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Technical Paper

A Simplified Approach to Quantifying Gear Rattle Noise Using Envelope Analysis

2011-05-17
2011-01-1584
The present work discusses an objective test and analysis method developed to quickly quantify steering gear rattle noise heard in a vehicle. Utilizing envelope analysis on the time history data of the rattle signal, the resulting method is simple, fast, practical and yields a single-valued metric which correlates well to subjective measures of rattle noise. In contrast to many other rattle analysis methods, the approach discussed here is completed in the time domain. As applied to rattle noise produced by automotive electric steering systems, the metric produced with this analysis method correlates well with subjective appraisals of vehicle-level rattle noise performance. Lastly, this method can also be extended to rattle measurements at the component and subcomponent level.
Technical Paper

Flow Noises Associated with Integrated Compressor Anti-Surge Valve

2011-05-17
2011-01-1532
Turbocharged gasoline engines are typically equipped with a compressor anti-surge valve or CBV (compressor by-pass valve). The purpose of this valve is to release pressurized air between the throttle and the compressor outlet during tip-out maneuvers. At normal operating conditions, the CBV is closed. There are two major CBV mounting configurations. One is to mount the CBV on the AIS system. The other is to mount the CBV directly on the compressor housing, which is called an integrated CBV. For an integrated CBV, at normal operating conditions, it is closed and the enclosed passageway between high pressure side and low pressure side forms a “side-branch” in the compressor inlet side (Figure 12). The cavity modes associated with this “side-branch” could be excited by shear layer flow and result in narrow band flow noises.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on HCCI Operation in a Spark Assisted Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1763
The fuel effects on HCCI operation in a spark assisted direct injection gasoline engine are assessed. The low load limit has been extended with a pilot fuel injection during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period. The fuel matrix consists of hydrocarbon fuels and various ethanol blends and a butanol blend, plus fuels with added ignition improvers. The hydrocarbon fuels and the butanol blend do not significantly alter the high or the low limits of operation. The HCCI operation appears to be controlled more by the thermal environment than by the fuel properties. For E85, the engine behavior depends on the extent that the heat release from the pilot injected fuel in the NVO period compensates for the evaporative cooling of the fuel.
Technical Paper

Powerplant NVH Benchmarking

2011-05-17
2011-01-1500
Getting Powerplant NVH Benchmarking right is a key first step in knowing where your design stands relative to its competition and what needs to be improved in order to achieve or maintain NVH leadership. It is through benchmarking that you can define industry trends, who gets it right, who doesn't, and why. A good benchmarking database also lets you estimate the improvements or deterioration due to engine architecture changes or design features. This paper describes a methodology used for selecting, measuring, and comparing powerplant NVH attributes.
Journal Article

Idle Combustion Stability Modeling

2011-05-17
2011-01-1501
Idle Combustion Stability has previously been difficult to predict prior to prototype engine development. This paper describes an empirical modeling approach to predicting upfront idle combustion stability. The model outputs are the combustion torque harmonic magnitudes and %LNV. The paper describes the modeling methodology and provides correlation results for different engine configurations.
Technical Paper

EGR Cooler Performance Monitor - Heuristic Approaches Using Temperature Measurement

2011-04-12
2011-01-0707
This paper investigates model free approaches to monitor the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) for a diesel engine equipped with EGR cooler and EGR cooler bypass valve. A conventional way of monitoring the EGR cooler is a model based approach which involves modeling the EGR cooler effectiveness and compares the modeled (estimated) EGR cooler effectiveness (or EGR cooler downstream temperature) and the measured EGR cooler effectiveness (or EGR cooler downstream temperature). The model based approach has the advantage of being portable across many different cooler configurations, but it requires modeling/calibration efforts and necessary temperature measurements. The EGR cooler downstream temperature serves several roles. It can be used together with the fresh air temperature to calculate the charge air temperature. It also can be utilized to monitor the performance of the EGR cooler as mentioned above.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Automotive Test Equipment in the Service Bay

2011-04-12
2011-01-0750
Most people still remember the introduction of the IBM PC in 1981 and the first Microsoft Windows operating system in 1985. These were the pioneering technologies that started a revolution in automotive test equipment in the service bay. What was once a purely mechanical garage environment where information was published annually in large paper manuals has evolved into a highly technical computing environment. Today vehicle networks link onboard vehicle control systems with diagnostic systems and updated service information is published daily over the Internet. A lot has changed over the last twenty years, and manufacturers of diagnostic test equipment are learning to deal with the constantly evolving computing platforms and host operating systems. This paper traces the history of automotive diagnostic equipment at Ford Motor Company and shares some of the hard lessons learned from the early systems.
Technical Paper

