Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

2009-06-15
2009-01-1939
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
Journal Article

Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

2011-04-12
2011-01-0618
To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG.
Technical Paper

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

2011-04-12
2011-01-1218
Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.01 LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study.
Technical Paper

High Performance NH3 SCR Zeolite Catalysts for Treatment of NOx in Emissions from Off-Road Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1330
The leading approach for reduction of NOx from diesel engines is selective catalytic reduction employing urea as a reductant (NH₃- or urea-SCR). For passenger vehicles, the best known NH₃-SCR catalysts are Cu-ZSM-5 and Fe-ZSM-5 and have been shown to function very well in a narrow temperature range. This technology is not directly transferable to off-road diesel engines which operate under a different duty cycle resulting in exhaust with different fractions of components than are present in passenger vehicle emissions. Our results show that Cu-ZSM-5 exhibits 90% NOx reduction efficiency in 250-450°C range while Fe-ZSM-5 is highly effective in 350-550°C range for off-road engines. However, a combination of these catalysts cannot efficiently reduce NOx in 150-650°C which is the desirable range for deployment in off-road diesel engines. In our efforts to increase the effective range of these catalysts, we initiated efforts to modify these catalysts by catalyst promoters.
Technical Paper

Comparative Urban Drive Cycle Simulations of Light-Duty Hybrid Vehicles with Gasoline or Diesel Engines and Emissions Controls

2013-04-08
2013-01-1585
We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines. Our simulations utilize previously published models of transient engine-out emissions and models of aftertreatment devices for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions were estimated for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles operating over single and multiple urban drive cycles. Comparisons between the gasoline and diesel vehicle fuel consumptions and emissions were used to identify potential advantages and technical barriers for diesel hybrids.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor Experiments

2013-04-08
2013-01-1576
In order to further characterize and optimize the performance of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment systems used on heavy-duty diesel engines, an accurately calibrated high-fidelity multi-step global kinetic SCR model and a reduced order estimator for on-board diagnostic (OBD) and control are desirable. In this study, a Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst from a 2010 Cummins ISB engine was experimentally studied in a flow reactor using carefully designed protocols. A 2-site SCR model describing mass transfer and the SCR chemical reaction mechanisms is described in the paper. The model was calibrated to the reactor test data sets collected under temperatures from 200 to 425 °C and SCR space velocities of 60000, 90000, and 120000 hr-1. The model parameters were calibrated using an optimization code to minimize the error between measured and simulated NO, NO₂, N₂O, and NH₃ gas concentration time histories.
Technical Paper

1D Model of a Copper Exchanged Small Pore Zeolite Catalyst Based on Transient SCR Protocol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1578
Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NO x emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NO x reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NO x ratios.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Impact of Road Grade and Curvature on Truck Driving for Vehicle Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0879
Abstract Driver is a key component in vehicle simulation. An ideal driver model simulates driving patterns a human driver may perform to negotiate road profiles. There are simulation packages having the capability to simulate driver behavior. However, it is rarely documented how they work with road profiles. This paper proposes a new truck driver model for vehicle simulation to imitate actual driving behavior in negotiating road grade and curvature. The proposed model is developed based upon Gipps' car-following model. Road grade and curvature were not considered in the original Gipps' model although it is based directly on driver behavior and expectancy for vehicles in a stream of traffic. New parameters are introduced to capture drivers' choice of desired speeds that they intend to use in order to negotiating road grade and curvature simultaneously. With the new parameters, the proposed model can emulate behaviors like uphill preparation for different truck drivers.
Journal Article

Response Surface Energy Modeling of an Electric Vehicle over a Reduced Composite Drive Cycle

2014-04-01
2014-01-0818
Response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to develop a predictive model of electric vehicle (EV) energy consumption over the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standardized drive cycles. The model is based on measurements from a synthetic composite drive cycle. The synthetic drive cycle is a minimized statistical composite of the standardized urban (UDDS), highway (HWFET), and US06 cycles. The composite synthetic drive cycle is 20 minutes in length thereby reducing testing time of the three standard EPA cycles by over 55%. Vehicle speed and acceleration were used as model inputs for a third order least squared regression model predicting vehicle battery power output as a function of the drive cycle. The approach reduced three cycles and 46 minutes of drive time to a single test of 20 minutes.
Journal Article

