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Journal Article

Occupant Preferred Back Angle Relative to Head Restraint Regulations

2010-04-12
2010-01-0779
Having, by now, introduced several new vehicles that comply with FMVSS 202a, manufacturers are reporting an increased number of complaints from consumers who find that the head restraint is too close; negatively affecting their posture. It is speculated that one of the reasons that head restraints meeting the new requirement are problematic is that the FMVSS backset measurement is performed at a back angle that is more reclined than the back angle most drivers choose and the back angle at which the seat / vehicle was designed. The objective of this paper is to confirm this hypothesis and elaborate on implications for regulatory compliance in FMVSS 202a.
Technical Paper

Particle Number Emissions from a Range of European Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0786
In light of forthcoming particle number legislation for light-duty passenger vehicles, time-resolved Particle Mass (PM) and Particle Number (PN) emissions over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) are reported for four current vehicle technologies; modern diesel, with and without a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) gasoline and multi-point Port Fuel Injection (PFI) gasoline. The PN and PM emissions were ordered (highest to lowest) according to: Non-DPF diesel ≻ DISI ≻ PFI ~ DPF diesel. Both the non-DPF diesel and DISI vehicles emitted PN and PM continuously over the NEDC. This is in contrast with both the DPF diesel and PFI vehicles which emitted nearly all their PN and PM during the first 200 seconds. The PFI result is thought to be a consequence of cold-start mixture preparation whilst several possible explanations are offered for the DPF diesel trend.
Technical Paper

Investigation of EURO-5/6 Level Particle Number Emissions of European Diesel Light Duty Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0789
Particle number emissions are measured with two instruments according to the upcoming European emission regulations for light-duty diesel passenger vehicles and compared to data from other methods, including the current regulatory total particulate matter (PM) mass, photo-acoustic soot sensor (PASS) and engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS). At the very low emission levels of diesel particulate filter (DPF) equipped vehicles, the solid particle number data correlate well with soot mass and with particle number measured by EEPS, if only those particles belonging to the accumulation mode are considered in the latter case. PN differences of ≻100% between tests of the same vehicle are observed. Comparison of the two PN instruments and the photoacoustic soot sensor show that these are systematic differences which originate primarily with the vehicle and not from instrument uncertainties.
Journal Article

Effects of B20 versus ULSD Fuel on Diesel Engine PM Emissions and Aftertreatment Performance

2010-04-12
2010-01-0790
A detailed study is undertaken to examine how 2010+ diesel engine exhaust emissions change when a soybean-derived B20 biodiesel fuel is used instead of a conventional ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and to investigate how these changes impact the aftertreatment system. Particulate matter (PM) emissions for each fuel are characterized in terms of mass emissions, size distributions, organic versus soot fraction, metals content, and particle morphology. PM mass recorded by Dekati Mass Monitor, thermal analysis of quartz filters, and calculated from particle size distributions consistently shows a 2 - 3 fold decrease in engine-out soot emissions over a wide mid-load range when changing from ULSD to B20 fuel. This is partly due to a decrease in particle number and partly to a decrease in average size. HC and NO emissions, in contrast, exhibit little change with fuel type.
Journal Article

The Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Number, Size and Mass Emissions from a Euro4 Diesel Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0796
New European emissions legislation (Euro5) specifies a limit for Particle Number (PN) emissions and therefore drives measurement of PN during vehicle development and homologation. Concurrently, the use of biofuel is increasing in the marketplace, and Euro5 specifies that reference fuel must contain a bio-derived portion. Work was carried out to test the effect of fuels containing different levels of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) on particle number, size, mass and composition. Measurements were conducted with a Cambustion Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS) to time-resolve sub-micron particles (5-1000nm), and a Horiba Solid Particle Counting System (SPCS) providing PN data from a Euro5-compliant measurement system. To ensure the findings are relevant to the modern automotive business, testing was carried out on a Euro4 compliant passenger car fitted with a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine and using standard homologation procedures.
Technical Paper