Ratio-Metric Hesitation Fuel Detection and Compensation in Power Split Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0882
Power Split Hybrids are unique when compared to conventional powertrains from the perspective that the engine speed is directly controlled by the motor/generator at all times. Therefore, traditional methods of detecting variations in fuel volatility do not apply for Power Split Hybrid based configurations. In their place, the Ratio-metric Fuel Compensation (RFC) method has been developed for Power Split Hybrid generator configurations to detect and compensate for engine hesitations within milliseconds of the first injection event. Furthermore, test results have shown that in the presence of low volatility fuel, RFC provides robust starts at the ideal lean air fuel ratio required for PZEV emissions compliance.
Technical Paper

Ford 2011 6.7L Power Stroke® Diesel Engine Combustion System Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0415
A new diesel engine, called the 6.7L Power Stroke® V-8 Turbo Diesel, and code named "Scorpion," was designed and developed by Ford Motor Company for the full-size pickup truck and light commercial vehicle markets. The combustion system includes the piston bowl, swirl level, number of nozzle holes, fuel spray angle, nozzle tip protrusion, nozzle hydraulic flow, and nozzle-hole taper. While all of these parameters could be explored through extensive hardware testing, 3-D CFD studies were utilized to quickly screen two bowl concepts and assess their sensitivities to a few of the other parameters. The two most promising bowl concepts were built into single-cylinder engines for optimization of the rest of the combustion system parameters. 1-D CFD models were used to set boundary conditions at intake valve closure for 3-D CFD which was used for the closed-cycle portion of the simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of a One-Dimensional Engine Thermal Management Model to Predict Piston and Oil Temperatures

2011-04-12
2011-01-0647
A new, 1-D analytical engine thermal management tool was developed to model piston, oil and coolant temperatures in the Ford 3.5L engine family. The model includes: a detailed lubrication system, including piston oil-squirters, which accurately represents oil flow rates, pressure drops and component heat transfer rates under non-isothermal conditions; a detailed coolant system, which accurately represents coolant flow rates, pressure drops and component heat transfer rates; a turbocharger model, which includes thermal interactions with coolant, oil, intake air and exhaust gases (modeled as air), and heat transfer to the surroundings; and lumped thermal models for engine components such as block, heads, pistons, turbochargers, oil cooler and cooling tower. The model was preliminarily calibrated for the 3.5L EcoBoost™ engine, across the speed range from 1500 to 5500 rpm, using wide-open-throttle data taken from an early heat rejection study.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0866
This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Pressure Loss Characteristics through a DPF with Asymmetrical Channel size

2011-04-12
2011-01-0818
The main objective of the current paper was to investigate the fluid flow and pressure loss characteristics of DPF substrates with asymmetric channels utilizing 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods. The ratio of inlet to outlet channel width is 1.2. First, CFD results of velocity and static pressure distributions inside the inlet and outlet channels are discussed for the baseline case with both forward and reversed exhaust flow. Results were also compared with the regular DPF of same cell structure and wall material properties. It was found that asymmetrical channel design has higher pressure loss. The lowest pressure loss was found for the asymmetrical channel design with smaller inlet channels. Then, the effects of DPF length and filter wall permeability on pressure loss, flow and pressure distributions were investigated.
Journal Article

Real-time Tire Imbalance Detection Using ABS Wheel Speed Sensors

2011-04-12
2011-01-0981
This paper proposes an approach to use ABS wheel speed sensor signals together with other vehicle state information from a brake control module to detect an unbalanced tire or tires in real-time. The proposed approach consists of two-stage algorithms that mix a qualitative method using band-pass filtering with a quantitative parameter identification using conditional least squares. This two-stage approach can improve the robustness of tire imbalance or imbalances. The proposed approach is verified through vehicle testing and the test results show the effectiveness of the approach.
Technical Paper

Study of Particle Number Emissions from a Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engine Including Data from a Fast-Response Particle Size Spectrometer

2011-04-12
2011-01-1224
A study has been conducted to measure the particle number emissions from a current-generation 1.6-liter, Euro IV-compliant turbo-charged Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) passenger car engine. A fast-response particle size spectrometer was used along with a PMP-compliant particulate measurement system to measure the effect of various engine parameters on the particulate emissions during the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). Overall particle number is shown along with further analysis of the transient particle emissions. The cold start clearly affects particle formation with approximately 50% of the cumulative particle number being emitted within 200 seconds of the start. Even beyond 200 seconds, the particle number emissions fall as the test progresses and are generally consistent with increases in engine coolant temperature indicating that cold engine fuel preparation issues are contributing to the particle number count.
Technical Paper

Innovative Robust Solutions for Lean Manufacturing in Automotive Assembly Processes