Life Cycle Energy and Environmental Assessment of Aluminum-Intensive Vehicle Design

2014-04-01
2014-01-1004
Advanced lightweight materials are increasingly being incorporated into new vehicle designs by automakers to enhance performance and assist in complying with increasing requirements of corporate average fuel economy standards. To assess the primary energy and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) implications of vehicle designs utilizing these materials, this study examines the potential life cycle impacts of two lightweight material alternative vehicle designs, i.e., steel and aluminum of a typical passenger vehicle operated today in North America. LCA for three common alternative lightweight vehicle designs are evaluated: current production (“Baseline”), an advanced high strength steel and aluminum design (“LWSV”), and an aluminum-intensive design (AIV). This study focuses on body-in-white and closures since these are the largest automotive systems by weight accounting for approximately 40% of total curb weight of a typical passenger vehicle.
Technical Paper

Partial Oxidation Products and other Hydrocarbon Species in Diesel HCCI Exhaust

2005-10-24
2005-01-3737
A single cylinder engine was operated in HCCI mode with diesel-range fuels, spanning a range in cetane number (CN) from 34 to 62. In addition to measurements of standard gaseous emissions (CO, HC, and NOx), multiple sampling and analysis techniques were used to identify and measure the individual exhaust HC species including an array of oxygenated compounds. A new analytical method, using liquid chromatography (LC) with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in tandem with ultraviolet (UV) detection, was developed to analyze the longer chain aldehydes as well as carboxylic acids. Results showed an abundance of formic and butyric acid formation at or near the same concentration levels as formaldehyde and other aldehydes.
Technical Paper

Cetane Number and Engine Speed Effects on Diesel HCCI Performance and Emissions

2005-10-24
2005-01-3723
The effects of cetane number (CN) on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) performance and emissions were investigated in a single cylinder engine using intake air temperature for control. Blends of the diesel secondary reference fuels for cetane rating were used to obtain a CN range from 19 to 76. Sweeps of intake air temperature at a constant fueling were performed. Low CN fuels needed to be operated at higher intake temperatures than high CN fuels to achieve ignition. As the intake air temperature was reduced for a given fuel, the combustion phasing was retarded, and each fuel passed through a phasing point of maximum indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). Early combustion phasing was required for the high CN fuels to prevent misfire, whereas the maximum IMEP for the lowest CN fuel occurred at a phasing 10 crank angle degrees (CAD) later.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Production of Hydrogen During Net-Lean Diesel Operation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0212
Hydrogen (H2) is an excellent reductant, and has been shown to be highly effective when introduced into a variety of catalysts such as three-way catalysts, lean NOx traps (LNTs), and hydrocarbon lean NOx catalysts (also termed hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts). Furthermore, since lean-burn engines offer improved fuel efficiency yet difficult NOx emission control, H2 production during lean operation for the purpose of NOx reduction could be beneficial. On-board generation of hydrogen is being explored via catalytic or plasma-based reformers. A possible alternative to these add-on systems is generation of the H2 in-cylinder with standard fuel injection hardware. This paper details experiments relating to the production and measurement of H2 under net-lean operation in a common-rail diesel engine. In-cylinder fuel control is used to tailor the combustion process such that H2 is generated while maintaining a lean Air:Fuel ratio in the bulk exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Phosphorous Poisoning and Phosphorous Exhaust Chemistry with Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2005-04-11
2005-01-1758
Phosphorous in diesel exhaust is derived via engine oil consumption from the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) oil additive used for engine wear control. Phosphorous present in the engine exhaust can react with an exhaust catalyst and cause loss of performance through masking or chemical reaction. The primary effect is loss of light-off or low temperature performance. Although the amount of ZDDP used in lube oil is being reduced, it appears that there may is a minimum level of ZDDP needed for engine durability. One of the ways of reducing the effects of the resulting phosphorous on catalysts might be to alter the chemical state of the phosphorous to a less damaging form or to develop catalysts which are more resistant to phosphorous poisoning. In this study, lube oil containing ZDDP was added at an accelerated rate through a variety of engine pathways to simulate various types of engine wear or oil disposal practices.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Urea Decomposition and SCR Performance

