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Video

The Future (& Past) of Electrified Vehicles

2011-11-04
The presentation offers a brief history of the electric vehicle and parallels the realities of those early vehicles with the challenges and solutions of the electrified vehicles coming to market today. A technology evolution for every major component of these vehicles has now made this mode of transportation viable. The Focus Electric is Ford's first electric passenger car utilizing the advanced technology developments to meet the needs of electric car buyers in this emerging market. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Ford: Driving Electric Car Efficiency

2012-03-29
The Focus Electric is Ford�s first full-featured 5 passenger battery electric vehicle. The engineering team set our sights on achieving best-in-class function and efficiency and was successful with an EPA certified 1XX MPGe and range XXX then the facing competition allowing for a slightly lower capacity battery pack and larger vehicle without customer trade-off. We briefly overview the engineering method and technologies employed to deliver the results as well as sharing some of the functional challenges unique to this type of vehicle. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Monitoring Urea Quantity Delivery for Diesel SCR After-treatment

2012-02-01
While providing significant benefits to vehicle operation and emissions, on board diagnosis comes at a cost. In many cases the additional cost comes in the form of reduced optimal performance. Often the additional cost can be mitigated by considering the OBD requirements early in the development stages. In this presentation we show these trade-offs in a number of case studies. We will point out where the ability to diagnose comes at the cost of suboptimal performance, and where system design decisions can facilate the OBD task. Presenter Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Real-time Tire Imbalance Detection Using ABS Wheel Speed Sensors

2011-11-15
This presentation proposes an approach to use ABS wheel speed sensor signals together with other vehicle state information from a brake control module to detect an unbalanced tire or tires in real-time. The proposed approach consists of two-stage algorithms that mix a qualitative method using band-pass filtering with a quantitative parameter identification using conditional least squares. This two-stage approach can improve the robustness of tire imbalance or imbalances. The proposed approach is verified through vehicle testing and the test results show the effectiveness of the approach. Presenter Jianbo Lu, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Ford: Driving Hybrid Efficiency

2012-03-23
Hybrid vehicles in the modern era were developed with a strong primary goal to increase fuel efficiency in the North American market. Over the last 15 years, this market has expanded from zero sales to as high as 3% of total US sales. Most recently, the portfolio of competitive offerings with HEV propulsion systems has grown even more to about 30 models on sale today. Some interesting features and attributes have evolved thru this wider array of products giving the customer much more choice of which characteristics to select to match their needs. Ford�s 3rd generation HEV system will be offered for sale this fall. With it, we have continued our focus on the Fuel Efficiency as the driving force for our efforts. The overall process for the system engineering and some of the relevant subsystem and component contributors to the Fuel Efficiency improvement reflected in the 2013 Model Year Fusion and CMAX Hybrids will be presented. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Hybrid Vehicle Battery OBD: Why, Wherefore, and How

2012-02-01
The introduction of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles has resulted in the introduction of battery systems into the realm of OBD II diagnostics. After a high-level overview of battery systems, general battery system fault responses are discussed, as well as which of these might be OBD faults. The alignment of the OBD regulations and DTC assignment in systems with large numbers of similar/identical components is discussed, along with apparent conflicts between existing OBD regulations and the physical realities of battery systems in HEVs and PHEVs. Presenter Dyche Anderson, Ford Motor Co.
Video

C-Max Energi - Ford's Plug-In Solution

2011-11-07
Evolving the current state of the art Hybrid Technology for vehicles with plug-in capability will yield three significant results, the displacement of petroleum with electricity for transportation, improved efficiency and reduced emissions. As the technology evolves from the Ford Escape Hybrid Plug-In demo fleet, Ford is in the final stages of development of the C-Max Energi, which will be delivered in 2012 as a highly efficient, full purpose vehicle designed to meet customer expectations without compromise. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.
Video

OBD Experiences: A Ford Perspective

2012-01-24
Some the OBD-II regulations have been around for a long time or seem to be intuitively obvious. It is easy to assume to assume that everyone knows how to implement them correctly, that is, until someone actually reads the words and tries to do it. Most often, these issues come up when modifying existing OBD features, not when creating completely new ones. This presentation contains a few examples of features that should have been easy to implement, but turned out not to be easy or simple. Presenter Paul Algis Baltusis, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Smart and Connected Electrification at Ford

2012-03-27
Electrification is becoming a means of sustainable transportation to address global climate change and environmental concerns by reducing the dependency on fossil fuels for personal transportation; and to use renewable energy for transportation. Ford has incorporated Electrification as an important part of the company's sustainable strategy to provide sustainable transportation that is affordable environmentally, socially and economically. While offering customers Power of Choice for a wide range of Electrification products, Ford continues to exploit the potentials of Electrification by taking advantage of the advanced information technology to create smarter and greener vehicles customers want and value. This presentation will highlight some of the on-going research and development on smart and connected Electrification. Presenter Ming Lang Kuang, Ford Motor Co.
Video

