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Technical Paper

Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report, 2000

2000-06-19
2000-01-2196
The Automotive Market in the United States is moving in the direction of more Light Trucks and fewer Small Cars. The customers for these vehicles have not changed, only their purchase decisions. Cummins has studied the requirements of this emerging market. Design and development of an engine system that will meet these customer needs has started. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of early testing are presented which show that the diesel is possibly a good solution.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Microalloyed Steel for Articulated Piston Applications in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1232
AISI-4140H steel has been used as articulated piston crown material in heavy-duty engines. With the driving force for reducing manufacturing cost, microalloyed steel (MAS) was identified as a low-cost material to replace 4140H steel. In order to determine the feasibility of using MAS to replace 4140H steel, a test program was initiated to fully evaluate the material properties of MAS and to compare them to those of the baseline 4140H steel. The physical and mechanical properties of both materials from room temperature to 550°C were evaluated. The effect of long term thermal exposure on the material properties was also studied. Some engine tests were also conducted to evaluate the performance of the articulated pistons made with both materials. The inherently lower strength of MAS as compared to 4140H steel, requires a total re-design of the piston for the utilization of MAS as a low-cost replacement material for 4140H steel.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Measured and Theoretical Inter-Ring Gas Pressure on a Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
961909
Inter-ring gas pressure and piston ring motion are considered important for the control of oil consumption, particulate emissions, and reduced friction. For this reason, inter-ring gas pressure was measured on a diesel engine. Two different ring pack configurations were tested (positive and negative twist second rings). A significant difference in measured inter-ring pressure was observed. The measurements were compared to the predictions of a cylinder kit model with favorable results. Predictions showed that the observed difference between measured inter-ring pressures is caused by a significant difference in ring motion. The reasons for these differences are explained in this paper.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of the Lucas Combustion Noise Meter on Cummins ‘B’ Series Engines

1987-08-01
870952
Lucas Industries Noise Centre has introduced a combustion noise meter which is designed to predict the contribution of the combustion process to overall diesel engine noise. The performance of the meter is evaluated using Cummins B series engines in naturally-aspirated and turbocharged form. Combustion noise levels predicted by the meter are compared to levels determined using traditional techniques. The effects of several engine operating parameters on combustion noise are investigated under both steady state and accelerating conditions. The meter reliably predicts changes in combustion noise levels, and is a useful tool for performance development engineers. Combustion noise is shown to be related to the maximum rate of pressure rise at the onset of combustion, but combustion noise is not reliably related to maximum cylinder pressures.
Technical Paper

Test Cell Simulation of the Driveby Noise Test

1987-08-01
870967
Diesel engine manufacturers have traditionally done most engine noise development work under steady: state operating conditions. However, truck driveby noise tests are acceleration tests, and engines exhibit different noise behavior under accelerating conditions. Acceleration noise can be affected by engine performance parameters which may have no influence on steady state noise levels. In this study, a test cell simulation of the truck driveby procedure has been developed and evaluated. Test cell simulation and truck driveby results are compared for a naturally-aspirated and a turbocharged engine. This simulation procedure has been shown to predict reliably results measured in vehicles. As a result, the simulation can be used to evaluate engine modifications during the development process without requiring a vehicle installation.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Component Design Using the Finite Element Method and Interactive Graphics

1974-02-01
740337
An inexpensive, flexible and convenient finite element analysis system can be implemented with limited capital and resources. A system of this nature can be a functional tool of the designer and stress analyst for the analysis of many types of mechanical components. The finite element models generated by this system can approach a high degree of complexity with a small time investment compared to the time required to do this job without the aid of the system described.
Technical Paper

