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Technical Paper

Role of Late Soot Oxidation for Low Emission Combustion in a Diffusion-controlled, High-EGR, Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Soot formation and oxidation are complex and competing processes during diesel combustion. The balance between the two processes and their history determines engine-out soot values. Besides the efforts to lower soot formation with measures to influence the flame lift-off distance for example or to use HCCI-combustion, enhancement of late soot oxidation is of equal importance for low-λ diffusion-controlled low emissions combustion with EGR. The purpose of this study is to investigate soot oxidation in a heavy duty diesel engine by statistical analysis of engine data and in-cylinder endoscopic high speed photography together with CFD simulations with a main focus on large scale in-cylinder gas motion. Results from CFD simulations using a detailed soot model were used to reveal details about the soot oxidation.
Journal Article

Effects of High Injection Pressure, EGR and Charge Air Pressure on Combustion and Emissions in an HD Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

When increasing EGR from low levels to a level that corresponds to low temperature combustion, soot emissions initially increase due to lower soot oxidation before decreasing to almost zero due to very low soot formation. At the EGR level where soot emissions start to increase, the NOx emissions are low, but not sufficiently low to comply with future emission standards and at the EGR level where low temperature combustion occurs CO and HC emissions are too high. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibilities for shifting the so-called soot bump (where soot levels are increased) to higher EGR levels, or to reduce the magnitude of the soot bump using very high injection pressures (up to 240 MPa) while reducing the NOx emissions using EGR. The possibility of reducing the CO and HC emissions at high EGR levels due to the increased mixing caused by higher injection pressure was also investigated and the flame was visualized using an endoscope at chosen EGR values.
Technical Paper

Drive Cycle Particulate and Gaseous Emissions from a Parallel Hybrid Combustion Engine and Electric Powertrain

Abstract The emissions from a parallel hybrid combustion engine and electric powertrain operated on a modified New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) was investigated in order to determine the relation between emissions and the road and engine load profile. The effect of simulated electric motor assistance during accelerations on emissions was investigated as a means to reduce particulate and gaseous emissions. The time resolved particulate number and size distribution was measured in addition to gaseous emissions. The combustion engine was a downsized, three cylinder spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) turbocharged engine fuelled with gasoline. Electric motor assistance during accelerations was simulated by reduction of the vehicle mass. This reduced engine load during accelerations. Fuel rich engine transients occurred during accelerations. NOx emissions were reduced with electric assistance due to a reduction in engine load.
Technical Paper

Transient Responses of Various Ammonia Formation Catalyst Configurations for Passive SCR in Lean-Burning Gasoline Engines under Various Real Engine Conditions.

Passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems can be used as aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. Their operation is based on the interaction between the engine, an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC), and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia, which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions, the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3. This study compared the ammonia production and response times of a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under realistic engine operating conditions. In addition, the relationships between selected engine operating parameters and ammonia formation over a TWC were investigated, considering the influence of both the chosen load point and the engine settings.
Technical Paper

A LIF-study of OH in the Negative Valve Overlap of a Spark-assisted HCCI Combustion Engine

Future requirements for emission reduction from combustion engines in ground vehicles might be met by using the HCCI combustion concept. In this study, negative valve overlap (NVO) and low lift, short duration, camshaft profiles, were used to initiate HCCI combustion by increasing the internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and thus retaining sufficient thermal energy for chemical reactions to occur when a pilot injection was introduced prior to TDC, during the NVO. One of the crucial parameters to control in HCCI combustion is the combustion phasing and one way of doing this is to vary the relative ratio of fuel injected in pilot and main injections. The combustion phasing is also influenced by the total amount of fuel supplied to the engine, the combustion phasing is thus affected when the load is changed. This study focuses on the reactions that occur in the highly diluted environment during the NVO when load and pilot to main ratio are changed.
Technical Paper

Spray Shape and Atomization Quality of an Outward-Opening Piezo Gasoline DI Injector

