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Technical Paper

Design and Conduct of Precision Planetary Gear Vibration Experiments

Despite a large body of analytical work characterizing the dynamic motion of planetary gears, supporting experimental data is limited. Experimental results are needed to support computer modeling and offer practical optimization guidelines to gear designers. This paper presents the design and implementation of a test facility and precision test fixtures for accurate measurement of planetary gear vibration at operating conditions. Acceleration measurements are made on all planetary bodies under controlled torque/speed conditions. Custom, high-precision test fixtures accommodate instrumentation, ensure accurate alignment, help isolate gear dynamics, and allow for variability in future testing. Results are compared with finite element and lumped parameter models.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Steering System Model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

This paper presents the details of the model for the physical steering system used on the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The system is basically a hardware-in-the-loop (steering feedback motor and controls) steering system coupled with the core vehicle dynamics of the simulator. The system's torque control uses cascaded position and velocity feedback and is controlled to provide steering feedback with variable stiffness and dynamic properties. The reference model, which calculates the desired value of the torque, is made of power steering torque, damping function torque, torque from tires, locking limit torque, and driver input torque. The model also provides a unique steering dead-band function that is important for on-center feel. A Simulink model of the hardware/software is presented and analysis of the simulator steering system is provided.
Journal Article

Design of a Multi-Chamber Silencer for Turbocharger Noise

A multi-chamber silencer is designed by a computational approach to suppress the turbocharger whoosh noise downstream of a compressor in an engine intake system. Due to the significant levels and the broadband nature of the source spanning over 1.5 – 3.5 kHz, three Helmholtz resonators are implemented in series. Each resonator consists of a chamber and a number of slots, which can be modeled as a cavity and neck, respectively. Their target resonance frequencies are tuned using Boundary Element Method to achieve an effective noise reduction over the entire frequency range of interest. The predicted transmission loss of the silencer is then compared with the experimental results from a prototype in an impedance tube setup. In view of the presence of rapid grazing flow, these silencers may be susceptible to whistle-noise generation. Hence, the prototype is also examined on a flow bench at varying flow rates to assess such flow-acoustic coupling.
Technical Paper

Structural Analysis Based Sensor Placement for Diagnosis of Clutch Faults in Automatic Transmissions

This paper describes a systematic approach to identify the best sensor combination by performing sensor placement analysis to detect and isolate clutch stuck-off faults in Automatic Transmissions (AT) based on structural analysis. When an engaged clutch in the AT loses pressure during operation, it is classified as a clutch stuck-off fault. AT can enter in neutral state because of these faults; causing loss of power at wheels. Identifying the sensors to detect and isolate these faults is important in the early stage of the AT development. A universal approach to develop a structural model of an AT is presented based on the kinematic relationships of the planetary gear set elements. Sensor placement analysis is then performed to determine the sensor locations to detect and isolate the clutch stuck-off faults using speed sensors and clutch pressure sensors. The proposed approach is then applied to a 10-Speed AT to demonstrate its effectiveness.
Technical Paper

Testing and Validation of a Belted Alternator System for a Post-Transmission Parallel PHEV for the EcoCAR 3 Competition

The Ohio State University EcoCAR 3 team is building a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) post-transmission parallel 2016 Chevrolet Camaro. With the end-goal of improving fuel economy and reducing tail pipe emissions, the Ohio State Camaro has been fitted with a 32 kW alternator-starter belt coupled to a 119 kW 2.0L GDI I4 engine that runs on 85% ethanol (E85). The belted alternator starter (BAS) which aids engine start-stop operation, series mode and torque assist, is powered by an 18.9 kWh Lithium Iron Phosphate energy storage system, and controlled by a DC-AC inverter/controller. This report details the modeling, calibration, testing and validation work done by the Ohio State team to fast track development of the BAS system in Year 2 of the competition.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Human Driver Behavior in Highway Cut-in Scenarios

The rapid development of driver assistance systems, such as lane-departure warning (LDW) and lane-keeping support (LKS), along with widely publicized reports of automated vehicle testing, have created the expectation for an increasing amount of vehicle automation in the near future. As these systems are being phased in, the coexistence of automated vehicles and human-driven vehicles on roadways will be inevitable and necessary. In order to develop automated vehicles that integrate well with those that are operated in traditional ways, an appropriate understanding of human driver behavior in normal traffic situations would be beneficial. Unlike many research studies that have focused on collision-avoidance maneuvering, this paper analyzes the behavior of human drivers in response to cut-in vehicles moving at similar speeds. Both automated and human-driven vehicles are likely to encounter this scenario in daily highway driving.
Technical Paper

