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Technical Paper

Operation of Piezoelectric Common Rail Injector with Diesel and FT-Kerosene

The paper is devoted to the theoretical and experimental analysis of the piezoelectric injector of a modern common rail system. A detailed one-dimensional dynamic model of the injector is created using AVL software Hydsim. It consists of multiple hydraulic and mechanical components for the modeling of the compressible fuel flow and dynamic motion of the solid parts including elastic deformation. Furthermore, the injector model contains the electro-mechanical description of the piezoelectric stack actuator with the hysteresis behavior. Specific aspects of the piezo-actuator modeling are discussed. Different operating conditions of the injection system are modeled and tested. These conditions are defined for a specific diesel engine and include full and part load cases with multiple pilot and main injections. Two fuel types are chosen for the investigation: conventional diesel and FT-kerosene based on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The performance of the injection system is discussed.
Technical Paper

Ways to meet future emission standards for heavy Sports Utility Vehicles - SUV

Diesel engines belong to the most efficient power sources for any kind of on-road vehicle, but especially in Europe increasingly for passenger cars. However, more stringent exhaust emission regulations, which will come into force world-wide in industrialised countries during the first decade of the next century will require NOx and particulate emissions to be reduced by up to 60% and more from today's levels. To meet these future emission standards particularly for heavier passenger vehicles, such as SUVs, Pickup Trucks and Light Commercial Vehicles, as well as for heavy luxury class passenger cars, the application of new technologies including advanced exhaust gas aftertreatment systems will be indispensable, especially in view of maintaining the thermal efficiency of diesel engines relative to gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Model-based Development and Calibration of Hybrid Powertrains

Hybrid vehicles are characterized by a combination of mechanical, electrical and control components. The complexity of this mechatronic system requires new methods and tools for a successful development of new hybrid vehicle concepts. It is now possible to accomplish certain tasks earlier in the development projects using virtual prototypes of the powertrain components and the vehicle. The process called “frontloading” integrates simulation, optimization and validation in earlier development phases of a vehicle and prevents from having cost intense problems in later development phases. Besides the reduction of emissions and fuel consumption also the subjective impression of the vehicle driveability are main goals for the optimization of hybrid powertrains.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Developed from Euro-III to Euro-IV

Emission legislation and the transient test cycle issues are addressed to show the focus of future emission development. Strategic options to meet the Euro-IV emission standard are given, and the most important base engine and exhaust aftertreatment technologies required for emission compliance are discussed. Results shown from AVL R&D work indicate the potential of further emission reductions as will be required beyond Euro-IV.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Coupling HiL-Simulation and Engine Testing Based on AUTOSAR-Compliant Control Units

In a fast and cost-efficient powertrain development process several optimization and validation tasks are required at early development stages, where prototype vehicles are not available. Especially for hybrid powertrain concepts the development targets for fuel consumption, vehicle performance, functional safety and durability have to be validated on the engine test bed before integration and testing with real vehicle prototypes takes place. The integration of relevant control unit functions like transmission shift or vehicle stability as AUTOSAR software component into a simulation system at the engine test bed allows a fast and integrated workflow for series development. Complementary a high-quality combustion torque estimation and the consideration of driver behavior and lateral vehicle dynamics improve the correlation of simulated to real world driving maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Bio-Diesel Blends on the Mixture Formation, Combustion and Emission Behavior of a Modern HSDI Diesel Engine

The aim of this work has been to investigate the influence of bio-diesel (FAME - fatty acid methyl ester) and reasonable blends of FAME and diesel, on the behavior of the mixture formation, the combustion process and the emission levels of a modern diesel engine. Therefore experimental investigations have been carried out on a single cylinder engine which is a modification of a four cylinder production HSDI (high speed direct injection) diesel engine. Cylinder pressure and tail-pipe emissions have been measured. Additionally the injector has been mounted on a flow-metering device to gather information about the pure flow through the injection system depending on the fuel type. In parallel with the experimental investigations CFD (computational fluid dynamics) calculations have been carried out in order to closely check local effects inside the injector and the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Development of IT Enabled System for Data Management to Meet EU Vehicle Recyclability Directives

EU directive 2005/64/EC on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to their Reusability, Recyclability and Recoverability ( RRR ) requires vehicle manufacturers to put in place the necessary arrangements and procedures for Parts, Materials and Weight (PMW ) data collection from full chain of supply. This is required to perform the calculations of recyclability rate and recoverability rate in line with ISO 22628. Commonly practiced data collection methodologies included spreadsheet and use of internationally available IT support system for collection of material data. Data complexity and prohibitive cost for using Internationally available IT Support systems like IMDS (International Material Data System) has led to the in-house development of IT enabled Solution customizing Siemens PLM software product (Team centre Enterprise) and SAP (SRM suite).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Interdependent Behavior of Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) and Engine Starting System