The spray formation and consequent atomization of an outward opening piezo-electric gasoline DI injector have been experimentally investigated in a constant pressure spray chamber. The sizes and velocities of the droplets and the resulting spray shape were evaluated, under different boundary conditions, using Planar Mie scattering and Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) in combination with Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) analyses and high-speed video photography. The use of piezo-electric actuation for gasoline DI injectors provides an additional means to control the atomization and spray shape that is not available with solenoid-driven injectors such as swirling and multi-hole type injectors. For instance, with piezo injectors up to four injections per cycle are possible, and the fuel flow rate can be controlled by adjusting needle lift. The captured high-speed video images show that a hollow-cone spray forms as the fuel exits the outward-opening nozzle.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Diesel Engine - an Experimental Study

Combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether, DME, have been investigated experimentally, in a heavy duty single cylinder engine equipped with an adapted common rail fuel injection system, and the effects of varying injection timing, rail pressure and exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion and emission parameters. The results show that DME combustion does not produce soot and with the use of exhaust gas recirculation NOX emissions can also be reduced to very low levels. However, high injection pressure and/or a DME adopted combustion system is required to improve the mixing process and thus reduce the combustion duration and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Optical study of HCCI Combustion using NVO and an SI Stratified Charge

The effects of using an SI stratified charge in combination with HCCI combustion on combustion phasing, rate of heat release and emissions were investigated in engine experiments to identify ways to extend the operational range of HCCI combustion to lower loads. In the experiments an optical single-cylinder engine equipped with a piezo electric outward-opening injector and operated with negative valve overlap (NVO) and low lift, short duration, camshaft profiles, was used to initiate HCCI combustion by increasing the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and thus retaining sufficient thermal energy to reach auto-ignition temperatures. Two series of experiments with full factorial designs were performed, to investigate how the tested parameters (amounts of fuel injected in pilot injections and main injections, stratification injection timing and spark-assistance) influenced the combustion.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Use of Butanol or Octanol Blends in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Global warming driven by “greenhouse gas” emissions is an increasingly serious concern of both the public and legislators. A potentially potent way to reduce these emissions and conserve fossil fuel resources is to use n-butanol, iso-butanol or octanol (2-ethylhexanol) from renewable sources as alternative fuels in diesel engines. The effects of adding these substances to diesel fuel were therefore tested in a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine operated using factory settings. These alcohols have better calorific values, flash points, lubricity, cetane numbers and solubility in diesel than shorter-chain alcohols. However, they have lower cetane numbers than diesel, so either hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) or Di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) was added to the diesel-alcohol mixtures to generate blends with the same Cetane Number (CN) as diesel.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Lab Versus Engine Tests In the Development of a Highly Efficient Ammonia Formation Catalyst for a Passive SCR System

Commercial three way catalysts have limited capacity towards reducing NOx in the presence of excessive oxygen. This prevents lean-burn combustion concepts from meeting legislative emission standards. A solution towards decreasing NOx emissions in the presence of excess air is the use of a passive-SCR system. Under rich conditions ammonia is formed over an ammonia formation catalyst, the ammonia is stored in the SCR and in its turn reacts with the NOx under lean engine conditions. Here up-scaled Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts as well as a commercially Pd-Rh based three-way catalyst (TWC) are evaluated using both engine and further lab-scale tests. The purpose of these tests is to compare the ammonia production for the various catalysts under various lambda values and temperatures by means of engine and lab scale tests. The Pd/Al2O3 showed little sensitivity to temperature both under engine and lab scale experiments.
Technical Paper