Control of Electric to Parallel Hybrid Drive Transition in a Dual-Drive Hybrid Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0819
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains have become key to developing environmentally friendly and fuel efficient vehicles. As such, companies are continually investing in developing new hybrid powertrain architectures. Ford Motor Company has developed a new “Dual-Drive” full hybrid electric vehicle that overcomes some attribute deficiencies of existing hybrid powertrain architectures due to the kinematic arrangement of the engine, motors and driveline components. This hybrid powertrain is comprised of conventional powertrain components as its base with an electric motor on the rear axle, and a crank integrated starter generator, engine and transmission on the front axle. It forms a complex configuration which provides fuel economy improvement over a conventional powertrain.
Technical Paper

Communication between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid

2010-04-12
2010-01-0837
This paper is the first in a series of documents designed to record the progress of the SAE J2293 Task Force as it continues to develop and refine the communication requirements between Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEV) and the Electric Utility Grid. In February, 2008 the SAE Task Force was formed and it started by reviewing the existing SAE J2293 standard, which was originally developed by the Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Controls Task Force in the 1990s. This legacy standard identified the communication requirements between the Electric Vehicle (EV) and the EV Supply Equipment (EVSE), including off-board charging systems necessary to transfer DC energy to the vehicle. It was apparent at the first Task Force meeting that the communications requirements between the PEV and utility grid being proposed by industry stakeholders were vastly different in the type of communications and messaging documented in the original standard.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of an Adaptive Real-Time Advisory System for Improving Real World Fuel Economy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0835
Environmental awareness and fuel economy legislation has resulted in greater emphasis on developing more fuel efficient vehicles. As such, achieving fuel economy improvements has become a top priority in the automotive field. Companies are constantly investigating and developing new advanced technologies, such as hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, improved turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engines, new efficient powershift transmissions, and lighter weight vehicles. In addition, significant research and development is being performed on energy management control systems that can improve fuel economy of vehicles. Another area of research for improving fuel economy and environmental awareness is based on improving the customer's driving behavior and style without significantly impacting the driver's expectations and requirements.
Technical Paper

Ford Motor Companys' new Torqshift 6 Automatic Transmission for Super Duty F250-F550 Truck

2010-04-12
2010-01-0859
Ford developed the 6R140 TorqShift six-speed transmission for the Ford F-series SuperDuty trucks. The 6R140 transmission is specifically designed to manage the increased torque produced by the 6.7-liter Power Stroke V-8 turbocharged diesel engine. It is also matched with the 6.2-liter V-8 gasoline engine. By design, the new 6R140 transmission seamlessly delivers the enormous low-rpm torque produced by the new diesel engine and efficiently manages the higher rpm of the new gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling Water Condensation in Exhaust A/T Devices

2010-04-12
2010-01-0885
Ignoring the impact of water condensation leads to incorrect temperature simulation during cold start, and this can lead to questions being raised about the overall accuracy of aftertreatment simulation tools for both temperature and emission predictions. This report provides a mathematical model to simulate the condensation and evaporation of water in exhaust after-treatment devices. The simulation results are compared with experimental data. Simulation results show that the temperature profiles obtained using the condensation model are more accurate than the profiles obtained without using the condensation model. The model will be very useful in addressing questions that concern the accuracy of the simulation tool during cold-start and heating up of catalysts, which accounts for the conditions where tailpipe emission issues are most significant.
Technical Paper

The New Ford 6.7L V-8 Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1101
A new diesel engine, called the 6.7L Power Stroke® V-8 Turbocharged Diesel, and code named "Scorpion" has been designed and developed by Ford Motor Company for the full-size pickup truck and light commercial vehicle markets. It incorporates the latest design technology to meet 2010 model year emission regulations for both chassis and dynamometer-based certifications, and is compatible with up to B20 biodiesel fuel. The engine is an entirely new 90 degree V-8 design featuring inboard exhaust, piezo common rail fuel injection, a new dual compressor wheel turbocharger, and dual loop cooling systems. The 6.7L is Ford's first diesel engine designed for the North American pickup and light commercial truck market.
Technical Paper

