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Technical Paper

Effects of Group-hole Nozzle Specifications on Fuel Atomization and Evaporation of Direct Injection Diesel Sprays

2007-07-23
2007-01-1889
The group-hole nozzle concept is regarded as a promising approach to facilitate better fuel atomization and evaporation for direct injection diesel engine applications. In the present work, the spray and mixture properties of group-hole nozzle with close, parallel or a small included angle orifices were investigated experimentally by means of the ultraviolet-visible laser absorption-scattering (LAS) imaging technique, in comparison with the conventional single-hole nozzle. Three series of group-hole nozzles were designed to investigate the effect of group-hole nozzle specification while varying the included angle and interval between the orifices. The results suggested that: 1) Group-hole nozzle with very close, parallel orifices presents the similar spray characteristics with those of the single-hole nozzle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Micro-Hole and Ultra-High Injection Pressure on Mixture Properties of D.I. Diesel Spray

2007-07-23
2007-01-1890
Experimental study has been carried out on the effects of the micro-hole nozzle injector and ultra-high injection pressure on the mixture properties of D.I. Diesel engine. A manually operated piston screw pump, High Pressure Generator, was used to obtain ultra-high injection pressures. Three kinds of injection pressures, 100MPa, 200MPa, and 300MPa, were applied to a specially designed injector. Four kinds of nozzle hole diameters, 0.16mm, 0.14mm, 0.10mm, and 0.08mm, were adopted in this study. The laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique was used to analyze the equivalence ratio distributions, Sauter mean diameter, spray tip penetration length, and other spray characteristics. The analyses of the experimental results show that the micro-hole nozzle and ultra-high injection pressure are effective to increase the turbulent mixing rate and to form the uniform and lean fuel-air mixture.
Technical Paper

A challenge to vapor distribution measurement of multi-component evaporating fuel spray via laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique

2007-07-23
2007-01-1892
In the present study, a challenge has been made to quantitatively determine the vapor phase concentration distributions in an evaporating multicomponent fuel spray using the LAS imaging technique. The theoretical considerations were particularly given when applying the LAS imaging technique to the multicomponent fuel spray and reconstructing the vapor concentration distributions from the spray images.
Technical Paper

Spray and Mixture Properties of Hole-Type Injector for D. I. Gasoline Engine-Comparison of Experiment and CFD Simulation-

2007-07-23
2007-01-1850
An experimental and numerical study was conducted on the spray and mixture properties of a hole-type injector for direct injection (D. I.) gasoline engines. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was adopted to simultaneously measure the spatial concentration distributions and the mass of the liquid and vapor phases in the fuel spray injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel. The experimental results were compared to the numerical calculation results using three-dimensional CFD and the multi-objective optimization. In the numerical simulation, the design variable of the spray model was optimized by choosing spray tip penetration, and mass of liquid and vapor phases as objective functions.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Droplets and Vapor Concentration Distributions in Diesel Sprays by Processing UV and Visible Images

2001-03-05
2001-01-1294
In order to measure the droplets and vapor concentration inside a fuel spray, a dual-wavelength laser absorption-scattering technique was developed using the second harmonic (532nm) and the fourth harmonic (266nm) of a Nd:YAG laser and using dimethylnaphthalene as the test fuel. The investigation results show that dimethylnaphthalene, which has physical properties similar to diesel fuel, is almost transparent to visible light near 532nm and is a strong absorber of ultraviolet light near 266nm. Based on this result, the vapor concentration in a fuel spray can be determined by the two separate measurements: a transmission measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength to detect the droplets optical thickness and a transmission measurement at an absorbing wavelength to detect the joint vapor and droplets optical thickness. The droplets density can be determined by extinction imaging through the transmission at the non-absorbing wavelength.
Technical Paper

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies

2001-03-05
2001-01-1334
A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control algorithms are assessed, a rule-based algorithm, which mainly explores engine efficiency in an intuitive manner, and a dynamic-programming optimization algorithm. Simulation results over the urban driving cycle demonstrate the potential of the selected hybrid system to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy, the improvement being greater when the dynamic-programming power management algorithm is applied.
Technical Paper