High Pressure Ethanol Injection under Diesel-Like Conditions

Abstract Laws concerning to emissions from heavy duty (HD) internal combustion engines are becoming increasingly stringent. New engine technologies are therefore needed to satisfy these new legal requirements and reduce fossil fuel dependency. One way to achieve both objectives is to partially replace fossil fuels with alternatives that are more sustainable with respect to emissions of greenhouse gas, particulates and NOx. As a first step towards the development of a direct injected dual fuel engine using diesel fuel and renewable alcohols such as methanol or ethanol, we have studied ethanol (E100) sprays generated with a standard high pressure diesel fuel injection system in a high pressure/temperature spray chamber with optical access. The experiments were performed at a gas density of ∼27kg/m3 at ∼550 °C and ∼60 bar, representing typical operating conditions for a HD engine at low loads.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics for Partially Premixed and Conventional Combustion of Butanol and Octanol Isomers in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

Abstract Reducing emissions and improving efficiency are major goals of modern internal combustion engine research. The use of biomass-derived fuels in Diesel engines is an effective way of reducing well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Moreover, partially premixed combustion (PPC) makes it possible to achieve very efficient combustion with low emissions of soot and NOx. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of using alcohol/Diesel blends or neat alcohols on emissions and thermal efficiency during PPC. Four alcohols were evaluated: n-butanol, isobutanol, n-octanol, and 2-ethylhexanol. The alcohols were blended with fossil Diesel fuel to produce mixtures with low cetane numbers (26-36) suitable for PPC. The blends were then tested in a single cylinder light duty (LD) engine. To optimize combustion, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level, lambda, and injection strategy were tuned.
Technical Paper

Optimised Neat Ethanol Engine with Stratified Combustion at Part-load; Particle Emissions, Efficiency and Performance

A regular flex-fuel engine can operate on any blend of fuel between pure gasoline and E85. Flex-fuel engines have relatively low efficiency on E85 because the hardware is optimized for gasoline. If instead the engine is optimized for neat ethanol, the efficiency may be much higher, as demonstrated in this paper. The studied two-liter engine was modified with a much higher compression ratio than suitable for gasoline, two-stage turbocharging and direct injection with piezo-actuated outwards-opening injectors, a stratified combustion system and custom in-house control system. The research engine exhibited a wide-open throttle performance similar to that of a naturally aspirated v8, while offering a part-load efficiency comparable to a state-of-the-art two-liter naturally aspirated engine. NOx will be handled by a lean NOx trap. Combustion characteristics were compared between gasoline and neat ethanol.
Technical Paper

Effects of Varying Engine Settings on Combustion Parameters, Emissions, Soot and Temperature Distributions in Low Temperature Combustion of Fischer-Tropsch and Swedish Diesel Fuels

It has been previously shown that engine-out soot emissions can be reduced by using Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels, due to their lack of aromatics, compared to conventional Diesel fuels. In this investigation the engine-out emissions and fuel consumption parameters of an FT fuel derived from natural gas were compared to those of Swedish low sulfur diesel (MK1) when used in Low Temperature Combustion mode in a single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of varying Needle Opening Pressure (NOP), Charge Air Pressure (CAP) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) according to an experimental design on the measured variables were also assessed. CAP and EGR were found to be the most significant factors for the combustion and emission parameters of both fuels. Increases in CAP resulted in lower soot emissions due to enhanced charge mixing, however NOx emissions rose as CAP increased.
Technical Paper

Reducing Pressure Fluctuations at High Loads by Means of Charge Stratification in HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap

Future demands for improvements in the fuel economy of gasoline passenger car engines will require the development and implementation of advanced combustion strategies, to replace, or combine with the conventional spark ignition strategy. One possible strategy is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) achieved using negative valve overlap (NVO). However, several issues need to be addressed before this combustion strategy can be fully implemented in a production vehicle, one being to increase the upper load limit. One constraint at high loads is the combustion becoming too rapid, leading to excessive pressure-rise rates and large pressure fluctuations (ringing), causing noise. In this work, efforts were made to reduce these pressure fluctuations by using a late injection during the later part of the compression. A more appropriate acronym than HCCI for such combustion is SCCI (Stratified Charge Compression Ignition).
Technical Paper

Performance of a Heavy Duty DME Engine - the Influence of Nozzle Parameters on Combustion and Spray Development

