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The Automotive Industry and the Global Environment

This book presents an analysis on the potential effects of globalization on the automotive industry and the environment. Energy challenges, market economy growth, and population dynamics are considered. The authors also present future scenarios for transportation technologies to meet the ever growing global demand for transportation of goods and services while minimizing energy and environmental impacts and maximizing cost, value and widespread acceptance.

Neck Injury

This book draws upon a variety of the author's experiences during more than 25 years in automotive safety. It gives an introduction to plain film radiographs (x-rays), computed tomograms (CTs), and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) such that vehicle safety professionals can use these techniques to help piece together the puzzle and provide a better understanding of the relationship between vehicle crash scenarios and occupant injury. For those with a primarily vehicle background, Neck Injury provides an overview of how x-rays, CTs, and MRIs may be used as a source of information to help analyze vehicle crashes and the associated injuries. For those with a clinical background, the book provides insight into how injuries relate to the vehicle crash. Chapters cover: Anatomy Imaging Injuries and Injury Mechanisms

The Future (& Past) of Electrified Vehicles

The presentation offers a brief history of the electric vehicle and parallels the realities of those early vehicles with the challenges and solutions of the electrified vehicles coming to market today. A technology evolution for every major component of these vehicles has now made this mode of transportation viable. The Focus Electric is Ford's first electric passenger car utilizing the advanced technology developments to meet the needs of electric car buyers in this emerging market. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

Real-time Tire Imbalance Detection Using ABS Wheel Speed Sensors

This presentation proposes an approach to use ABS wheel speed sensor signals together with other vehicle state information from a brake control module to detect an unbalanced tire or tires in real-time. The proposed approach consists of two-stage algorithms that mix a qualitative method using band-pass filtering with a quantitative parameter identification using conditional least squares. This two-stage approach can improve the robustness of tire imbalance or imbalances. The proposed approach is verified through vehicle testing and the test results show the effectiveness of the approach. Presenter Jianbo Lu, Ford Motor Co.

C-Max Energi - Ford's Plug-In Solution

Evolving the current state of the art Hybrid Technology for vehicles with plug-in capability will yield three significant results, the displacement of petroleum with electricity for transportation, improved efficiency and reduced emissions. As the technology evolves from the Ford Escape Hybrid Plug-In demo fleet, Ford is in the final stages of development of the C-Max Energi, which will be delivered in 2012 as a highly efficient, full purpose vehicle designed to meet customer expectations without compromise. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

OBD Experiences: A Ford Perspective

Some the OBD-II regulations have been around for a long time or seem to be intuitively obvious. It is easy to assume to assume that everyone knows how to implement them correctly, that is, until someone actually reads the words and tries to do it. Most often, these issues come up when modifying existing OBD features, not when creating completely new ones. This presentation contains a few examples of features that should have been easy to implement, but turned out not to be easy or simple. Presenter Paul Algis Baltusis, Ford Motor Co.

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.

Ford: Driving Electric Car Efficiency

The Focus Electric is Ford�s first full-featured 5 passenger battery electric vehicle. The engineering team set our sights on achieving best-in-class function and efficiency and was successful with an EPA certified 1XX MPGe and range XXX then the facing competition allowing for a slightly lower capacity battery pack and larger vehicle without customer trade-off. We briefly overview the engineering method and technologies employed to deliver the results as well as sharing some of the functional challenges unique to this type of vehicle. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

Hybrid Vehicle Battery OBD: Why, Wherefore, and How

The introduction of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles has resulted in the introduction of battery systems into the realm of OBD II diagnostics. After a high-level overview of battery systems, general battery system fault responses are discussed, as well as which of these might be OBD faults. The alignment of the OBD regulations and DTC assignment in systems with large numbers of similar/identical components is discussed, along with apparent conflicts between existing OBD regulations and the physical realities of battery systems in HEVs and PHEVs. Presenter Dyche Anderson, Ford Motor Co.

Monitoring Urea Quantity Delivery for Diesel SCR After-treatment

While providing significant benefits to vehicle operation and emissions, on board diagnosis comes at a cost. In many cases the additional cost comes in the form of reduced optimal performance. Often the additional cost can be mitigated by considering the OBD requirements early in the development stages. In this presentation we show these trade-offs in a number of case studies. We will point out where the ability to diagnose comes at the cost of suboptimal performance, and where system design decisions can facilate the OBD task. Presenter Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Ford Motor Co.

