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Technical Paper

The Influence of PRF and Commercial Fuels with High Octane Number on the Auto-ignition Timing of an Engine Operated in HCCI Combustion Mode with Negative Valve Overlap

2004-06-08
2004-01-1967
A single-cylinder engine was operated in HCCI combustion mode with different kinds of commercial fuels. The HCCI combustion was generated by creating a negative valve overlap (early exhaust valve closing combined with late intake valve opening) thus trapping a large amount of residuals (∼ 55%). Fifteen different fuels with high octane numbers were tested six of which were primary reference fuels (PRF's) and nine were commercial fuels or reference fuels. The engine was operated at constant operational parameters (speed/load, valve timing and equivalence ratio, intake air temperature, compression ratio, etc.) changing only the fuel type while the engine was running. Changing the fuel affected the auto-ignition timing, represented by the 50% mass fraction burned location (CA50). However these changes were not consistent with the classical RON and MON numbers, which are measures of the knock resistance of the fuel. Indeed, no correlation was found between CA50 and the RON or MON numbers.
Technical Paper

Influence of Wall Properties on the Characteristics of a Gasoline Spray After Wall Impingement

2004-06-08
2004-01-1951
Interest in spray-wall interactions has grown because of the development of direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) spark ignition (SI) engines. In this type of engine, impingement of the spray on the piston wall often leads to high emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and soot. These emissions have proven to be one of the major drawbacks of the DISC SI engine, so it is important to obtain detailed knowledge about the different processes involved in spray impingement and their effects. In this study, the size and velocity of droplets reflected from a wall were characterized by Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). The impinging spray was also visualized using an AVL VisioScope. The experiments were carried out on a real gasoline spray impinging on a wall under simulated engine conditions in a spray chamber. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to investigate the influence of different wall properties and wall temperature, on the impingement and secondary atomization processes.
Technical Paper

Location of the First Auto-Ignition Sites for Two HCCI Systems in a Direct Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0564
To elucidate the processes controlling the auto-ignition timing and overall combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the distribution of the auto-ignition sites, in both space and time, was studied. The auto-ignition locations were investigated using optical diagnosis of HCCI combustion, based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of formaldehyde in an optical engine with fully variable valve actuation. This engine was operated in two different modes of HCCI. In the first, auto-ignition temperatures were reached by heating the inlet air, while in the second, residual mass from the previous combustion cycle was trapped using a negative valve overlap. The fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber in both approaches. To complement these experiments, 3-D numerical modeling of the gas exchange and compression stroke events was done for both HCCI-generating approaches.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of the Combustion Process in a Heavy–Duty DI Diesel Engine for Different Injection Scenarios

2003-05-19
2003-01-1783
The effects of injection pressure and duration on exhaust gas emissions, sooting flame temperature, and soot distribution for a heavy–duty single cylinder DI diesel engine were investigated experimentally. The experimental analysis included use of two–color pyrometry as well as “conventional” measuring techniques. Optical access into the engine was obtained through an endoscope mounted in the cylinder head. The sooting flame temperature and soot distribution were evaluated from the flame images using the AVL VisioScope™ system. The results show that the NOx/soot trade–off curves could be improved by increasing injection pressure. An additional reduction could also be obtained if, for the same level of injection pressure, the injection duration was prolonged.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Injector Deposits on Mixture Formation in a DISC SI Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1771
This paper presents a follow on study from earlier work investigating the influence of fuel parameters on the deposit formation and emissions from a direct injection stratified charge spark ignition engine. It was shown that injector fouling was the main reason for the increase in unburned hydrocarbon emissions and spray visualizations supported these results. The hypothesis is that the deposit buildup in the injector caused the increased hydrocarbon emissions due to an increased wall film formation. To further verify the findings, Phase Doppler Anemometry measurements at simulated engine conditions, were performed. Measurements recorded on the injector axis 20 mm downstream from the injector orifice, showed that the initial pre-jet velocity was 30% higher and the drop mean diameter was 5% larger in the case of a used injector compared to a new injector. Based on these investigations, spray files were set-up in the 3-D CFD-code AVL FIRE™.
Technical Paper