Effect of E-Modulus Variation on Springbackand a Practical Solution

Springback affects the dimensional accuracy and final shape of stamped parts. Accurate prediction of springback is necessary to design dies that produce the desired part geometry and tolerances. Springback occurs after stamping and ejection of the part because the state of the stresses and strains in the deformed material has changed. To accurately predict springback through finite element analysis, the material model should be well defined for accurate simulation and prediction of stresses and strains after unloading. Despite the development of several advanced material models that comprehensively describe the Bauschinger effect, transient behavior, permanent softening of the blank material, and unloading elastic modulus degradation, the prediction of springback is still not satisfactory for production parts. Dies are often recut several times, after the first tryouts, to compensate for springback and achieve the required part geometry.
Technical Paper

Development of an Analysis Program to Predict Efficiency of Automotive Power Transmission and Its Applications

Prediction of power efficiency of gear boxes has become an increasingly important research topic since fuel economy requirements for passenger vehicles are more stringent, due to not only fuel cost but also environmental regulations. Under this circumstance, the automotive industry is dedicatedly focusing on developing a highly efficient gear box. Thus, the analysis of power efficiency of gear box should be performed to have a transmission that is highly efficient as much as possible at the beginning of design stage. In this study, a program is developed to analyze the efficiency of an entire gearbox, considering all components’ losses such as gear mesh, wet clutches, bearings, oil pump and so on. The analytical models are based on the formulations of each component power loss model which has been developed and published in many existing papers. The program includes power flow analysis of both a parallel gear-train and a planetary gear-train.
Technical Paper

Use of Robust DOB/CDOB Compensation to Improve Autonomous Vehicle Path Following Performance in the Presence of Model Uncertainty, CAN Bus Delays and External Disturbances

Autonomous vehicle technology has been developing rapidly in recent years. Vehicle parametric uncertainty in the vehicle model, variable time delays in the CAN bus based sensor and actuator command interfaces, changes in vehicle sped, sensitivity to external disturbances like side wind and changes in road friction coefficient are factors that affect autonomous driving systems like they have affected ADAS and active safety systems in the past. This paper presents a robust control architecture for automated driving systems for handling the abovementioned problems. A path tracking control system is chosen as the proof-of-concept demonstration application in this paper. A disturbance observer (DOB) is embedded within the steering to path error automated driving loop to handle uncertain parameters such as vehicle mass, vehicle velocities and road friction coefficient and to reject yaw moment disturbances.
Technical Paper

Localization and Perception for Control and Decision Making of a Low Speed Autonomous Shuttle in a Campus Pilot Deployment

Future SAE Level 4 and Level 5 autonomous vehicles will require novel applications of localization, perception, control and artificial intelligence technology in order to offer innovative and disruptive solutions to current mobility problems. This paper concentrates on low speed autonomous shuttles that are transitioning from being tested in limited traffic, dedicated routes to being deployed as SAE Level 4 automated driving vehicles in urban environments like college campuses and outdoor shopping centers within smart cities. The Ohio State University has designated a small segment in an underserved area of campus as an initial autonomous vehicle (AV) pilot test route for the deployment of low speed autonomous shuttles. This paper presents initial results of ongoing work on developing solutions to the localization and perception challenges of this planned pilot deployment.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Exhaust Silencing System for a Production Engine

A prototype hybrid exhaust silencing system consisting of dissipative and reactive components is designed based on the boundary element method (BEM) with a specific emphasis on its acoustic performance as evaluated relative to a production system. The outer dimensions of the prototype system are comparable to its production counterpart, which has two silencers connected by a pipe. The predicted transmission loss by BEM for the prototype is compared with the experimental results in an impedance tube for both the prototype and production hardware, providing a design guidance for the former. The sound pressure levels measured at the tailpipe exit during the engine ramp-up experiments in a dynamometer laboratory are presented to compare the two systems, providing the final assessment.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Sensorless Estimation for Single Spring Solenoids

This paper presents an empirical dynamic model of a single spring electromagnetic solenoid actuator system, including bounce, temperature effects and coil leakage inductance. The model neglects hysteresis and saturation, the aim being to compensate for these uncertainties through estimator robustness. The model is validated for all regions of operation and there is a good agreement between model and experimental data. A nonlinear (sliding mode) estimator is developed to estimate position and speed from current measurements. Since the estimator makes use of only current measurement it is given the name sensorless. The estimator is validated in simulation and experimentally. The novelty in this paper lies in the fact that accurate state estimation can be realized on a simple linear model using a robust observer theory. Also, the formulations for leakage inductance and coil temperature are unique.
Technical Paper

Process Simulation to Improve Quality and Increase Productivity in Rolling, Ring Rolling and Forging

The practical and proven use of computers in forming technology include: CAD/CAM for die making; transfer of geometric data from the customer's CAD/CAM system to that of the supplier and vice versa; application of artificial intelligence and expert systems for part and process design; simulation of metal flow to eliminate forging defects; prediction and optimization of process variables; and analysis of stresses in dies as well as prevention of premature die failure. Intelligent use of this information can lead to significant gains in product quality and productivity. This paper presents three examples of application of process simulation to forming : rolling, ring rolling and forging.
Technical Paper

