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Technical Paper

Effect of Mixing on Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Prediction for Isooctane HCCI Engine Combustion Using a Multi-zone Detailed Kinetics Solver

This research investigates how the handling of mixing and heat transfer in a multi-zone kinetic solver affects the prediction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions for simulations of HCCI engine combustion. A detailed kinetics multi-zone model is now more closely coordinated with the KIVA3V computational fluid dynamics code for simulation of the compression and expansion processes. The fluid mechanics is solved with high spatial and temporal resolution (40,000 cells). The chemistry is simulated with high temporal resolution, but low spatial resolution (20 computational zones). This paper presents comparison of simulation results using this enhanced multi-zone model to experimental data from an isooctane HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Intake Flow Characteristics on Diesel Engine Combustion

The three-dimensional CFD codes KIVA-II and KIVA-3 have been used together to study the effects of intake generated in-cylinder flow structure on fuel-air mixing and combustion in a direct injected (DI) Diesel engine. In order to more accurately account for the effect of intake flow on in-cylinder processes, the KIVA-II code has been modified to allow for the use of data from other CFD codes as initial conditions. Simulation of the intake and compression strokes in a heavy-duty four-stroke DI Diesel engine has been carried out using KIVA-3. Flow quantities and thermodynamic field information were then mapped into a computational grid in KIVA-II for use in the study of mixing and combustion. A laminar and turbulent timescale combustion model, as well as advanced spray models, including wave breakup atomization, dynamic drop drag, and spray-wall interaction has been used in KIVA-II.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Computed Spray in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignited Engine with Planar Images

Fuel spray atomization and breakup processes within a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine and outside the engine were modeled using a modified KIVA-3V code with improved spray models. The structures of the predicted sprays were qualitatively compared with planar images. The considered sprays were created by a prototype pressure-swirl injector and the planar images were obtained by laser sheet imaging in an optical DISI engine. In the out-of-engine case, the spray was injected into atmospheric air, and was modeled in a two dimensional bomb. In the engine case, the injection started from 270° ATDC, and full 3-D computations in the same engine were performed. In both cases, two liquid injection pressure conditions were applied, that is, 3.40 MPa and 6.12 MPa. The model gives good prediction of the tip penetration, and external spray shape, but the internal structure prediction has relatively lower accuracy, especially near the spray axis.
Technical Paper

Factors that Affect BSFC and Emissions for Diesel Engines: Part 1 - Presentation of Concepts

The per cylinder displacement in cubic centimeters (PCDICC) vs. brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) have been plotted for both DI and IDI diesel engines. The smallest and largest PCDICC are 25.7 to 2,000,000. It was found for the DI engines that the lowest to the highest (BSFC) ranged from approximately 155 to 450. In terms of ratios these turn out to be about 2.9. Reasons for the increase in BSFC with decrease in PCDICC are presented. Background material are presented to help in explaining the trends experienced. Boundary conditions of the injected fuel as to duration, drop size, and their effect on BSFC, emissions are postulated.
Technical Paper

A Method for Estimating Mileage Improvement and Emission Reductions Achievable by Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

The results of two derivations relating to the fuel economy of hybrid-electric vehicles (vehicles which employ both a heat engine and electric drive system) are presented and their use is illustrated through the examples of the University of Wisconsin and TRW Systems Group hybrid-electric vehicles. The method of mileage estimation employs a specific fuel-consumption versus torque-speed map for the heat engine under study and knowledge of the hybrid-vehicle dynamics and road-load power. The method is easily extended to estimation of emission reductions through use of specific-emission-production versus torque-speed maps and is applicable to hybrid vehicles with other than electrical energy-storage systems.
Technical Paper