Ford: Driving Hybrid Efficiency

Hybrid vehicles in the modern era were developed with a strong primary goal to increase fuel efficiency in the North American market. Over the last 15 years, this market has expanded from zero sales to as high as 3% of total US sales. Most recently, the portfolio of competitive offerings with HEV propulsion systems has grown even more to about 30 models on sale today. Some interesting features and attributes have evolved thru this wider array of products giving the customer much more choice of which characteristics to select to match their needs. Ford�s 3rd generation HEV system will be offered for sale this fall. With it, we have continued our focus on the Fuel Efficiency as the driving force for our efforts. The overall process for the system engineering and some of the relevant subsystem and component contributors to the Fuel Efficiency improvement reflected in the 2013 Model Year Fusion and CMAX Hybrids will be presented. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

Smart and Connected Electrification at Ford

Electrification is becoming a means of sustainable transportation to address global climate change and environmental concerns by reducing the dependency on fossil fuels for personal transportation; and to use renewable energy for transportation. Ford has incorporated Electrification as an important part of the company's sustainable strategy to provide sustainable transportation that is affordable environmentally, socially and economically. While offering customers Power of Choice for a wide range of Electrification products, Ford continues to exploit the potentials of Electrification by taking advantage of the advanced information technology to create smarter and greener vehicles customers want and value. This presentation will highlight some of the on-going research and development on smart and connected Electrification. Presenter Ming Lang Kuang, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of an Online Gasoline Fractionating System for use in Spark-Ignition Engines

A fuel fractionating system is designed and commissioned to separate standard gasoline fuel into two components by evaporation. The system is installed on a Ricardo E6 single cylinder research engine for testing purposes. Laboratory tests are carried out to determine the Research Octane Number (RON) and Motoring Octane Number (MON) of both fuel fractions. Further tests are carried out to characterize Spark-Ignition (SI) and Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion under borderline knock conditions, and these are related to results from some primary reference fuels. SI results indicate that an increase in compression ratio of up to 1.0 may be achieved, along with better charge ignitability if this system is used with a stratified charge combustion regime. CAI results show that the two fuels exhibit similar knock-resistances over a range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Operational Spindle Load Estimation Methodology for Road NVH Applications

A new experimental methodology has been developed to quantify spindle loads of a vehicle under actual operational conditions. The methodology applies an indirect six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) frequency response function (FRF) measurement technique to obtain three translation/force and three rotation/moment FRFs of the suspension system of the vehicle. The Inverse Frequency Response Function (IFRF) method estimates the spindle loads under operational conditions. The feasibility and applicability of the developed methodology for vehicle road NVH applications was experimentally demonstrated. The results show that the methodology provides accurate spindle load estimation over a broad frequency range. This methodology can be used for benchmarking and target setting of spindle loads to achieve desired road NVH performance as well as for diagnosing root causes in problem solving applications.
Technical Paper

Steering Wheel Vibration Diagnosis

The objective of this project was to develop a methodology for the diagnosis of vibrations of the vehicle's steering wheel. This paper will describe an attempt at developing a systematic approach for describing the vibrations felt, what the sources might be, and how various steering system parameters might affect the vibrations.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Rail Rivet and Steel Rail Weld DOE and CAE Studies for NVH

Vehicle body with aluminum riveted construction instead of steel welded one will be a big challenge to NVH. In this paper, aluminum and steel rails with the dimensions similar to the rear rail portion of a typical mid-size sedan were fabricated. Rivets were used to assemble the aluminum rails while welds were used to assemble the steel rails. Adhesive, rivet/weld spacing, and rivet/weld location were the three major factors to be studied and their impact on NVH were investigated. The DOE matrix was developed using these three major factors. Modal tests were performed on those rails according to the DOE matrix. The FEA models corresponding to the hardware were built. CAE modal analysis were performed and compared with test data. The current in-house CAE modeling techniques for spot weld and adhesive were evaluated and validated with test data.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Wind Noise Analysis Using a SEA Model with Measured Source Levels

A series of tests have been performed on a production vehicle to determine the characteristics of the external turbulent flow field in wind tunnel and road conditions. Empirical formulas are developed to use the measured data as source levels for a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model of the vehicle structural and acoustical responses. Exterior turbulent flow and acoustical subsystems are used to receive power from the source excitations. This allows for both the magnitudes and wavelengths of the exterior excitations to be taken into account - a necessary condition for consistently accurate results. Comparisons of measured and calculated interior sound levels show good correlation.