Direct Gasoline Injection in the Negative Valve Overlap of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1854
An engine with variable valve timing was operated in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode. In two sets of experiments, the fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber using a split injection strategy. In the first set, lambda was varied while the fuel flow was constant. The second set consisted of experiments during which the fuel flow was altered and lambda was fixed. The results were evaluated using an engine simulation code with integrated detailed-chemistry. The auto-ignition temperature of the air-fuel mixture was reached when residual mass of the previous combustion cycle was captured using a negative valve overlap and compressed together with the fresh mixture charge inducted. When a pilot fuel amount was introduced in the combustion chamber before piston TDC, during the negative valve overlap, radicals were formed as well as intermediates and combustion took place during this overlap provided the mixture was lean.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Influence of Nozzle Orifice Geometries on Fuel Evaporation using Laser-Induced Exciplex Fluorescence

2003-05-19
2003-01-1836
Projected stringent emissions legislation will make tough demands on engine development. For diesel engines, in which combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes, fuel injection plays a major role in the future development of cleaner engines. It is therefore important to study the fundamental features of the fuel injection process. In an engine the fuel is injected at high pressure into a pressurized and hot environment of air, which causes droplet formation and fuel evaporation. The injected fuel then forms a gaseous phase surrounding the liquid phase. The amount of evaporated fuel in relation to the total amount of injected fuel is of importance for engine performance, i.e. ignition delay and mixing rate. In this paper, the fraction of evaporated fuel was determined for sprays, using different orifice diameters ranging from 0.100 mm up to 0.227 mm, with the aid of a high-pressure spray chamber.
Technical Paper

Piston Temperature Measurement by Use of Thermographic Phosphors and Thermocouples in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Run Under Partly Premixed Conditions

2005-04-11
2005-01-1646
Piston temperature experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel research engine, based on the Volvo Powertrain D12C engine both by use of optical temperature sensitive phosphor and of thermocouples mounted on the piston surface. In the former case, a thin coating of a suitable thermographic phosphor was applied to the areas on the piston surface to be investigated. The optical measurements of piston temperatures made involved use of an optical window and of an endoscope. The possibility of using optical fibres into guide light in and out of the engine was also investigated. Results of the optical and of the thermocouple measurements were compared and were also related to more global data with the aim of exploring the use of thermographic phosphors for piston- temperature measurements in Diesel engines. Thermographic phosphors thermometry was found to represent an alternative to the thermocouple method since it easily can be applied to various piston geometries.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Combustion with Ultra-Low NOx and SOOT Emissions - A Comparison Between Experimental Data and CFD Simulations

2005-04-11
2005-01-0380
Experiments were conducted with a single cylinder heavy duty research engine, based on the geometry of a Volvo Powertrain D12C production engine. For these tests the engine was configured with a low compression ratio, low swirl, common rail fuel injection system and an eight-orifice nozzle. The combustion process was visualized by video via an inserted endoscope. From the resulting images temperatures were evaluated with the two-color method. In addition, the combustion and emission formation were simulated using the multiple flamelet concept implemented in the commercial CFD code STAR-CD. The models used in this paper are considered state-of-the-art. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities offered by combining several methods in the evaluation of novel engine concepts. Therefore, results from the optical measurements, the CFD simulations and global emission experimental data were compared.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Needle Opening (NOP) Pressure on Combustion and Emissions Formation in a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2921
This paper presents an investigation of the effects of varying needle opening pressure (NOP) (375 to 1750 bar), engine speed (1000 rpm to 1800 rpm), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) (0% to 20 %) on the combustion process, exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption at low (25 %) and medium (50 %) loads in a single cylinder heavy duty DI diesel research engine with a displacement of 2.02 l. The engine was equipped with an advanced two-actuator E3 Electronic Unit Injector (EUI) from Delphi Diesel, with a maximum injection pressure of 2000 bar. In previous versions of the EUI system, the peak injection pressure was a function of the injection duration, cam lift, and cam rate. The advanced EUI system allows electronic control of the needle opening and closing. This facilitates the generation of high injection pressures, independently of load and speed.
Technical Paper