Group-Hole Nozzle Effects on Mixture Formation and In-cylinder Combustion Processes in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4050
The group-hole (GH) nozzle concept that uses two closely spaced micro-orifices to substitute the conventional single orifice has the potential to facilitate better fuel atomization and evaporation, consequently attenuate the soot emission formed in direct-injection (D.I.) diesel engines. Studies of quantitative mixture properties of the transient fuel spray injected by the group-hole nozzles were conducted in a constant volume chamber via the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique, in comparison with conventional single-hole nozzles. Specific areas investigated involved: the non-evaporating and the evaporating ambient conditions, the free spray and the spray impinging on a flat wall conditions. The particular emphasis was on the effect of one of key parameters, the interval between orifices, of the group-hole (SH) nozzle structure.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion Processes of Multi-Hole Nozzle with Micro Orifices for D.I. Diesel Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4049
In order to investigate effects of the multi-hole nozzle with micro orifices on mixture formation processes in Direct-Injection Diesel engines, mixture characteristics were examined via an ultraviolet-visible laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique under various injectors. The injection quantity per orifice per cycle was reduced by nozzle hole sizes. The LAS technique can provide the quantitative and simultaneous measurements of liquid and vapor phases concentration distributions inside of the fuel spray. Mass of ambient gas entrained into the spray, liquid/ vapor mass and mean equivalence ratio of total fuel were obtained based on Lambert Beer's law. As a result, the leaner and more homogeneous fuel-gas mixture can be achieved by reducing the nozzle hole diameter, in the meanwhile more ambient gas were entrained into the spray. Moreover, relationships between mixture formation and D.I.
Technical Paper

An Investigation in Measuring Crank Angle Resolved In-Cylinder Engine Friction Using Instantaneous IMEP Method

2007-10-29
2007-01-3989
This paper describes the measurement of in-cylinder engine friction using the instantaneous IMEP method. This method has been applied to measure in-cylinder friction force in a modern, low friction design production spark ignited engine. An improved mechanical telemetry system has been developed to implement this method. The telemetry system continues to provide excellent data even after 50+ hours of operation at speeds as high as 2000 rpm. Investigated in this study were the primary sources of error associated with this technique. Also presented are the steps taken to minimize the effects of these errors. The refined technique has been subsequently used to obtain piston assembly friction data for both motoring and a limited number of firing cases. The effects of design parameters and operating conditions were investigated.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of NO and Soot Emissions with Detailed Chemistry and Mixing in a Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-1112
This work reports the development and application of multi-dimensional ignition, combustion and emissions models that account for detailed chemistry and mixing effects in a direct injection engine simulation. A detailed chemical reaction mechanism, consisting of 24 species and 104 reactions, is used for increased accuracy of emissions predictions. Turbulent combustion is represented using a modified Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) model to account for mixing effects. The soot model includes all aspects of soot formation and destruction. Particle transport equations are used to realistically track transport of the soot particles formed. All computational sub-models developed in this work have been implemented in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code. In order to illustrate the behavior of the new models, soot and NO emissions have been predicted at different operating conditions by varying injection timing, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil Effects on the Friction and Emissions of a Light-Duty, 2.2L Direct - Injection - Diesel Engine Part 1 - Engine Test Results

2002-10-21
2002-01-2681
The effects of lubricating oil on friction and engine-out emissions in a light-duty 2.2L compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine were investigated. A matrix of test oils varying in viscosity (SAE 5W-20 to 10W-40), friction modifier (FM) level and chemistry (MoDTC and organic FM), and basestock chemistry (mineral and synthetic) was investigated. Tests were run in an engine dynamometer according to a simulated, steady state FTP-75 procedure. Low viscosity oils and high levels of organic FM showed benefits in terms of fuel economy, but there were no significant effects observed with the oils with low MoDTC concentration on engine friction run in this program. No significant oil effects were observed on the gaseous emissions of the engine. PM emissions were analyzed for organic solubles and insolubles. The organic soluble fraction was further analyzed for the oil and fuel soluble portions.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Ambient Air Entrainment into Split Injection D.I. Gasoline Spray by LIF-PIV Technique

2002-10-21
2002-01-2662
Effects of split injection, with a relatively short time interval between the two sprays, on the spray development process, and the air entrainment into the spray, were investigated by using laser induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV) techniques. The velocities of the spray and the ambient air were measured. The cumulative mass of the ambient air entrained into the spray was calculated by using the entrainment velocity normal to the spray boundary. The vortex structure of the spray, formed around the leading edge of the spray, showed a true rotating flow motion at low ambient pressures of 0.1 MPa, whereas at 0.4 MPa, it was not a true rotating flow, but a phenomenon of the small droplets separating from the leading edge of the spray and falling behind, due to air resistance. The development processes of the 2nd spray were considerably different from that of the 1st spray because the 2nd spray was injected into the flow fields formed by the 1st spray.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation in Split-Injection Diesel Sprays via Laser Absorption-Scattering (LAS) Technique

2001-09-24
2001-01-3498
Experimental results of a diesel engine have shown that using split-injection can reduce the NOx and particulate emissions. For understanding the mechanism of emissions reduction, mixture formation in split-injection diesel sprays was characterized in the present paper. A dual-wavelength laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique was developed by use of the second harmonic (532nm) and the fourth harmonic (266nm) of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the incident light and dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) as the test fuel. By applying this technique, imaging was made of DMN sprays injected into a high-temperature and high-pressure constant volume vessel by a single-hole nozzle incorporated in a common rail injection system for D.I. diesel engine. The line-of-sight optical thickness of both fuel vapor and droplets in the sprays was yielded from the sprays images.
Technical Paper