Full Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Battery Pack System Design, CFD Simulation and Testing

2010-04-12
2010-01-1080
Abstract CFD analysis was performed using the FLUENT software to design the thermal system for a hybrid vehicle battery pack. The battery pack contained multiple modular battery elements, called bricks, and the inlet and outlet bus bars that electrically connected the bricks into a series string. The simulated thermal system was comprised of the vehicle cabin, seat cavity, inlet plenum, battery pack, a downstream centrifugal fan, and the vehicle trunk. The fan was modeled using a multiple reference frame approach. A full system analysis was done for airflow and thermal performance optimization to ensure the most uniform cell temperatures under all operating conditions. The mesh for the full system was about 13 million cells run on a 6-node HP cluster. A baseline design was first analyzed for fluid-thermal performance. Subsequently, multiple design iterations were run to create uniform airflow among all the individual bricks while minimizing parasitic pressure drop.
Journal Article

An Adaptive Proportional Integral Control of a Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System based on System Identification Models

2010-04-12
2010-01-1174
For urea Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems, adaptive control is of interest to provide a capability of maintaining high NOx conversion efficiency and low ammonia slip in the presence of uncertainties in the system. In this paper, the dynamics of the urea SCR system are represented by a control-oriented model which is based on a linear transfer function, with parameters dependent on engine operating conditions. The parameters are identified from input-output data generated by a high fidelity full chemistry model of the urea SCR system. The use of the full chemistry model facilitated the representation of the dynamics of stored ammonia (not a directly measurable parameter) as well as post SCR NOx and ammonia slip. A closed-loop Proportional-plus-Integral (PI) controller was first designed using the estimate of stored ammonia as a feedback signal.
Technical Paper

The Development of Advanced Urea-SCR Systems for Tier 2 Bin 5 and Beyond Diesel Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-1183
An advanced diesel aftertreatment system utilizing Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with urea for lean nitrogen oxides (NOx) control was tested on a 2.7L V6 Land Rover vehicle to demonstrate the capability of achieving Tier 2 Bin 5 and lower emission standards for light-duty trucks. SCR washcoat was applied to a diesel particulate filter (DPF) to perform NOx and particulate reduction simultaneously. Advanced SCR systems employed both traditional SCR catalysts and SCR-coated filters (SCRF) to improve the NOx reduction efficiency. The engine-out NOx level was adjusted by modifying the EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) calibration. Cold start NOx performance was improved by SCR warm-up strategy and urea over injection. This study showed the advanced SCR system could tolerate higher NH₃ storage in the SCR catalyst, resulting in overall higher NOx conversion on the FTP-75 test cycle.
Technical Paper

Deactivation of Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalyst under Lean-Rich Aging Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-1180
A lean-rich hydrothermal aging was used to study the deactivation of Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst that has enhanced stability. Impact of DOC upstream on the SCR catalyst during the lean-rich aging was also investigated. The LR hydrothermal aging was conducted with the presence of hydrocarbon, CO and H₂ at different O₂ levels. It was found that the SCR catalyst was active for the oxidation of CO, H₂ and hydrocarbon, resulting in significant exotherm across the catalyst. In addition to hydrothermal aging, reductive aging, especially the presence of H₂ in the aging gas stream without O₂ presence during the L-R aging, might also contribute to the Cu/zeolite SCR catalyst deactivation. The impacts of DOC upstream on Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts depended on the aging temperatures. At lower aging temperature, the uncompleted oxidation of hydrocarbon and CO on the DOC might cause steam reforming and water-gas shift reactions on the DOC to form reductive gas stream.
Journal Article