Visualization of EGR Influence on Diesel Combustion With Long Ignition Delay in a Heavy-duty Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2947
The effects of EGR on diesel combustion were visually examined in a single-cylinder heavy duty research engine with a low compression ratio, low swirl, a CR fuel injection system and an eight-orifice nozzle. Optical access was primarily obtained through the cylinder head. The effects of EGR were found to be significant. NOx emissions were reduced from over 500 ppm at 0% EGR to 5 ppm at 55% EGR. At higher levels of EGR (approximately 35% or more) there was a loss in efficiency. Constant fuel masses were injected. Results from the optical measurements and global emission data were compared in order to obtain a better understanding of the spray behaviour and mixing process. Optical measurements provide fundamental insights by visualizing air motion and combustion behaviour. The NOx reductions observed might be explained by reductions in oxygen concentration associated with the increases in EGR.
Technical Paper

Modeling Gasoline Spray-Wall Interactions and Comparison to Experimental Data

2004-10-25
2004-01-3003
The effects of a gasoline spray impinging on a heated surface were investigated under simulated engine conditions in an earlier study. The data from the experimental investigation have now been compared to results obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations generated using several different numerical models for spray-wall impingement found in the literature. It was found that the models based on single-drop experiments do not predict the outcome of spray impingement well in some respects. Their major drawback was that the predicted diameter distributions of the reflected drops in the secondary spray were shifted downwards from the measured drop size distributions. The tested models predicted the normal velocity component relative to the wall well. However, they were less good at capturing the tangential velocity component relative to the wall.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injector Parameters on Mixture Formation for Multi-Hole Nozzles in A Spray-Guided Gasoline DI Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0097
This paper focuses on ways of improving the spray formation from spray-guided multi-hole gasoline direct injection injectors. Work has been done both experimentally using laser diagnostic tools and numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics. Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF) measurements in a constant pressure spray chamber and optical engine measurements have shown that injectors with 6-hole nozzles and 50-degree umbrella angles are unsuitable for stratified combustion because they produce steep air-fuel ratio gradients and create a spray with overly-deep liquid fuel penetration as well as presence of liquid fuel around the spark plug. In order to study injector performance, numerical calculations using the AVL FIRE™ CFD code were performed. The numerical results indicate that by increasing the injector umbrella angle, the extent of piston wall wetting can be decreased.
Technical Paper

Operation of a DI Diesel Engine With Variable Effective Compression Ratio in HCCI and Conventional Diesel Mode

2005-04-11
2005-01-0177
An experimental investigation was carried out in which an HSDI Common Rail Diesel engine was operated in both HCCI and conventional Diesel combustion modes, using conventional Diesel fuel in both cases. The engine used in the experiments was a single cylinder version of a modern passenger car engine with a displacement of 480 cc. In HCCI mode, the fuel was injected in multiple stages during the compression stroke, using a nozzle with a 60° included angle. To control the phasing and rate of combustion, the effective compression ratio was reduced by retarded intake valve closing. In addition, increased amounts of EGR were used. HCCI operation reduced soot and NOx emissions significantly. The use of a narrow included angle for conventional Diesel operation increased emissions significantly. The effect of a wider included angle and modifications to the piston were investigated experimentally and numerically.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Two-Stroke Free Piston Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1871
The free piston internal combustion engine used in conjunction with a linear alternator offers an interesting choice for use in hybrid vehicles. The linear motion of the pistons is directly converted to electricity by the alternator, and the result is a compact and efficient energy converter that has only one moving part. The movement of the pistons is not prescribed by a crank mechanism, but is the result of the equilibrium of forces acting on the pistons, and the engine will act like a mass-spring system. This feature is one of the most prominent advantages of the FPE (Free Piston Engine), as the lack of mechanical linkage gives means of varying the compression ratio in simple manners, without changing the hardware of the engine. By varying the compression ratio, it is also it possible to run on a multitude of different fuels and to use HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion.
Technical Paper

