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Technical Paper

Design of a Cryogenic Platform for New Communication Payload Technologies

1999-07-12
1999-01-2086
In this paper we present the design of a cryogenic platform for new space borne communication payloads. This platform is dedicated to service the operation of a communication payload in a cryogenic environment. In addition, an easy adaptation to any kind of available satellite buses must be reflected by the design of all interfaces. A first experimental demonstrator of this cryogenic platform with HTSC-components is foreseen to be operated on board the International Space Station (ISS) [1]. The paper will present such a new kind of cryogenic platform. The thermal requirements and boundary conditions for the platform development are summarized. A comparison of the typical thermal environment of a communication satellite with the environment of the ISS and is performed. Two different concepts for the design of a cryogenic platform will be presented. A redundancy concept for the provision of cooling power and the thermal control of the cryogenic platform is discussed.
Technical Paper

Advances in Design and Implementation of OBD Functions for Diesel Injection Based on a Qualitative Approach to Diagnosis

2000-03-06
2000-01-0365
This paper reports on the application of model-based diagnosis techniques to diesel engine management systems within the Brite-EuRam project “Vehicle Model Based Diagnosis”. We discuss some major requirements that have been identified in this application. In particular, it is essential to solve the inherent variant problem, to reason across different physical domains and to fulfill real-time needs for on-board diagnosis. The main foundation of our approach is to use qualitative models, especially qualitative deviation models, which serve as a coherent modeling paradigm for the different domains. In the project, this technology has been implemented and evaluated for on-board diagnosis on two demonstrator vehicles. The paper also discusses further perspectives of the technology for tools supporting the development and implementation of on-board diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Tool Support for Analyzing and Optimization Methods in Early Brake System Sizing Phases

2000-03-06
2000-01-0442
The manufacturers of passenger cars increasingly assign development and production of complete subsystems to the supplying industry. A brake system supplier has to give predictions about system quality and performance long time before the first prototypical system is built or even before the supplier gets the order for system development. Nowadays, the usage of computer-aided system design and simulation is essential for that task. This article presents a tool designed to support the development process. A special focus will be on how to define quality. A formal definition of quality is provided, illustrated and motivated by two examples.
Technical Paper

Expeditious Design of Mechatronic Systems Using a VHDL-AMS Based Standard Element Library - A Common Rail Example

2000-03-06
2000-01-0581
Virtual prototyping and concurrent engineering is becoming a common practice due to time and cost constraints in automotive industry. Analysing interaction of mechatronic systems consisting of control and multiple physical domains becomes a major challenge for the product design due to the domain specific representations. In this respect, model exchange between different domains is essential. The design of the Common Rail injection system exposes all these deficiencies. On the example of the virtual prototyping of the Common Rail system, this paper gives a pragmatic approach to overcome the problem of model exchange. Hereby, the standardised simulation language VHDL-AMS is explicitly used as a unified basis.
Technical Paper

The Significance of a Reference Architecture in the Automotive Industry

2000-03-06
2000-01-0387
In the automotive industry, a steadily growing number of mono-functional electronic control units (ECUs) with increasing complexity on the one hand and restrictive requirements for power consumption and mounting space on the other hand are forcing an architectural change in car electronics. Computer platforms with a client/server architecture could potentially reduce the number of ECUs in a car drastically, with a commensurate reduction of costs and space, better integration possibilities for enhanced functionality and additional services during the lifetime of a car. One of the problems which arises when those architectures come to the car is coping with the complexity of mainly software-based functionality and reliability issues under the aspect of rapidly evolving hardware infrastructure. The reorganization of car electronics also offers the possibility of a redistribution of functionality in the car which has been designed in the past for specific demands.
Technical Paper

Application of the Object-Oriented Modeling Concept OMOS for Signal Conditioning of Vehicle Control Units

2000-03-06
2000-01-0717
In recent times, the software portion and the complexity of software within automotive electronic control units have grown noticeably and continue to grow. In order to get a grip on the software complexity and the amount of customer-specific software variants, a modeling concept for a structured and easily extensible software architecture is needed. This concept should efficiently support the formation of variants and code reuse without increasing runtime and memory space overhead. In this paper, we present our approach to such a modeling concept: The object-oriented modeling concept OMOS and its application to signal conditioning of vehicle control systems.
Technical Paper

Driving Course Prediction Using Distance Sensor Data

1999-03-01
1999-01-1234
The assignment of vehicles detected by distance sensors to lanes relative to the own vehicle is an important and necessary task for future driver assistance systems like Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). The collective motion of objects driving in front of the vehicle allows a prediction of the vehicle's own driving course. The method uses not only data of the host vehicle to determine its own trajectory but as well data from a distance sensor supplying distances and angles of objects ahead of the vehicle to determine the trajectories of these objects. Algorithms were developed using an off-line simulation, which was fed with recorded data obtained from a real ACC vehicle. The results show a significant improvement in the quality of the predicted driving course compared to other methods solely based on data of the host vehicle. Particularly in situations of changing curvature, e.g. the beginning of a bend, the algorithm helps to improve the overall system performance of ACC.
Technical Paper

