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Technical Paper

Multi-Target Tracking Algorithm in the Complicated Road Condition for Automotive Millimeter-wave Radar

Automotive radar is the most important component in the autonomous driving system, which detects the obstacles, vehicles and pedestrians around with acceptable cost. The target tracking is one of the key functions in the automotive radar which estimates the position and speed of the targets having regarding to the measurement inaccuracy and interferences. Modern automotive radar requires a multi-target tracking algorithm, as in the radar field of view hundreds of targets can present. In practice, the automotive radar faces very complicated and fast-changing road conditions, for example tunnels and curved roads. The targets’ unpredictable movements and the reflections of the electromagnetic wave from the tunnel walls and the roads will make the multi-target tracking a difficult task. Such situation may last several seconds so that the continuous tracks of the targets cannot be maintained and the tracks are dropped mistakenly.
Technical Paper

3D Automotive Millimeter-Wave Radar with Two-Dimensional Electronic Scanning

The radar-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) like autonomous emergency braking (AEB) and forward collision warning (FCW) can reduce accidents, so as to make vehicles, drivers and pedestrians safer. For active safety, automotive millimeter-wave radar is an indispensable role in the automotive environmental sensing system since it can work effectively regardless of the bad weather while the camera fails. One crucial task of the automotive radar is to detect and distinguish some objects close to each other precisely with the increasingly complex of the road condition. Nowadays almost all the automotive radar products work in bidimensional area where just the range and azimuth can be measured. However, sometimes in their field of view it is not easy for them to differentiate some objects, like the car, the manhole covers and the guide board, when they align with each other in vertical direction.
Technical Paper

Analyze Signal Processing Software for Millimeter-Wave Automotive Radar System by Using a Software Testbench Built by SystemVue

Millimeter-wave automotive radars can prevent traffic accidents and save human lives as they can detect vehicles and pedestrians even in night and in bad weather. Various types of automotive radars operating at 24 and 77 GHz bands are developed for various applications, like adaptive cruise control, blind-spot detection and lane change assistance. In each year, millions of millimeter-wave radar are sold worldwide. Millimeter-wave radar is composed of radar hardware and radar signal processing software, which detects the targets among noise, measures the distance, longitudinal speed and the azimuth angle of the targets, tracks the targets continuously, and controls the ego vehicle to brake or accelerate. Performance of the radar signal processing software is closely related with the radar hardware properties and radar measurement conditions.
Technical Paper

Tracking of Extended Objects with Multiple Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Automotive Millimeter Wave Radar

Estimating the motion state of peripheral targets is a very important part in the environment perception of intelligent vehicles. The accurate estimation of the motion state of the peripheral targets can provide more information for the intelligent vehicle planning module which means the intelligent vehicle is able to anticipate hazards ahead of time. To get the motion state of the target accurately, the target’s range, velocity, orientation angle and yaw rate need to be estimated. Three-dimensional high-resolution automotive millimeter wave radar can measure radial range, radial velocity, azimuth angle and elevation angle about multiple reflections of an extended target. Thus, the three-dimensional range information and three-dimensional velocity information can be obtained. With multiple three-dimensional high-resolution automotive millimeter-wave radar, it is possible to measure information in various directions of a target.
Technical Paper

Robust Multi-Lane Detection and Tracking in Temporal-Spatial Based on Particle Filtering

The camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) like lane departure warning system (LDWS) and lane keeping assist (LKA) can make vehicles safer and driving easier. Lane detection is indispensable for these lane-based systems for achieving vehicle local localization and behavior prediction. Since the vision is vulnerable to the variable environment conditions such as bad weather, occlusions and illumination, the robustness is important. In this paper, a robust algorithm for detecting and tracking multiple lanes with arbitrary shape is proposed. We extend the previously lane detection and tracking process from the space domain to the temporal-spatial domain by using a more robust and general multi-lane model. First, new slice images containing temporal information are generated from image sequences. Instead of binarization process, we use a more general detector for extracting the lane marker candidates with prior knowledge to generate the binary slice image.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Camera-Radar Vehicle Tracking with Image Perceptual Hash Encoding

For sensing system, the trustworthiness of the variant sensors is the crucial point when dealing with advanced driving assistant system application. In this paper, an approach to a hybrid camera-radar application of vehicle tracking is presented, able to meet the requirement of such demand. Most of the time, different types of commercial sensors available nowadays specialize in different situations, such as the ability of offering a wealth of detailed information about the scene for the camera or the powerful resistance to the severe weather for the millimeter-wave (MMW) radar. The detection and tracking in different sensors are usually independent. Thus, the work here that combines the variant information provided by different sensors is indispensable and worthwhile. For the real-time requirement of merging the measurement of automotive MMW radar in high speed, this paper first proposes a fast vehicle tracking algorithm based on image perceptual hash encoding.
Technical Paper

Study on a Fuzzy Q-Learning Approach Using the Driver Priori Knowledge for Intelligent Vehicles’ Autonomous Navigation and Control

The functional elements of decision making system are fuzzy, adaptive and self-learning for intelligent ground vehicles. As is well-known, operating environment of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) is complex, unknown and time-changing. And on the other hand, exact dynamic model of the vehicle is relatively difficult to gain. However, the changing of special dynamic parameters and the man-made driving laws of velocities and running direction are easily available. Therefore, this paper attempts to provide an approach based on fuzzy Q-learning algorithm for studying autonomous navigation and control system’s design, which aims to make unmanned vehicles adaptive and robust under complex and time-changing environment. The presented approach utilizes the drivers’ empirical knowledge for.
Technical Paper

Drivable Area Detection and Vehicle Localization Based on Multi-Sensor Information

Multi-sensor information fusion framework is the eyes for unmanned driving and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) to perceive the surrounding environment. In addition to the perception of the surrounding environment, real-time vehicle localization is also the key and difficult point of unmanned driving technology. The disappearance of high-precision GPS signal suddenly and defect of the lane line will bring much more difficult and dangerous for vehicle localization when the vehicle is on unmanned driving. In this paper, a road boundary feature extraction algorithm is proposed based on multi-sensor information fusion of automotive radar and vision to realize the auxiliary localization of vehicles. Firstly, we designed a 79GHz (78-81GHz) Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) millimeter-wave radar, which can obtain the point cloud information of road boundary features such as guardrail or green belt and so on.