HCCI Operation of a Passenger Car Common Rail DI Diesel Engine With Early Injection of Conventional Diesel Fuel

2004-03-08
2004-01-0935
The possibilities of operating a direct injection Diesel engine in HCCI combustion mode with early injection of conventional Diesel fuel were investigated. In order to properly phase the combustion process in the cycle and to prevent knock, the geometric compression ratio was reduced from 17.0:1 to 13.4:1 or 11.5:1. Further control of the phasing and combustion rate was achieved with high rates of cooled EGR. The engine used for the experiments was a single cylinder version of a modern passenger car type common rail engine with a displacement of 480 cc. An injector with a small included angle was used to prevent interaction of the spray and the cylinder liner. In order to create a homogeneous mixture, the fuel was injected by multiple short injections during the compression stroke. The low knock resistance of the Diesel fuel limited the operating conditions to low loads. Compared to conventional Diesel combustion, the NOx emissions were dramatically reduced.
Technical Paper

Transient Responses of Various Ammonia Formation Catalyst Configurations for Passive SCR in Lean-Burning Gasoline Engines under Various Real Engine Conditions.

2016-04-05
2016-01-0935
Passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems can be used as aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. Their operation is based on the interaction between the engine, an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC), and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia, which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions, the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3. This study compared the ammonia production and response times of a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under realistic engine operating conditions. In addition, the relationships between selected engine operating parameters and ammonia formation over a TWC were investigated, considering the influence of both the chosen load point and the engine settings.
Technical Paper

Evaporation of Gasoline-Like and Ethanol-Based Fuels in Hollow-Cone Sprays Investigated by Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Mie Scattering

2011-08-30
2011-01-1889
The evaporation of different fuels and fuel components in hollow-cone sprays at conditions similar to those at stratified cold start has been investigated using a combination of planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and Mie scattering. Ketones of different volatility were used as fluorescent tracers for different fuel components in gasoline-like model fuels and ethanol-based fuels. LIF and Mie images were compared to evaluate to what extent various fuel components had evaporated and obtained a spatial distribution different from that of the liquid drops, as a function of fuel temperature and time after start of injection. A selective and sequential evaporation of fuel components of different volatility was found.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Natural Gas-Diesel Dual-Fuel RCCI in a Heavy-Duty Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0838
Studies have shown that premixed combustion concepts such as PCCI and RCCI can achieve high efficiencies while maintaining low NOx and soot emissions. The RCCI (Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition) concept use blending port-injected high-octane fuel with early direct injected high-cetane fuel to control auto-ignition. This paper describes studies on RCCI combustion using CNG and diesel as the high-octane and high-cetane fuels, respectively. The test was conducted on a heavy-duty single cylinder engine. The influence of injection timing and duration of the diesel injections was examined at 9 bar BMEP and1200 rpm. In addition, experiments were conducted using two different compression ratios, (14 and 17) with different loads and engine speeds. Results show both low NOx and almost zero soot emissions can be achieved but at the expense of increasing of unburned hydrocarbon emissions which could potentially be removed by catalytic after-treatment.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies for the Future Low Emission Rail Diesel Engines: EGR vs SCR

2013-09-08
2013-24-0087
The EU emission standards for new rail Diesel engines are becoming even more stringent. EGR and SCR technologies can both be used to reduce NOx emissions; however, the use of EGR is usually accompanied by an increase in PM emissions and may require a DPF. On the other hand, the use of SCR requires on-board storage of urea. Thus, it is necessary to study these trade-offs in order to understand how these technologies can best be used in rail applications to meet new emission standards. The present study assesses the application of these technologies in Diesel railcars on a quantitative basis using one and three dimensional numerical simulation tools. In particular, the study considers a 560 kW railcar engine with the use of either EGR or SCR based solutions for NOx reduction. The NOx and PM emissions performances are evaluated over the C1 homologation cycle.
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