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

2012-05-10
Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

An Algorithm to Compensate for Air Charge Prediction Errors

2000-03-06
2000-01-0258
Various methods are available to predict future cylinder air charge for improved air/fuel control. However, there can never be perfect prediction. This paper presents an algorithm to correct for imperfect cylinder charge prediction. This is done by expanding the air/fuel control boundary to include the catalyst, and correcting prediction errors as soon as possible using small corrective changes to later cylinder fuel inputs. The method was experimentally tested and showed improved air/fuel control as indicated by reduced variability of catalyst downstream air/fuel ratio. Additional vehicle testing showed potential to further reduce emissions.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Port Air Mass Flow of SI Engines in Air/Fuel Ratio Control Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-0260
With the tightening of exhaust emission standards, wide bandwidth control of the air/fuel ratio (AFR) of spark ignition engines has attracted increased interest recently. Unfortunately, time delays associated with engine operation (mainly injection delays and transport delays from intake to exhaust) impose serious limitations to the achievable control bandwidth. With a proper choice of sensors and actuators, these limitations can be minimized provided the port air mass flow can be accurately predicted ahead in time. While the main objective of this work is to propose a complete AFR controller, the main focus is on the problems associated with port air mass flow prediction.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) Engine Equipped with an Air-Forced Fuel Injector

2000-03-06
2000-01-0254
The effects of fuel injection and spark timing on engine-out, regulated (total HC, NOx, and CO) and speciated HC emissions have been investigated for a 0.31L, single-cylinder, direct-injection, spark-ignition (DISI) engine equipped with an air-forced fuel injector. When the timing of the start of the air injection (SOA) is varied during high stratification operation, the mole fractions of all regulated emissions vary sharply over relatively small (20-30 crank angle degrees) changes in SOA. In addition, the distribution of exhaust hydrocarbon species changes significantly. As stratification increases, the contribution of unburned paraffinic fuel components to the HC emissions decreases by a factor of two while the olefinic partial oxidation products increase. When the spark timing is varied during high stratification operation, the HC emissions increase sharply as the spark timing is retarded relative to MBT.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Fuel Sprays in DISI Engines Under Early-Injection Operating Conditions

2000-03-06
2000-01-0273
Numerical calculations of the fuel spray structure from a high-pressure swirl injector were used to enable the interpretation of experimental observations obtained in hot, hollow-cone fuel sprays issued into sub-atmospheric-pressure environments. The experiments show that the spray becomes narrower, more compact, but with a relatively long penetration depth. Model input parameters, including the droplet size distribution, early vapor production, and initial cone angle, were modified to determine which spray characteristics are important in recreating observed spray structures. A very small mean droplet diameter is needed to recreate the experimentally observed structure of the high-temperature, low-pressure sprays. Vapor addition to the emerging spray is then required to increase the axial penetration and provide the observed vapor core.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility and Operating Conditions on Fuel Sprays in DISI Engines: (1) Imaging Investigation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0535
Optimal design of modern direct injection spark-ignition engines depends heavily on the characteristics and distribution of the fuel spray. This study was designed to investigate changes in the spray properties due to fuel volatility and operating conditions using a firing optically-accessible engine with planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. The results show that the spray structure changes not only with ambient gas density, which is often measured, but also with fuel temperature and volatility. As ambient pressure decreases and fuel temperature increases, the volatile ends of multi-component fuels evaporate quickly, disrupting the spray structure and producing a vapor core along the axis of the spray. Beyond a certain point, evaporation is rapid enough to expand the initial cone angle of the spray while causing a decrease in the overall spray width.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility and Operating Conditions on Fuel Sprays in DISI Engines: (2) PDPA Investigation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0536
Optimal design of modern direct injection spark-ignition engines depends heavily on the characteristics and distribution of the fuel spray. This study was designed to compliment imaging experiments of changes in the spray structure due to fuel volatility and operating conditions. Use of phase-Doppler particle analysis (PDPA) allows quantitative point measurements of droplet diameter and velocity. In agreement with imaging experiments, the results show that the spray structure changes not only with ambient gas density, which is often measured, but also with fuel temperature and volatility. The mean droplet diameter was found to decrease substantially with increasing fuel temperature and decreasing ambient density. Under conditions of low potential for vaporization, the observed trends in mean droplet sizes agree with published correlations for pressure-swirl atomizers.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Turbocharger Power Assist System Using Optimal Control Techniques

2000-03-06
2000-01-0519
In the paper we employ numerical optimal control techniques to define the best transient operating strategy for a turbocharger power assist system (TPAS). A TPAS is any device capable of bi-directional energy transfer to the turbocharger shaft and energy storage. When applied to turbocharged diesel engines, the TPAS results in significant reduction of the turbo-lag. The optimum transient strategy is capable of improving the vehicle acceleration performance with no deterioration in smoke emissions. These benefits can be attained even if the net energy contribution by the TPAS during the acceleration interval is zero, i.e., all energy is re-generated and returned back to the energy storage by the end of the acceleration interval. At the same time the total fuel consumption during the acceleration interval may be reduced.
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