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Technical Paper

Structural Response of Lower Leg Muscles in Compression: A Low Impact Energy Study Employing Volunteers, Cadavers and the Hybrid III

2002-11-11
2002-22-0012
Little has been reported in the literature on the compressive properties of muscle. These data are needed for the development of finite element models that address impact of the muscles, especially in the study of pedestrian impact. Tests were conducted to characterize the compressive response of muscle. Volunteers, cadaveric specimens and a Hybrid III dummy were impacted in the posterior and lateral aspect of the lower leg using a free flying pendulum. Volunteer muscles were tested while tensed and relaxed. The effects of muscle tension were found to influence results, especially in posterior leg impacts. Cadaveric response was found to be similar to that of the relaxed volunteer. The resulting data can be used to identify a material law using an inverse method.
Technical Paper

A Study of Kinematics of Occupants Restrained with Seat Belt Systems in Component Rollover Tests

2007-04-16
2007-01-0709
An experimental study was conducted using a dynamic rollover component test system (ROCS) to study the effects of activating a pyro-mechanical buckle pre-tensioner and an electric retractor on the driver and front right passenger head and pelvis excursions. The ROCS is a unique system capable of producing vehicle responses that replicate four distinct phases of a tripped rollover: trip initiation, roll initiation, free-flight vehicle rotation, and vehicle to ground contact. This component test system consists of a rigid occupant compartment derived from a mid-size SUV with complete 1st row seating and interior trim, a simulated vehicle suspension system and an elastic vehicle-to-ground-contact surface. The ROCS system was integrated with a Deceleration Rollover Sled (DRS). Dynamic responses of the ROCS system, including both the rigid compartment and occupant, were measured and recorded.
Technical Paper

Assessment Tool Development for Rollover CAE Signals Evaluation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0681
An assessment tool was developed for rollover CAE signals evaluation to assess primarily the qualities of CAE generated sensor waveforms. This is a key tool to be used to assess CAE results as to whether they can be used for algorithm calibration and identify areas for further improvement of sensor. Currently, the method is developed using error estimates on mean, peak and standard deviation. More metrics, if necessary, can be added to the assessment tool in the future. This method has been applied to various simulated signals for laboratory-based rollover test modes with rigid-body-based MADYDO models.
Technical Paper

Use of Photogrammetry in Extracting 3D Structural Deformation/Dummy Occupant Movement Time History During Vehicle Crashes

2005-04-11
2005-01-0740
The ability to extract and evaluate the time history of structural deformations or crush during vehicle crashes represents a significant challenge to automotive safety researchers. Current methods are limited by the use of electro-mechanical devices such as string pots and/or linear variable displacement transducers (LVDT). Typically, one end of the transducer must be mounted to a point on the structure that will remain un-deformed during the event; the other end is then attached to the point on the structure where the deformation is to be measured. This approach measures the change in distance between these two points and is unable to resolve any movement into its respective X, Y, or Z directions. Also, the accuracy of electro-mechanical transducers is limited by their dynamic response to crash conditions. The photogrammetry technique has been used successfully in a wide variety of applications including aerial surveying, civil engineering and documentation of traffic accidents.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Prototype Electric Retractor, a Seat Belt Pre-Tensioning Device and Dummy Lateral Motion Prior to Vehicle Rollover

2005-04-11
2005-01-0945
Vehicle motion prior to a rollover can influence an occupant's position in the vehicle. Lateral deceleration prior to a tripped rollover may cause the occupant to move outboard. This outboard motion may have several effects on the occupant such as, repositioning the occupant with relation to the seat and seat restraint, and allowing the occupant's head to travel further into the side curtain deployment zone. To reduce occupant lateral motion, the effectiveness of applying tension to the seatbelt was evaluated. The evaluation consisted of two test conditions simulating vehicle lateral motion prior to a trip using a Deceleration Rollover Sled [1]. The test conditions were designed to ensure a vehicle experiences a period of pure lateral motion before the onset of a lateral trip. A standard seat belt combined with various means of applying tension and activated at different times during the test were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Image Analysis of Rollover Crash Tests Using Photogrammetry