2011-04-12
2011-01-1254
The article presents an innovative approach to the implementation of a robust design optimization solution in an automobiles assembly process. The approach of the entire project is specific to the 6 Sigma optimization process, by applying the DMAIC cycle integrated in a robust engineering approach for rendering lean the final product assembly process. According to the improvement cycle, the aspects specific for such a process are presented sequentially starting with the “Define” phase for presenting the encountered problem and continuing with the presentation of the scope of the project and its objectives. The “Improvement” cycle phase is applied by the analysis of the monitored 6 Sigma metrics (defined during the previous “Measure” phase and the cause and effect analysis, done during a brainstorming meeting developed during the “Analyze” phase). There follows a proposal for the innovative robust solution by which the assembly process is optimized.
Technical Paper

Control-oriented Reduced-order Models for Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems Using a Physics-based Approach

2011-04-12
2011-01-1326
Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) after-treatment systems are used for reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions in medium and heavy duty diesel vehicles. This paper addresses control-oriented modeling, starting from first-principles, of SCR after-treatment systems. Appropriate simplifications are made to yield governing equations of the Urea-SCR. The resulting nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are discretized and linearized to yield a family of linear finite-dimensional state-space models of the SCR at different operating points. It is further shown that this family of models can be reduced to three operating regions. Within each region, parametric dependencies of the system on physical mechanisms are derived. Further model reduction is shown to be possible in each of the three regions resulting in a second-order linear model with sufficient accuracy.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Methods for Determining Sheared Edge Formability

2011-04-12
2011-01-1062
Imposing tensile stress on an edge of a sheet metal blank is a common condition in many sheet metal forming operations, making edge formability a very important factor to consider. Because edge formability varies greatly among different materials, cutting methods (and their control parameters), it is very important to have access to an experimental technique that would allow for quick and reliable evaluation of edge formability for a given case. In this paper, two existing techniques are compared: the hole expansion test and the tensile test. It is shown that the hole expansion test might not be adequate for many cases, and is prone to overestimating the limiting strain, because the burr on the sheared edge is typically smaller than what is observed in production. The tensile test represents an effective alternative to the hole expansion test. Advantages and disadvantages of each case are discussed.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Partial Flow Dilution Methodology for Light Duty Particulate Mass Measurement

2013-04-08
2013-01-1567
Two different implementations of Partial Flow Dilution (PFD) methodology designed for gravimetric particulate matter (PM) sampling are evaluated for applicability to light-duty chassis emissions testing. Filter PM measurements were collected and compared to constant volume sampler (CVS) full dilution tunnel PM filter measurements and other real-time PM measurement technologies, using gasoline vehicles generating a range of 0.1 to 10.0 mg/mile PM. Exhaust samples were collected for each phase of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) with a fourth filter sample collected for the US06 supplemental cycle. Both PFDs satisfactorily met proportionality criteria for conventional combustion engines, but some improvements are needed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The PM mass collected scaled linearly with the CVS tunnel samples, with slopes of 1.03 and 0.74 for the two PFDs.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of an Emissions Sample Probe Using a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics Tool

2013-04-08
2013-01-1571
Emissions sample probes are widely used in engine and vehicle emissions development testing. Tailpipe bag summary data is used for certification, but the time-resolved (or modal) emissions data at various points along the exhaust system is extremely important in the emission control technology development process. Exhaust gas samples need to be collected at various locations along the exhaust aftertreatment system. Typically, a tube with a small diameter is inserted inside the exhaust pipe to avoid any significant effect on flow distribution. The emissions test equipment draws a gas sample from the exhaust stream at a constant volumetric flow rate (typically around 10 SLPM). The sample probe tube delivers exhaust gas from the exhaust pipe to emissions test equipment through multiple holes on the surface of tube. There can be multiple rows of holes at different axial planes along the length of the sample probe as well as multiple holes on a given axial plane of the sample probe.
Journal Article

Determining Soot Distribution in the Vehicle Exhaust Downstream of a Faulty Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-04-08
2013-01-1562
New emissions certification requirements for medium duty vehicles (MDV) meeting chassis dynamometer regulations in the 8,500 lb to 14,000 lb weight classes as well as heavy duty (HD) engine dynamometer certified applications in both the under 14,000 lb and over 14,000 lb weight classes employing large diameter exhaust pipes (up to 4″) have created new exhaust stream sampling concerns. Current On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) dyno certified particulate matter (PM) requirements were/are 7x the standard for 2010-2012 applications with a planned phase in down to 3x the standard by 2017. Chassis certified applications undergo a similar reduction down to 1.75x the standard for 2017 model year (MY) applications. Failure detection of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) at these low detection limits facilitates the need for a particulate matter sensor.
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