Interdependency of automotive transmission aggregates on electrical/ electronics systems is increasing day by day, offering more comfort and features. For a system integrator, it becomes very much important while selecting/designing any such component to take into consideration the relationship between such interdependent components from performance as well as endurance point of view. DMF failures due to inadequate starting system, is a major stumbling block in development of DMF for a particular vehicle application. The interface of DMF and starting system of a vehicle makes it essential to consider the effect of one on another. The study shows that the majority of DMF failures happen because of resonance phenomenon in the DMF during engine starting. The improper selection of starter motor makes the DMF more vulnerable for such failures.
Technical Paper

Drills for Long Oil Holes: A Good Potential for Recycle

Recycle, Reuse, Repair is an established process for sustainability. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1] or by redesigning a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2]. This paper explores the possibility of reuse of HSS drills that are used for making long oil holes in automobile parts like crankcase (cylinder block), cylinder head, crankshaft, etc. Design/manufacture of such drills is peculiar by virtue of their size and length and are also known as thick web high helix drills. Making of oil holes entails use of drills that are 500 to 600 mm long depending on the size of the component. In most of the long oil hole drilling operations, a limited portion of the drill is useable. This is because there is a possibility of fouling of the holding elements with guiding element, or with the part being drilled and the chance of accidental damage to part or machine.
Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Reduction in a Single Cylinder Direct Injection (DI) Naturally Aspirated (NA) Engine

Small goods carrier and passenger vehicles powered by Naturally Aspirated (NA) Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines are popular in Indian automobile market. However, they suffer from inherently high radiated noise and poorly perceived sound quality. This paper documents the steps taken to reduce the radiated noise level from such an engine through structural modifications of major noise radiating components identified in the sound power analysis. The work is summarized as follows; Baseline radiated noise measurements of power train and identification of major noise sources through sound intensity mapping and noise source ranking (NSR) in an Engine Noise Test Cell (ENTC) Design modifications for identified major sources in engine structure Vehicle level assessment of the radiated noise in a Vehicle Semi-Anechoic Chamber (VSAC) for all the design modifications. A reduction of 7 dB at hot idle and 4 - 8 dB in loaded speed sweep conditions was observed with the recommended modifications.
Technical Paper

Method for Detecting the Head Lamp Switch Failure or Wiring Harness Failure and Controlling the Exterior and Interior Lights Using Intelligent Light Sensor

This paper will present the method for activation of exterior and interior lighting system during the vehicle level fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults, ignition switch failure etc. with intelligent light sensor. In vehicle the user safety is very important and exterior lighting system is playing a very important role during night driving condition. By considering the customer safety during any fault conditions i.e. light switch failure, wiring harness faults or any other faults condition the vehicle exterior and interior lighting system should not be switched off.
Technical Paper

Modeling of silencers for internal combustion engines: 1D-3D coupling, network of 1D elements and a generic 3D cell approach

Increasing demands on the capabilities of engine simulation and the ability to accurately predict both performance and acoustics has lead to the development of multiple approaches, ranging from fully 3D to simplified 1D models. In this work it will be described the development and application of hybrid 1D-3D approaches and an innovative one based on the 3D cell element. This is designed to model the acoustics of intake and exhaust system components used in internal combustion engines. Models of components are built using a network or grid of 3D cells based primarily on the geometry of the system. This means that these models can be built without fundamental knowledge of acoustically equivalent systems making their range of application larger as well as making them simpler to construct. Due to the 3D nature of these models it is also possible to predict higher order modes and improve the accuracy of models at high frequencies compared to conventional plane wave approaches.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization and Cost Effective Methodology for Column Mounted Single Stalk Combination Switch.

As the automobile industry in India is growing fast and competitive, there is a need to design the vehicle and its parts at most cost effective. This paper gives the details of design optimization and cost effective methodology followed to develop a Single Stalk Combination Switch, without degrading the end user delight. This paper describes various design criteria affecting the combination switch design.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flywheel Mass and Its Center of Gravity on Crankshaft Endurance Limit Safety Factor and Dynamics

The crankshaft is the component which transmits dynamic loads from cylinder pressure and inertial loads in engine operating conditions. Because of its crucial importance in functioning of engine and requisite to sustain high dynamic and torsional loading, crankshaft fatigue life is desired to be higher than the predicted engine operating life. Performance of the crank train in diesel engine applications largely depends on the components of its mass elastic system. Flywheel is one such component whose design affects the life of crankshaft. In the present study, the crank train comprising of torsional vibration damper, crankshaft and flywheel along with clutch cover is considered for analysis. Crankshaft dynamic simulation is performed with multi body dynamics technique, fatigue safety factors of crankshaft are calculated with dynamic loads under engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Switchable Hydromount during Idle and Ride Performance of Vehicle