Object-Oriented Software Technology for Body Electronics Applications

1999-03-01
1999-01-1101
The role of the software in automobile electronics is gaining increasing importance. New software technologies are needed in order to increase the efficiency of software development as well as the quality of software products. The reuse of constituents of existing systems is the central technique to raise efficiency and quality. Nevertheless, the property of a system of being suitable for reuse does not arise automatically but should be considered as a goal of software architecture design. With the help of examples of body electronics systems the following paper describes an object-oriented, tool-based software technology including mechanisms to design a reusable software architecture. The introduced software technology is used for the software development of a set of electronic control units which are networked via CAN bus. The approach covers an efficient implementation concept to convert object-oriented models into executable software for electronic control units.
Technical Paper

The Safety-Related Aspect of CARTRONIC

1999-03-01
1999-01-0488
A networking of control systems poses high challenges - in particular for guaranteeing its safety, reliability, and acceptance of the whole integrated system by the car user. CARTRONIC is an open architecture for networking the control systems of a vehicle. The organization of a network has to be set up systematically and with foresight to achieve the advantages of going beyond the sum of the components and to avoid mutual disturbance. Thus the cooperation does not only require well-defined interfaces, but also coordination of the control strategies in the individual components. Additionally, there is an increasing need for ensuring that safety risks are effectively minimized, and for ensuring that no degradation in performance from either a safety or environmental point of view might take place. The paper is focused on the safety-related aspect of CARTRONIC, the safety analysis. The output of the safety analysis is a Safety Architecture.
Technical Paper

Information Technology Restructures Car Electronics

1999-03-01
1999-01-0485
In the automotive industry a growing number of mono-functional control units with increasing complexity on one hand and requirements for reduced power con-sumption and mounting space on the other hand are enforcing an architectural change of the car electronics. Computer platforms with a client/server architecture are candidates to reduce the number of control units drastically followed by a reduction of costs, space and better integration possibilities for enhanced func-tionalities as well as additional services. The problem which comes up now if those architectures are coming to the cars is to cope with software complexity and reliability issues under the aspect of continuously evolving hardware infrastructure. To understand the problems better, the Corporate Engineering within Robert Bosch GmbH has build a multifunctional look-and-feel demonstrator in a first step using a component-based software architecture on a standard PC-platform. Experiences are reported.
Technical Paper

Spray Formation of High Pressure Swirl Gasoline Injectors Investigated by Two-Dimensional Mie and LIEF Techniques

1999-03-01
1999-01-0498
Two-dimensional Mie and LIEF techniques were applied to investigate the spray formation of a high pressure gasoline swirl injector in a constant volume chamber. The results obtained provide information on the propagation of liquid fuel and fuel vapor for different fuel pressures and ambient conditions. Spray parameters like tip penetration, cone angles and two new defined parameters describing the radial fuel distribution were used to quantify the fuel distributions measured. Simultaneous detection of liquid and vapor fuel was applied to study the influence of ambient temperature, injector temperature and ambient pressure on the evaporating spray.
Technical Paper

The Steer-By-Wire Prototype Implementation: Realizing Time Triggered System Design, Fail Silence Behavior and Active Replication with Fault-Tolerance Support

1999-03-01
1999-01-0400
Actual research results in the automotive field show that there is a big potential in increasing active and passive safety by implementing intelligent driver assisting systems. Realizing such safety related system functions requires an electronic system without mechanical or hydraulic backup to de-couple the human interface from the vehicle functions, e.g., steering and braking. Safety critical functions without mechanical backup enforce new requirements in system design. Any faulty behavior of a component within the system must not lead to a malfunction of the overall system. Consequently in the system design fault-tolerance mechanisms in real time must be introduced. Active replication of a functional node is a proper solution to guarantee this real time fault-tolerance. Redundancy management of the functional nodes can be implemented by fail-silent replicas, i.e. a node behaves correctly or does not produce any output at all.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Assess the Accuracy of Service Timing Devices for Injection Pumps of Diesel Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0823
The correct timing of the diesel injection pump on engine is of major importance for all functions of the engine and for its exhaust emissions, during production pass off as well as in the field. Within the diesel service workshops a variety of devices exist to test the timing of the injection pump on engine. Most of them operate by clamp-on transducer being fitted to the injection pipe. A large uncertainty exists concerning the accuracy of such timing systems. Most diesel engine manufacturers do not have confidence in the timing devices capability and, therefore, do not recommend their usage. A working group within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted a method for the validation of these measurement systems, which usually is used to judge the capability of measurement gauges for industrial production processes.
Technical Paper

