed to counteract forward body acceleration and minimize head, neck, and chest injuries. This device was investigated by sled and barrier tests using anthropomorphic dummies. Significant improvements in occupant kinematics and remarkable reduction in head and chest impact force has been observed. Some problems such as whiplash injury await solution but continuing investigation of proposed measures of correction show that they are not insurmountable.
Technical Paper

Economical Matching of the Thermal Reactor to Small Engine-Low Emission Concept Vehicles

1972-02-01
720484
The Inter-Industry Emission Control (IIEC) Program included the thermal reactor as one of the effective ways of oxidizing HC and CO in the exhaust system. However, this was accompanied by very substantial fuel economy penalties, especially in the case of small engine-low emission concept vehicles. Starting with a new concept aimed at obtaining the HC/CO oxidizing trigger temperature in the thermal reactor by modifying engine settings, the authors arrived at an economical technique of matching the thermal reactor to the engine.
Technical Paper

Virtual Occupant Model with Active Joint Torque Control for Muscular Reflex

2018-04-03
2018-01-1316
Riding comfort on the seat is one of the important factors for vehicle comfort. To analyze riding comfort, there were some models for predicting human vibrations in the past studies. On the other hand, it is strongly affected by human body motion caused by vehicle excitation during driving especially low frequency, but it is difficult to predict human motion due to an unclear mechanism of muscle reflex. The purpose of this study is to construct virtual riding comfort testing simulation based on virtual prototyping of the seat. In this study, a virtual occupant model that predicts occupant motion on the seat against external excitation including muscle reflex for maintaining sitting posture constructed. The whole body was modeled as 15 segments biomechanical model (1D) with wobbling mass. Each joint has passive elastic torque and damping torque springs. Human body surface was modeled as rigid shape.
Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0868
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

The Development of the Suspension System Used on the Nissan Stanza - A New Front-Wheel-Drive Compact Car

1983-06-06
830980
The suspension system of the Nissan Stanza was specifically designed for use on a front-wheel-drive car. It was developed with the idea that the new suspension should be compact and light, and afford a comfortable ride as well as good stability and controllability. Furthermore, it should have excellent noise and vibration characteristics. To achieve these objectives we adapted a strut suspension for both the front and rear, and careful consideration was given to the fundamental specifications. In addition, some new ideas were applied for the layout of the suspension.
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