2005-04-11
2005-01-1858
Urea-SCR systems are potentially a highly-effective means of NOX reduction for light-duty diesel vehicles. However, use of urea-SCR technologies at low temperatures presents unique technical challenges. This study was undertaken to provide more knowledge about low temperature urea decomposition and the resulting effects on SCR performance. Data are presented for experiments using two SCR catalysts of differing size with a light-duty diesel engine. Analyses of the NOX reduction efficiency, NH3 storage phenomena, and unregulated emissions are shown. Over production of NO2 by the oxidation catalyst is demonstrated to be problematic at 25,000 hr-1 space velocity for a range of temperatures. This leads to production of N2O by both SCR catalysts that is higher when urea is injected than when NH3 is injected.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Effects on Emissions from High Efficiency Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0080
High-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) modes provide simultaneous reductions in diesel particulate matter and nitrogen-oxides emissions while retaining efficiencies characteristic of normal diesel engines. Fuel parameters may have significant impacts on the ability to operate in HECC modes and on the emissions produced in HECC modes. In this study, 3 diesel-range fuels and 2 oxygenated blends are burned in both normal and HECC modes at 3 different engine conditions. The results show that fuel effects play an important role in the emissions of hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide but do not significantly impact NOx emissions in HECC modes. HECC modes are achievable with 5% biodiesel blends in addition to petroleum-based and oil-sands derived fuels. Soot precursor and oxygenated compound concentrations in the exhaust were observed to generally increase with the sooting tendency of the fuel in HECC modes.
Journal Article

Compatibility Assessment of Elastomer Materials to Test Fuels Representing Gasoline Blends Containing Ethanol and Isobutanol

2014-04-01
2014-01-1462
The compatibility of elastomeric materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for test fuels representing neat gasoline and gasoline blends containing 10 and 17 vol.% ethanol, and 16 and 24 vol.% isobutanol. The actual test fuel chemistries were based on the aggressive formulations described in SAE J1681 for oxygenated gasoline. Elastomer specimens of fluorocarbon, fluorosilicone, acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), polyurethane, neoprene, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and silicone were exposed to the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 20 hours at 60°C and then remeasured for volume and hardness. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was also performed to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg). Comparison to the original values showed that all elastomer materials experienced volume expansion and softening when wetted by the test fuels.
Journal Article

Compatibility Assessment of Plastic Infrastructure Materials to Test Fuels Representing Gasoline Blends Containing Ethanol and Isobutanol

2014-04-01
2014-01-1465
The compatibility of plastic materials used in gasoline storage and dispensing applications was determined for test fuels representing neat gasoline (Fuel C), and blends containing 25% ethanol (CE25a), 16% isobutanol (CiBu16a), and 24% isobutanol (CiBu24a). A solubility analysis was also performed and compared to the volume swell results obtained from the test fuel exposures. The plastic specimens were exposed to each test fuel for16 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 65 hours at 60°C and then remeasured for volume and hardness. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), which measures the storage modulus as a function of temperature, was also performed on the dried specimens to determine the temperature associated with the onset of the glass-to-rubber transition (Tg). For many of the plastic materials, the solubility analysis was able to predict the relative volume swell for each test fuel.
Journal Article

Effect of Accelerated Aging Rate on the Capture of Fuel-Borne Metal Impurities by Emissions Control Devices

2014-04-01
2014-01-1500
Small impurities in the fuel can have a significant impact on the emissions control system performance over the lifetime of the vehicle. Of particular interest in recent studies has been the impact of sodium, potassium, and calcium that can be introduced either through fuel constituents, such as biodiesel, or as lubricant additives. In a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a series of accelerated aging studies have been performed to understand the potential impact of these metals on the emissions control system. This paper explores the effect of the rate of accelerated aging on the capture of fuel-borne metal impurities in the emission control devices and the subsequent impact on performance. Aging was accelerated by doping the fuel with high levels of the metals of interest. Three separate evaluations were performed, each with a different rate of accelerated aging.
Journal Article

Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1505
A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at λ=0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the λ=0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant.
X