OSEKtime: A Dependable Real-Time Fault-Tolerant Operating System and Communication Layer as an Enabling Technology for By-Wire Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-1051
The new generation of drive-by-wire systems currently under development has demanding requirements on the electronic architecture. Functions such as brake-by-wire or steer-by-wire require continued operation even in the presence of component failures. The electronic architecture must therefore provide fault-tolerance and real-time response. This in turn requires the operating system and the communication layer to be predictable, dependable and composable. It is well known that this properties are best supported by a time-triggered approach. A consortium consisting of German and French car manufacturers and suppliers, which aims at becoming a working group within the OSEK/VDX initiative, the OSEKtime consortium, is currently defining a specification for a time-triggered operating system and a fault-tolerant communication layer.1 The operating system and the communication layer are based on applicable interfaces of the OSEK/VDX standard.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Pressure Estimation from Structure-Borne Sound

2000-03-06
2000-01-0930
We propose a novel method to real-time in-cylinder pressure estimation by processing structure-borne sound measurements. It has been shown that knowledge of the in-cylinder pressure opens the door to robust misfire detection and sophisticated closed loop engine control schemes. However, the costs of such sensors have inhibited their use in production engines. On the other hand, acceleration sensors are of low cost and already mounted on modern production engines for knock detection. Since structure-borne sound is measured on the surface of the engine, all cylinders are simultaneously observed by one sensor. A simple physically based model, describing the speed dependence of the transfer behavior from each in-cylinder pressure to structure-borne sound is developed. Based on this model, a method for identifying the parameterized transfer function speed independently is developed.
Technical Paper

Safety and Security Considerations of New Closure Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-1304
A closure system for automotive security and driver comfort has been developed. The system combines a passive entry system and an electronic door latch system. The passive entry system utilises a single chip transponder for vehicle immobilisation, passive entry and remote control functionality. The form factor free transponder enables the integration into a key fob or a smart card. The system can be activated by either pulling the door handle or by using a push button transponder. Due to the inductive coupling between the transponder and the vehicle mounted antennas, the vehicle door or trunk opens on successful verification as if there were no locks. Additionally, inside the vehicle, the transponder can be used as a far range immobiliser. The electronic door latch system utilises electronically controlled latches.
Technical Paper

Wireless Vehicle to Vehicle Warning System

2000-03-06
2000-01-1307
To satisfy the increasing demand for automotive safety a warning system (WARN) to support drivers has been developed. The basic idea is to transmit safety-related information from one vehicle to surrounding vehicles by direct wireless communication. To ensure user-acceptance of the system different strategies have been developed in order to provide only relevant information to a specific driver. The strategies rely on a comparison of the received alert messages with the current driving situation. Simulations show a significant safety-improvement due to the system if at least 10 percent of all vehicles are equipped with the system.
Technical Paper

Future Electrical Steering Systems: Realizations with Safety Requirements

2000-03-06
2000-01-0822
Additional future requirements for automobiles such as improved vehicle dynamics control, enhanced comfort, increased safety and compact packaging are met by modern electrical steering systems. Based on these requirements the new functionality is realized by various additional electrical components for measuring, signal processing and actuator control. However, the reliability of these new systems has to meet the standard of today's automotive steering products. To achieve the demands of the respective components (e.g. sensors, bus systems, electronic control units, power units, actuators) the systems have to be fault-tolerant and/or fail-silent. The realization of the derived safety structures requires both expertise and experience in design and mass production of safety relevant electrical systems. Beside system safety and system availability the redundant electrical systems also have to meet economic and market requirements.
Technical Paper

Software Controlled Homogeneity Analysis of Headlamp Light Distribution

1999-03-01
1999-01-0700
This paper will describe the procedures that will enhance the possibilities of qualitative evaluation of headlamp light distributions. A basis will be the description of a light distribution coming only from reflector geometries, i.e. headlamps with clear outer lens design. Further steps of evaluation, as visualization and homogeneity analysis become more and more important for a headlamp evaluation. The recently developed tools can support both the headlamp manufacturer and the car manufacturer in finding a common understanding in headlamp performance of a projected car at a very early stage of development.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Sensing for Spark Ignition Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0204
This paper describes an ion current measurement system with a new, modified inductive ignition system and evaluates the detection quality for misfire and knock detection. The System uses an ignition circuit with adjustable spark duration limitation. The measurement circuit is located at the low tension side of the secondary ignition coil. Due to the fact that a lot of influencing factors on misfire detection have been investigated, the estimation of the signal-to-noise-ratio is possible as well as the detection of critical operation points. Results of a closed-loop knock control with ion current are presented and are compared with the structure borne noise method.
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