2006-04-03
2006-01-0723
This paper presents an image analysis of a laboratory-based rollover crash test using camera-matching photogrammetry. The procedures pertaining to setup, analysis and data process used in this method are outlined. Vehicle roll angle and rate calculated using the method are presented and compared to the measured values obtained using a vehicle mounted angular rate sensor. Areas for improvement, accuracy determination, and vehicle kinematics analysis are discussed. This paper concludes that the photogrammetric method presented is a useful tool to extract vehicle roll angle data from test video. However, development of a robust post-processing tool for general application to crash safety analysis requires further exploration.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part III: Development of Transfer Functions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1444
An understanding of stiffness characteristics of different body regions, such as thorax, abdomen and pelvis of ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies under controlled laboratory test conditions is essential for development of both compatible performance targets for countermeasures and occupant protection strategies to meet the recently updated FMVSS214, LINCAP and IIHS Dynamic Side Impact Test requirements. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the transfer functions between the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies for different body regions under identical test conditions using flat rigid wall sled tests. The experimental set-up consists of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and femur/knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid low friction seat at a pre-determined velocity.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs – Part II: SID-IIs

2018-04-03
2018-01-1448
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Determination of Impact Responses of ES-2re and SID-IIs - Part I: ES-2re

2018-04-03
2018-01-1449
The main purpose of this study was to determine the impact responses of the different body regions (shoulder, thorax, abdomen and pelvis/leg) of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies using rigid wall impacts under different initial test conditions. The experimental set-up consisted of a flat rigid wall with five instrumented load-wall plates aligned with dummy’s shoulder, thorax, abdomen, pelvis and knee impacting a stationary dummy seated on a rigid seat at a pre-determined velocity. The relative location and orientation of the load-wall plates was adjusted relative to the body regions of the ES-2re and SID-IIs dummies respectively.
Technical Paper

Acetabulum Injury Investigation of Proposed US-NCAP in OI Mode

2018-04-03
2018-01-0538
In December 2015, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a Request for Comments on proposed changes to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). One potential change is the addition of a frontal oblique impact (OI) crash test using the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR). The resultant acetabulum force, which is a unique and specifically defined in the THOR dummy, will be considered as a new injury metric. In this study, the results of ten OI tests conducted by NHTSA on current production mid-sized vehicles were investigated. Specifically, the test data was used to study the lower extremity kinematics for the driver and front passenger THOR dummies. It was found that the acetabulum force patterns varied between the driver and passenger and between the left leg and the right leg of the occupants. The maximum acetabulum force can occur either on the left side or right side of a driver or a front passenger in an OI event.
Journal Article

A Component Test Methodology for Simulation of Full-Vehicle Side Impact Dummy Abdomen Responses for Door Trim Evaluation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1097
Described in this paper is a component test methodology to evaluate the door trim armrest performance in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side impact test and to predict the SID-IIs abdomen injury metrics (rib deflection, deflection rate and V*C). The test methodology consisted of a sub-assembly of two SID-IIs abdomen ribs with spine box, mounted on a linear bearing and allowed to translate in the direction of impact. The spine box with the assembly of two abdominal ribs was rigidly attached to the sliding test fixture, and is stationary at the start of the test. The door trim armrest was mounted on the impactor, which was prescribed the door velocity profile obtained from full-vehicle test. The location and orientation of the armrest relative to the dummy abdomen ribs was maintained the same as in the full-vehicle test.
Technical Paper

Integration of Active and Passive Safety Technologies - A Method to Study and Estimate Field Capability

2015-11-09
2015-22-0010
The objective of this study is to develop a method that uses a combination of field data analysis, naturalistic driving data analysis, and computational simulations to explore the potential injury reduction capabilities of integrating passive and active safety systems in frontal impact conditions. For the purposes of this study, the active safety system is actually a driver assist (DA) feature that has the potential to reduce delta-V prior to a crash, in frontal or other crash scenarios. A field data analysis was first conducted to estimate the delta-V distribution change based on an assumption of 20% crash avoidance resulting from a pre-crash braking DA feature. Analysis of changes in driver head location during 470 hard braking events in a naturalistic driving study found that drivers’ head positions were mostly in the center position before the braking onset, while the percentage of time drivers leaning forward or backward increased significantly after the braking onset.
Technical Paper

Selection of Vehicle Prototypes for Rollover Sensor Calibration Tests using CAE-DOE

2002-07-09
2002-01-2057
CAE has played a key role in development of the rollover safety technology by reducing the required number of prototypes. CAE-led Design Of Experiments (DOE) studies have helped in developing the process to minimize the number of CAE runs and to optimize use of the prototypes. This paper demonstrates the use of CAE/DOE for the design and optimization of rollover vehicle prototypes and also investigates effects of various factors in the selection of vehicle configuration for rollover sensor calibration testing. The process described herein has been successfully applied to vehicle programs. Modeling and analysis guidelines are also presented for CAE engineers to help in optimizing vehicle prototypes at program level.
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