Case History: Engine Timing Gear Noise Reduction

This paper describes the procedures used to reduce the tonal noise of a class eight truck engine timing gear train that was initially found to be objectionable under idle operating conditions. Initial measurements showed that the objectionable sounds were related to the fundamental gear mesh frequency, and its second and third harmonics. Experimental and computational procedures used to study and trouble-shoot the problem include vibration and sound measurements, transmission error analysis of the gears under light load condition, and a dynamic analysis of the drive system. Detail applications of these techniques are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Effects of Friction in Gears: An Experimental Investigation

Amongst various sources of noise and vibrations in gear meshing, transmission error and sliding friction between the teeth are two major constituents. As the operating conditions are altered, the magnitude of these two excitations is affected differently and either of them can become the dominant factor. In this article, an experimental investigation is presented for identifying the friction excitation and to study the influence of tribological parameters on the radiated sound. Since both friction and transmission error excitations occur at the same fundamental period of one meshing cycle, they result in similar spectral contents in the dynamic response. Hence specific methods like the variation of parameters are designed in order to distinguish between the individual vibration and noise sources. The two main tribological parameters that are varied are the lubricant and the surface finish characteristics of gear teeth.
Technical Paper

The Application of Piezoceramic Actuation to Direct Fuel Injection

With increasing demands to reduce emissions from internal combustion engines, engine manufacturers are forced to seek out new technology. One such technology employed primarily in the diesel and two-stroke engine community is direct-injection (DI). Direct injection has shown promising results in reduction of CO and NOx for both two- and four-stroke engines. While having been used for several years in the diesel industry, direct injection has been scrutinized for an inability to meet future requirements to reduce particulate matter emissions. Direct injection has also came under fire for complicating fuel delivery systems, thus making it cost prohibitive for small utility engine manufacturers. Recent research shows that the application of piezo-driven actuators has a positive effect on soot formation reduction for diesel engines and as this paper will distinguish, has the ability to simplify direct injection fuel delivery systems in general.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Shaft Dynamic Effects on Gear Vibration and Noise Excitations

Transmission error has long been identified to be the main exciter of gear whine noise. This research effort seeks to investigate the mechanisms and principal controlling factors that affect the actual noise generation from a typical gearbox housing due to transmission error excitations. The insight gained is expected to help in identifying possible noise control procedures in typical gearing applications. The example gearbox of this paper is an aircraft auxiliary-drive idler gearbox run at low load so that transmission error is the primary mesh excitation. A limited set of dynamic noise and vibration data are collected in transient speed run-ups. A contact-mechanics gear-tooth model is used to predict the static transmission error at each mesh. A finite-element model of the shafting that incorporates complex shaft and bearing data is used to predict the shaft dynamics with the static transmission error at the gear mesh(es) as the sole excitation.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of a Shift Hydraulic System for a Stepped Automatic Transmission

It is well-known that the shift hydraulic system plays a major role in the operation of stepped automatic transmissions. The main functions of the hydraulic system are to generate and maintain adequate fluid pressures for transmission operation, as well as to initiate gear shifts and control shift quality. Therefore, quantitative understanding of the dynamic behavior of the hydraulic system is critical to the improvement of automatic transmission performance. This paper presents the development of a nonlinear dynamic model for the shift hydraulic system of a stepped automatic transmission. The model includes all necessary dynamics, namely, hydraulic line pressure dynamics, solenoid valve dynamics, pressure control valve dynamics, as well as clutch and accumulator dynamics. The model is developed and implemented using Matlab/Simulink®, and is validated against experimental data.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Vehicle Dynamics Model Using Genetic Algorithm and Estimation Theory

A determination of the vehicle states and tire forces is critical to the stability of vehicle dynamic behavior and to designing automotive control systems. Researchers have studied estimation methods for the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. However, the accuracy of the estimation methods is closely related to the employed model. In this paper, tire lag dynamics is introduced in the model. Also application of estimation methods in order to improve the model accuracy is presented. The model is developed by using the global searching algorithm, a Genetic Algorithm, so that the model can be used in the nonlinear range. The extended Kalman filter and sliding mode observer theory are applied to estimate the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. The obtained results are compared with measurements and the outputs from the ADAMS full vehicle model. [15]
Technical Paper

Integration of an Adaptive Control Strategy on an Automated Steering Controller

This paper describes an adaptive control strategy for improving the steering response of an automated vehicle steering controller. In order to achieve repeatable dynamic test results, precise steering inputs are necessary. This strategy provides the controller tuning parameters optimized for a particular vehicle's steering system. Having the capability to adaptively tune the steering controller for any vehicle installation provides an easy method for obtaining precise steering inputs for a wide range of vehicles, from small off-road utility vehicles to passenger vehicles to heavy trucks. The S.E.A. Ltd. Automated Steering Controller (ASC) is used exclusively in conducting this research. By recording the torque input to the steering system by the steering controller and the resulting steering angle during only a single test, the ASC is able to characterize the steering system of the test vehicle and create a computer model with appropriate parameters.