Design Aspects of Low-Noise Diesel Engines

1973-02-01
730246
Methods of reducing the noise level of a diesel engine include the suppression of the major modes of block vibration and treatment of the external surfaces. Design methods enable the frequencies and noise levels of these modes to be calculated for a conventionally designed engine. The important modes of vibration, the noise signature and the effect of block modifications of a standard production V-8 engine were found by experiments. These provided the basis for the design of an experimental low-noise engine. Design features include a suffer block, removal of the bottom part of the crankcase skirt, the addition of a single bearing beam, and the use of isolated panels and damped surfaces. The noise reduction obtained was 9 dBA. Most of this is due to the use of isolated and damped nonload carrying surfaces.
Technical Paper

Cummins K-Series Engines

1974-02-01
740036
New heavy-duty diesel engines of 6-, 8-, 12-, and 16-cyl rated 75 hp/cyl turbocharged and 100 hp/cyl turbocharged and aftercooled are being developed. Design and development objectives include maximizing engine durability/reliability and use of common parts in all engine models. Fuel consumption, smoke, exhaust gas emissions, and engine noise equal or better than the best current engines within engine configurations readily adaptable to current automotive and construction equipment are also prime considerations. Initial models of the engine series meet the design and development objectives.
Technical Paper

Vechicle Testing of Cummins Turbocompound Diesel Engine

1981-02-01
810073
Two turbocompound diesel engines were assembled and dynamometer tested in preparation for vehicle tests. Both engines met the 1980 California gaseous emission requirement and achieved a minimum BSFC of .313 lb/bhp-hr and a BSFC at rated conditions of .323 lb/bhp-hr. These engines were then installed in Class VIII heavy-duty vehicles to determine the fuel consumption and performance characteristics. Fuel consumption testing showed a 14.8% improvement for the turbocompound engine in comparison to a production NTC-400 used as a baseline. The turbocompound engine also achieved lower noise levels, improved drive-ability, improved gradeability, and moderately increased engine retardation. The second turbocompound engine was placed in commercial service and accumulated 50,000 miles on a cross-country route without malfunction. Tank mileage revealed a 15.92% improvement over a production NTCC-400 which was operating on the same route.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study of the Transient Evaporating Spray Mixing Process in the Diesel Environment

1983-10-31
831735
Some results of a systematic study of the effects of fuel and chamber gas properties on the transient evaporating spray mixing process are presented. The study uses an existing two-dimensional stochastic thick spray model. The results show that the combustion process in typical heavy duty, quiescent, DI diesel engines can be mixing limited rather than vaporization limited. In addition, the results show that the mixing process of a transient evaporating spray is characterized by the combined effects of fuel evaporation and its turbulent mixing with the surrounding air. In general, increasing the evaporation rate alone does not necessarily increase the fuel-air mixing rate. Furthermore, two dimensionless parameters have been used to quantify the relative effects of fuel and chamber gas properties on the transient spray evaporation process. Finally, through detailed comparisons between spray and gas jet results, the transient evaporating spray mixing process is better understood.
Technical Paper

Combination Diesel Engine - Air Compressor - “The Dual Diesel”

1966-02-01
660741
Until recently, dry cargo has been unloaded from trucks by use of compressed air. By making the automotive engine act partly as an air compressor during the unloading operation, the auxiliary air compressor mounted on the tractor frame can be eliminated. This paper, in describing the dual diesel, discusses operating characteristics, cycle analysis, and operational problems.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Model for the Formation of Nitric Oxide in Direct Injection Diesel Engines and Its Application in Parametric Studies

1973-02-01
730083
A semiempirical, mathematical model describing the formation of nitric oxide in direct-injection diesel engines is derived. The model is used in conjunction with injection and thermodynamic cycle simulation programs. This approach enables prediction of nitric oxide emissions from design dimensions and operating parameters only, without the use of experimental data. Predicted results are compared with experiments for typical naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines. The accuracy of prediction is very good except under light-load naturally aspirated conditions. The model is used in an extensive parametric study, together with experimental verification. The agreement between prediction and experiments is excellent, except under conditions of excessive smoke or of high swirl.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Characteristics of the Automotive Diesel