The Reverse Engineering of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine through a Unified Systems Approach

2001-03-05
2001-01-1244
The need for a rigorous systems engineering approach to automotive powertrains has been addressed in this work from the perspective of the diesel engine. A high-fidelity engine simulation has been integrated with a total vehicle model for the purpose of reverse engineering the optimal powerplant for a given vehicle mission. Engine parameters have been coordinated between the simulations to develop a framework for total vehicle design. The design strategies discussed in this paper allow engine researchers to set targets for individual system components and to analyze the tradeoffs associated with different vehicle mission objectives. A detailed case study employing these techniques is presented for a conventional vehicle where the most fuel-efficient engine is found that simultaneously conforms to the desired performance criteria.
Technical Paper

Effect of Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) on Diesel Engine and Vehicle System Transient Response

2001-03-05
2001-01-1247
Variable geometry turbines (VGT) are of particular interest to advanced diesel powertrains for future conventional trucks, since they can dramatically improve system transient response to sudden changes in speed and load, characteristic of automotive applications. VGT systems are also viewed as the key enabler for the application of the EGR system for reduction of heavy-duty diesel emissions. This paper applies an artificial neural network methodology to VGT modeling in order to enable representation of the VGT characteristics for any blade (nozzle) position. Following validation of the ANN model of the baseline, fixed geometry turbine, the VGT model is integrated with the diesel engine system. The latter is linked to the driveline and the vehicle dynamics module to form a complete, high-fidelity vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-1246
A quasi-dimensional, multi-zone, direct injection (DI) diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion and NO and soot pollutant formation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into a number of zones, which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the cycle simulation of Assanis and Heywood [1] are described in this paper. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in a constant volume chamber and engines. First, predictions of spray penetration and spray angle are validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Overview of Techniques for Measuring Friction Using Bench Tests and Fired Engines

2000-06-19
2000-01-1780
This paper presents an overview of techniques for measuring friction using bench tests and fired engines. The test methods discussed have been developed to provide efficient, yet realistic, assessments of new component designs, materials, and lubricants for in-cylinder and overall engine applications. A Cameron-Plint Friction and Wear Tester was modified to permit ring-in-piston-groove movement by the test specimen, and used to evaluate a number of cylinder bore coatings for friction and wear performance. In a second study, it was used to evaluate the energy conserving characteristics of several engine lubricant formulations. Results were consistent with engine and vehicle testing, and were correlated with measured fuel economy performance. The Instantaneous IMEP Method for measuring in-cylinder frictional forces was extended to higher engine speeds and to modern, low-friction engine designs.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Comprehensive CFD Model of Diesel Spray Atomization Accounting for High Weber Numbers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1546
Modern diesel engines operate under injection pressures varying from 30 to 200 MPa and employ combinations of very early and conventional injection timings to achieve partially homogeneous mixtures. The variety of injection and cylinder pressures results in droplet atomization under a wide range of Weber numbers. The high injection velocities lead to fast jet disintegration and secondary droplet atomization under shear and catastrophic breakup mechanisms. The primary atomization of the liquid jet is modeled considering the effects of both infinitesimal wave growth on the jet surface and jet turbulence. Modeling of the secondary atomization is based on a combination of a drop fragmentation analysis and a boundary layer stripping mechanism of the resulting fragments for high Weber numbers. The drop fragmentation process is predicted from instability considerations on the surface of the liquid drop.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Effect of Combustion Chamber Deposits on a Gasoline HCCI Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3277
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines offer a good potential for achieving high fuel efficiency while virtually eliminating NOx and soot emissions from the exhaust. However, realizing the full fuel economy potential at the vehicle level depends on the size of the HCCI operating range. The usable HCCI range is determined by the knock limit on the upper end and the misfire limit at the lower end. Previously proven high sensitivity of the HCCI process to thermal conditions leads to a hypothesis that combustion chamber deposits (CCD) could directly affect HCCI combustion, and that insight about this effect can be helpful in expanding the low-load limit. A combustion chamber conditioning process was carried out in a single-cylinder gasoline-fueled engine with exhaust re-breathing to study CCD formation rates and their effect on combustion. Burn rates accelerated significantly over the forty hours of running under typical HCCI operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of NOX and Soot in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine by Instantaneous Mixing of Fuel and Water

2007-04-16
2007-01-0125
Meeting diesel engine emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles can be achieved by simultaneous injection of fuel and water. An injection system for instantaneous mixing of fuel and water in the combustion chamber has been developed by injecting water in a mixing passage located in the periphery of the fuel spray. The fuel spray is then entrained by water and hot air before it burns. The experimental work was carried out on a Rapid Compression Machine and on a Komatsu direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. It was also supported by Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the injection and combustion processes in order to evaluate the effect of water vapor distribution on cylinder temperature and NOX formation. It has been concluded that when the water injection is appropriately timed, the combustion speed is slower and the cylinder temperature lower than in conventional diesel combustion.
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