Engine mounting system maintains the position of powertrain in the vehicle with respect to chassis and other accessories during inertia, torque reaction loads and roadway disturbances. The mounting system also plays a role in terms of isolation of the rest of the vehicle and its occupants from powertrain and helps in maintaining vehicle ride and handling condition. This paper investigates the performance comparison between hydromount and switchable hydromount during idle and ride performance. The optimization scheme aims to improve the performance of the mounting system in order to achieve overall powertrain performance and NVH attribute balancing through switchable mount technology.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Shift Quality in a Multi Speed Gearbox of an Electric Vehicle through Synchronizer Location Optimization

Electrical and Series Hybrid Vehicles are generally provided with single speed reduction gearbox. To improve performance and drive range, a two-speed gearbox with coordinated control of traction motor and gearshift actuator is proposed. For a two-speed gearbox, gearshift without clutch would increase the shifting effort. Active Synchronization is introduced for a smoother gearshift even without clutch. The quality of gearshift is considered as a function of applied shift force and time taken. To enhance the quality of the gearshift further, the location of the synchronizer in the transmission system is optimized. To validate the improvement in the quality of the gearshift, a mathematical model of the two-speed gearbox incorporating proposed location of synchronizer assembly along with active synchronization is developed. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results achieved is presented.
Technical Paper

Grit Blasting on Synchronizer - To Resolve Early Crashing Complaint

In today’s automobile market, most OEMs use manual transmission for cars. Gear Shifting is a crucial customer touch point. Any issue or inconvenience caused while shifting gears can result into customer dissatisfaction and will affect the brand image. Synchronizer is a vital subsystem for precise gear shifting mechanism. Based on vehicle application selection of synchronizer for given inertia and speed difference is a key factor which decides overall shift quality of gearbox. For more demanding driver abuse conditions like skip shifting, conventional brass synchronizers have proved inadequate for required speed difference and gear inertia, which eventually results into synchronizer crashing and affects driving performance. To increase synchronizer performance of multi-cone compact brass synchronizer, a ‘Grit blasting process’ has been added. These components tested with an accelerated test plan successfully.
Technical Paper

Simulating Bowden Cable Routing on Virtual Vehicle and Design Guidelines to Achieve the Best Cable Performance

There has been immense focus on Gear Shift Quality as it is seen as an important factor for subjective evaluation of driving comfort of a vehicle with manual transmission. Synchronizer and driveline stiffness optimization is often the only area of focus for gear shift quality during early design stage. Proven Simulation models are already available for predicting the effect of synchronizer and driveline stiffness. Though Gear shift cable also has a significant effect on gear shift quality, neither design guidelines nor simulation models are available for predicting gear shift cable performance. Designers have relied on physical approach to establish cable routing, since cable routing cannot be predicted on virtual vehicle. In design phase cable routing is imagined and modeled in CAD using constrained curve geometry and later on established by physical trials on vehicle with various cable lengths, routing paths and clamp positions.
Technical Paper

A Method to Evaluate Impact of Power Steering on Fuel Economy and Optimization

Vehicle manufacturers strive hard to achieve best in class fuel economy. Apart from light weighting of the structures, driveline optimization and reduction of tire rolling resistance, tapping of parasitic losses is also important and helps to optimize the design of auxiliary power consuming systems. One of such system studied in this work is power steering system. The effect of parasitic losses on fuel economy is predominant for small commercial vehicle compare to heavy vehicles. The evaluation of deterioration in the fuel economy due to implementation of power steering system on one of the small commercial vehicle is carried out using multiple virtual simulation tools. Virtual route profile is modelled using longitude, latitude and altitude data captured through GPS and steering duty cycle is mapped in terms of steering rotation angle. A system level model of hydraulic power steering system is developed.
Technical Paper

Fiber Reinforced Plastic Durability: Nonlinear Multi-Scale Modeling for Structural Part Life Predictions

OEMs are seeking to develop vehicle light weighting strategies that will allow them to meet weight and fuel economy targets hence increasingly shifting their focus towards incorporating lighter material solutions at mass produced scales. Composites are seen by automotive manufacturers as the solution to lightweight vehicles without affecting their performance. More and more parts are made of short fiber reinforced plastics (SFRP) as well as continuous fiber composites. However, replacing metals by composites requires a new design approach and a clear understanding of the composite behavior. This paradigm however requires a dedicated tool for composite design in order to take into account the specific composite behavior. Traditional design tools are not able to state accurately the composite material behavior and sometime leading to use high safety of factors and lack of confidence in the design.