Review of Soot Deposition and Removal Mechanisms in EGR Coolers

2010-04-12
2010-01-1211
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases in order to reduce NOX emissions. Engine coolant is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes fouling due to particulate soot deposition, condensation of hydrocarbon, water and acid. Fouling experience results in cooler effectiveness loss and pressure drop. In this study, possible soot deposition mechanisms are discussed and their orders of magnitude are compared. Also, probable removal mechanisms of soot particles are studied by calculating the forces acting on a single particle attached to the wall or deposited layer. Our analysis shows that thermophoresis in the dominant mechanism for soot deposition in EGR coolers and high surface temperature and high kinetic energy of soot particles at the gas-deposit interface can be the critical factor in particles removal.
Technical Paper

Seatback Strength and Occupant Response in Rear Impact Crash: Observations with Respect to Large Occupant Size and Position

2010-04-12
2010-01-1029
Seatback strength and injury potential in moderate to high-speed rear-end collisions were investigated in a series of 12 HYGE sled tests. The test methodology included the use of instrumented Hybrid-III anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). Four tests employed a 95th percentile male ATD ballasted to a total weight of 300 lbs and subjected to approximate 15 mph Delta-V impacts. The remaining tests employed an unmodified 50th percentile male ATD with impacts of approximately 25 mph Delta-V, and three ATD positions, including two "out of position" postures corresponding to leaning forward ("forward" position), and leaning forward and inboard ("radio" position). Seats from three different vehicles were tested, representing a range of strength values. Upper neck values for N were less than 1.0 in all cases. Lower neck N values sometimes exceeded 1.0 with the 50th percentile male ATD out of position, and these values did not trend with seatback strength.
Technical Paper

Passive Safety Technologies and Belted ATD Neck Loads in Rollover Events

2010-04-12
2010-01-1008
Two rigid rollover test devices were constructed to have the approximate dimensions, mass and inertial properties of a mid-sized Car and Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV). The rigid devices were used to generate vehicle and occupant responses from a series of laboratory rollover tests. For each rigid rollover test, a deceleration sled was used to subject each rigid vehicle to nearly identical lateral speeds and decelerations. The rigid vehicles were limited to a single roll by tethering the vehicles to the deceleration cart. The vehicle's roll rate, roll angle, lateral acceleration and Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) neck responses generated from the rigid SUV were compared to the responses of a full vehicle production SUV under similar test conditions. The rigid SUV and Car devices were then used to examine the effects of activating safety belt pre-tensioning systems and roof mounted side curtain airbags at various times on ATD neck forces and moments.
Technical Paper

Incorporating the FMVSS 201U Laboratory Experience in Simulation Using IHIT

2010-04-12
2010-01-1018
FMVSS 201U, interior head impact performance is required for each new vehicle program. In the laboratory, testing to this requirement includes laying out the target locations, defining additional robustness target points based on targeting variation, positioning the Free Motion Headform (FMH), impacting each location with the headform and measuring HIC values. The tests may involve some conservative strategies and robustness studies to protect for the worst-case scenarios, where an impact might produce the highest HIC(d) within variations of impact conditions. In order to automate the best practices and procedures for both laboratory and CAE, a process automation environment was used to develop the Interior Head Impact Toolkit (IHIT, pronounced as i-hit). The IHIT software addresses several key testing processes and is grouped into four modules.
Journal Article

Deformation Analysis of Incremental Sheet Forming

2010-04-12
2010-01-0991
Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is an emerging sheet metal prototyping technology where a part is formed as one or more stylus tools are moving in a pre-determined path and deforming the sheet metal locally while the sheet blank is clamped along its periphery. A deformation analysis of incremental forming process is presented in this paper. The analysis includes the development of an analytical model for strain distributions based on part geometry and tool paths; and numerical simulations of the forming process with LS-DYNA. A skew cone is constructed and used as an example for the study. Analytical and numerical results are compared, and excellent correlations are found. It is demonstrated that the analytical model developed in this paper is reliable and efficient in the prediction of strain distributions for incremental forming process.
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