A Classification of Reciprocating Engine Combustion Systems

Obtaining and maintaining a stratified charge in a practical engine is a difficult problem. Consequently, many approaches have been proposed and reported in the scientific and patent literature. In attempting to assess the most profitable approach for future development work, it is important to group together similar approaches so that one can study their performance as a group. Making such a classification has the additional advantage of helping to standardize terminology used by different investigators. With this thought in mind, a literature study was made and a proposed classification chart prepared for the different engine combustion systems reported in the literature. For the sake of completeness, the finally proposed classification chart includes homogeneous combustion engines as well as heterogeneous combustion engines. Because of their similarity of combustion, rotary engines such as the Wankel engine are considered as “reciprocating” although gas turbines are not included.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Design Methogology for Agricultural Implement Design

An overview of a design methodology based on finite element and fatigue analyses is described for the design of welded structures. Fatigue life is a primary design consideration for agricultural equipment structural members. The re-design of an agricultural implement frame and hitch assembly is used to illustrate the methodology for optimal design and improved fatigue life. A description of the finite element mode of the agricultural implement and the simulated loading history are described. Results from finite element analysis are used to optimize the frame member sizes and calculate the fatigue strength characteristics. This design analysis strategy provides improved fatigue life characteristics for the implement frame or welded structure.
Technical Paper


A NEW electronic circuit arrangement added to the electro-optical pyrometer developed at the University of Wisconsin indicates instantaneously the temperature in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. The electronic device, which is described in this paper, solves an equation relating true temperature to intensity and wave length of monochromatic radiation from a luminous flame. True flame temperature is charted on an oscillograph as a function of such abscissas as time or crank angle. Several circuits are reviewed which were found unsuited for use with the pyrometer but which may be useful for other applications.
Technical Paper

A Tape Recording and Computer Processing System for Instantaneous Engine Data

The development of a high speed, multichannel data acquisition system is described. A precision magnetic tape recorder is used to record analog data from highly transient phenomena. Analog-to-digital data conversion is performed on a hybrid computer and the digitized data is processed using large, high speed digital computers. A detailed example of the application of the system to the measurement of rates-of-injection, rates-of-heat release, and instantaneous rates-of-heat transfer from the cylinder gases to the cylinder walls in a high speed open-chamber diesel engine is presented.
Technical Paper

Fuel - Engine Research in Universities

The reasons for conducting research in a university are presented and discussed. It is concluded that fuel-engine studies are compatible with these reasons and therefore are well suited for university research. Past studies in this field are summarized and unanswered questions and future topics suitable for university investigation are suggested. Included in the topics discussed are: instrumentation, thermodynamic description of working fluids, fuel vaporization and atomization, combustion, and instantaneous heat transfer and mass flow rates. The steps that need to be taken to ensure continuing university interest in fuel-engine studies are presented.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Crankcase Scavenged, Two-Stroke, SI Engine and Comparisons with Experimental Data

A detailed mathematical model of the thermodynamic events of a crankcase scavenged, two-stroke, SI engine is described. The engine is divided into three thermodynamic systems: the cylinder gases, the crankcase gases, and the inlet system gases. Energy balances, mass continuity equations, the ideal gas law, and thermodynamic property relationships are combined to give a set of coupled ordinary differential equations which describe the thermodynamic states encountered by the systems of the engine during one cycle of operation. A computer program is used to integrate the equations, starting with estimated initial thermodynamic conditions and estimated metal surface temperatures. The program iterates the cycle, adjusting the initial estimates, until the final conditions agree with the beginning conditions, that is, until a cycle results.
Technical Paper

The Simulation of Single Cylinder Intake and Exhaust Systems

A detailed description of a numerical method for computing unsteady flows in engine intake and exhaust systems is given. The calculations include the effects of heat transfer and friction. The inclusion of such calculations in a mathematically simulated engine cycle is discussed and results shown for several systems. In particular, the effects of bell-mouth versus plain pipe terminations and the effects of a finite surge tank are calculated. Experimental data on the effect of heat transfer from the back of the intake valve on wave damping are given and show the effect to be negligible. Experimental data on wave damping during the valve closed period and on the temperature rise of the air near the valve are also given.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Properties of Methane and Air, and Propane and Air for Engine Performance Calculations