1966-02-01
660550
The production of pollutants and an increasing need for pollution management are an inevitable concomitant of a society with a high standard of living. The automotive diesel engine is used more than any other type of engine for transporting freight over highways. Two kinds of pollution to be considered with regard to the diesel engine are the dark exhaust smoke and odor, of which the public is quite cognizant, and the less obvious but possibly toxic carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and trace compounds of other toxic materials. This paper discusses sampling, measurement techniques, and established standards for exhaust smoke and odor. Examination of diesel exhaust shows it to be less offensive in terms of harmful effects than the invisible exhaust from other types of engines. The major problem is exhaust color and odor.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Noise Reduction Hardware for Vehicle Noise Control

1973-02-01
730681
A range of noise reduction hardware is described for three production engine models, as well as the rationale for selecting noise reduction methods. Noise reductions up to 6 dB(A) were achieved with this hardware in the test cell. In many cases the modifications are more effective in vehicles. The success of the hardware in reducing overall vehicle noise is illustrated.
Technical Paper

Cooling Higher Horsepower Highway Diesel Engines

1975-02-01
750131
The increase in power-to-weight ratio that results from the use of higher-horsepower diesel engines in highway service prompted this study of engine cooling. This paper covers the results obtained in testing different power-to-weight ratios on grades from sea level to over 11,000 ft and compares these results with those obtained from chassis and towing dynamometer cooling trials.
Technical Paper

A Transient Spray Mixing Model for Diesel Combustion

1976-02-01
760128
A transient spray mixing model forming the basis of heterogeneous combustion in direct injection diesel engines is described. Experimental results of transient fuel sprays in a high pressure, high temperature chamber form the basis of spray growth equations. Use of similarity of concentration profile across the spray in conjunction with spray geometry and mass conservation yields a complete description of spatial and temporal fuel-air distribution. Fuel preparation and air entrainment rates are calculated from the history of fuel-air distribution. Progressive evolution of combustion zones is determined by the fuel-air mixing process. Energy conservation and chemical kinetics calculations in each zone yield cylinder pressure and local nitric oxide concentration. The role of fuel-air mixing in diesel combustion is discussed. The model results are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Techniques of Structural Vibration Analysis Applied to Diesel Engine Noise Reduction

1975-02-01
750835
This paper presents several techniques used to define quantitatively the problem of excessive noise through engine structural vibration. These techniques include both operating engine tests and bench tests. In addition, analytical techniques are shown which give a better understanding of how the critical components within the engine cause this vibration. Through the use of analytical and experimental techniques, examples illustrate practical solutions for diesel engine noise reduction.
Technical Paper

Lube Oil Filtration Effect on Diesel Engine Wear

1971-02-01
710813
A series of comparative evaluation tests to determine the effect of various full-flow and combination full-flow and bypass filter systems on diesel engine piston ring and crankshaft bearings was made using radioactive tracer wear measurement and component weight loss techniques. The results of these tests indicate that bypass lube oil filtration combined with good full-flow lube oil filtration result in lowest engine wear rate and lowest total cost for the engine user.
Technical Paper

Crankshaft Design Using a Generalized Finite Element Model

1979-02-01
790279
An analytical tool for the efficient analysis of crankshaft designs has been developed. Finite element models are generated from a limited number of key dimensions which describe a family of crankshafts. These models have been verified by stress and deflection measurements on several crankshaft throws.
Technical Paper

Design Factors That Affect Diesel Emissions

1971-02-01
710484
Although diesels, as a group, are a relatively small source of air pollutants, emissions standards which limit emissions from diesels have been adopted by California and the federal government. Test procedures and instrumentation for measuring diesel emissions have been developed, and an understanding of how engine design parameters affect emissions is evolving. Smoke and carbon monoxide are primarily functions of fuel-air ratio. Smoke is also affected by injection timing, air motion, and fuel spray characteristics. Hydrocarbon emissions are most affected by details of injector design and matching of the spray geometry with the combustion chamber shape. Nitric oxide emissions are controlled by local oxygen availability in regions of high temperature and residence time at the high temperature.
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