DME was tested in a heavy duty diesel engine and in an optically accessible high-temperature and pressure spray chamber in order to investigate and understand the effect of nozzle parameters on emissions, combustion and fuel spray concentration. The engine study clearly showed that smaller nozzle orifices were advantageous from combustion, efficiency and emissions considerations. Heat release analysis and fuel concentration images indicate that smaller orifices result in higher mixing rate between fuel and air due to reductions in the turbulence length scale, which reduce both the magnitude of fuel-rich regions and the steepness of fuel gradients in the spray, which enable more fuel to burn and thereby shorten the combustion duration.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Using Diesel-Water Emulsion and Diesel-Ethanol Blends

The purpose of the investigation presented here was to compare the effects of fuel composition on combustion parameters, emissions and fuel consumption in engine tests and simulations with five fuels: a Diesel-water emulsion, a Diesel-ethanol blend, a Diesel-ethanol blend with EHN (cetane number improver), a Fischer-Tropsch Diesel and an ultra-low sulfur content Diesel. The engine used in the experiments was a light duty, single cylinder, direct injection, common rail Diesel engine equipped with a cylinder head and piston from a Volvo NED5 engine. In tests with each fuel the engine was operated at two load points (3 bar IMEP and 10 bar IMEP), and a pilot-main fuel injection strategy was applied under both load conditions. Data were also obtained from 3-D CFD simulations, using the KIVA code, to compare to the experimental results and to further analyze the effects of water and ethanol on combustion.
Journal Article

Stratified Cold Start Sprays of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

Gasoline and gasoline-ethanol sprays from an outward-opening piezo-injector were studied in a constant volume/pressure chamber using high-speed imaging and phase doppler anemometry (PDA) under stratified cold start conditions corresponding to a vehicle ambient temperature of 243 K (−30°C/−22°F); in-cylinder air pressure of 5 bar, air temperature of 350 K (−30°C/−22°F) and fuel temperature of 243 K. The effects of varying in-cylinder pressure and temperature, fuel injection pressure and fuel temperature on the formation of gasoline, E75 and pure ethanol sprays were investigated. The results indicate that fuel composition affects spray behaviour, but less than expected. Furthermore, varying the temperature of the fuel or the air surrounding the spray also had minor effects. As expected, the fuel injection pressure was found to have the strongest influence on spray formation under stratified conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Variable Inlet Valve Timing and Swirl Ratio on Combustion and Emissions in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

In order to avoid the high CO and HC emissions associated with low temperature when using high levels of EGR, partially premixed combustion is an interesting possibility. One way to achieve this combustion mode is to increase the ignition delay by adjusting the inlet valve closing timing, and thus the effective compression ratio. The purpose of this study was to investigate experimentally the possibilities of using late and early inlet valve closure to reduce NOx emissions without increasing emissions of soot or unburned hydrocarbons, or fuel consumption. The effect of increasing the swirl number (from 0.2 to 2.5) was also investigated. The combustion timing (CA50) was kept constant by adjusting the start of injection and the possibilities of optimizing combustion using EGR and high injection pressures were investigated. Furthermore, the airflow was kept constant for a given EGR level.
Journal Article

Valve Profile Adaptation, Stratification, Boosting and 2-Stroke Strategies for Raising Loads of Gasoline HCCI Engines

The development of high efficiency powertrains is a key objective for car manufacturers. One approach for improving the efficiency of gasoline engines is based on homogeneous charge compression ignition, HCCI, which provides higher efficiency than conventional strategies. However, HCCI is only currently viable at relatively low loads, primarily because at high loads it involves rapid combustion that generates pressure oscillations in the cylinder (ringing), and partly because it gives rise to relatively high NOX emissions. This paper describes studies aimed at increasing the viability of HCCI combustion at higher loads by using fully flexible valve trains, direct injection with charge stratification (SCCI), and intake air boosting. These approaches were complemented by using EGR to control NOX emissions by stoichiometric operation, which enables the use of a three-way catalyst.