This is a continuation of the presentation of thermodynamic properties of selected fuel-air mixtures in chart form, suitable for utilization in engine performance calculations. Methane and propane, representative of natural gas and LPG are the two fuels considered. Using these charts, comparisons are made between the performance to be expected with these gaseous fuels compared to octane, as representative of gasoline. Reduced engine power is predicted and this is confirmed by experience of other investigators.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Validation of Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) for Gas Jet and Sprays

Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a useful approach for the simulation of turbulent flow and combustion processes in internal combustion engines. This study employs the ANSYS Forte CFD package and explores several key and fundamental components of LES, namely, the subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence models, the numerical schemes used to discretize the transport equations, and the computational mesh. The SGS turbulence models considered include the classic Smagorinsky model and a dynamic structure model. Two numerical schemes for momentum convection, quasi-second-order upwind (QSOU) and central difference (CD), were evaluated. The effects of different computational mesh sizes controlled by both fixed mesh refinement and a solution-adaptive mesh-refinement approach were studied and compared. The LES models are evaluated and validated against several flow configurations that are critical to engine flows, in particular, to fuel injection processes.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty Quantification of Direct Injection Diesel and Gasoline Spray Simulations

In this paper, large eddy simulation (LES) coupled with two uncertainty quantification (UQ) methods, namely latin-hypercube sampling (LHS) and polynomial chaos expansion (PCE), have been used to quantify the effects of model parameters and spray boundary conditions on diesel and gasoline spray simulations. Evaporating, non-reacting spray data was used to compare penetration, mixture fraction and spray probability contour. Two different sets of four uncertain variables were used for diesel and gasoline sprays, respectively. UQ results showed good agreement between experiments and predictions. UQ statistics indicated that discharge coefficient has stronger impact on gasoline than diesel sprays, and spray cone angle is important for vapor penetration of both types of sprays. Additionally, examination of the gasoline spray characteristics showed that plume-to-plume interaction and nozzle dribble are important phenomena that need to be considered in high-fidelity gasoline spray simulations.
Technical Paper

Temperature-Strength-Time Relationships in Mufflers and for Truck Muffler Materials

DATA presented in this paper show temperature-time diagrams obtained from mufflers mounted on trucks which were traveling over their regular routes. Using these temperature data, specimens made of possible muffler materials were subjected to laboratory tests. A wide range of possible muffler materials and gas composition were covered in these tests. Results of the tests indicate that under long-run heavy-duty truck service, muffler failure occurs primarily because of high metal temperatures and that coated mild steel showed the most promise of longer muffler life.
Technical Paper

Physical and Chemical Ignition Delay in an operating diesel engine using the hot-motored technique—part II

THE PRESENT WORK uses both the hot-motored technique and a nitrogen technique to obtain three pressure-time records — one without either vaporization or chemical reaction, one with vaporization only, and one with both vaporization and chemical reaction. By comparison of these three records, rates of vaporization and rates of chemical reaction can be determined during the ignition delay period in an operating diesel engine. Such data are shown for different fuels and operating conditions. Estimations are made of the penetration and temperatures existing in the spray.*
Technical Paper

Fuel Vaporization and Ignition Las in Diesel Combustion

AN analysis of phenomena occurring during the ignition delay period is presented. Vaporization of atomized fuel is shown to take place under conditions ranging between single droplet and adiabatic saturation from edge to center of the spray. Mechanisms of vaporization and combustible mixture formation are presented for both cases. Correlation of theoretical analysis with experimental data from both a combustion bomb and diesel engine is presented to establish actual conditions existing during vaporization. Estimates of physical and chemical delays for the engine and bomb are given.
Technical Paper

Physical and Chemical Ignition Delay in an Operating Diesel Engine Using the Hot-Motored Technique

THE present work uses the hot-motored technique to compare a hot, motored pressure diagram with a fired, pressure-time diagram. This technique is applied to a diesel engine to study the small pressure changes after injection and before rapid inflammation. The data resulting from these studies show a relationship between the magnitude of these pressure changes and cetane number of the fuel. Data for selected fuels are presented to show the relative magnitude of different phenomena causing ignition delay.