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Siemens ELFA Drive System for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Concerned with fuel consumption and emissions, especially public transportation in urban areas, the ELFA electric drive system has been developed for hybrid bus applications. This modular system provides bus manufactures a cost effective solution with a maximum degree of design flexibility. Presenter Joshua Nelke, siemens industry inc.

Commercial Vehicle Connector Challenges

This session will explore connector concerns related to the needs of Commercial Vehicle Manufacturers and problems/opportunities from a connection system supplier perspective. It will look at differences in requirements for the global market, and their relation to local requirements. Presenter Robin D. Reed, Deutsch Industrial/LADD Industries

Design and Flight Test of a Primary Flight Display Combined Vision System

A series of flight tests were conducted to design and evaluate a Combined Vision System (CVS) that integrates a forward looking infrared video image with synthetic vision on a primary flight display. System features included colorizing the video image to mesh with the synthetic terrain background, decluttering the approach symbology to facilitate the detection of the approach lights and runway markings, creating a semi-transparent IR sky to ensure continuous situational awareness of the surrounding terrain, and annunciating the decision height to facilitate the transition to the actual runway environment. Over 100 approaches were flown during three flight test sessions. For the first flight test session pilots reviewed early CVS proofs of concept on Honeywell's Citation Sovereign.

A Quantitative Risk Analysis for AeroMACS Network Security in SESAR

The growing need for an efficient worldwide airspace system management, generated by an increasing traffic load, requires new capabilities for air-ground data communication technologies. In order to cope with these requirements, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), EUROCONTROL, and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have jointly made specific recommendations for candidate technologies for the airport surface communication network. In the SESAR project, the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communication System (AeroMACS) technology is being developed in such a way to provide next generation broadband and wireless data communications for airport surface applications (i.e. Air Traffic Control ? ATC, Airline Operational Communications ? AOC, and surface vehicles services).

NHTSA Lightweighting and Safety Studies

Historically, studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in support of CAF� rulemaking indicate that lightweighting vehicles lead to degraded safety. However, recent studies provided to NHTSA show that good designs for lightweighting can provide equivalent safety. This presentation highlights two studies funded by NHTSA in part to address these latest findings. The first is a George Washington University study, �Investigate Opportunities for Lightweighting Vehicles Using Advanced Plastics and Composites.� The second is an Electricore study, �Mass Reduction for Light-Duty Vehicles for Model Years 2017-2015. The findings presented include that it is possible to lightweight vehicles and provide equivalent safety and that costs drive designers toward the use of advanced metals.

Keynote Presentation: Racing Green Endurance: An EV Record

Racing Green Endurance: An EV Record will focus on what a small team of ambitious and talented engineers can do when they have a dream! Back in 2009, a team of graduates from Imperial College London came together to do something radical to change the public perception of electric vehicles forever. They came up with the idea to design and build the world's longest range electric car, and then drive it down the longest and toughest road in the world; the 26,000km Pan-American Highway! Racing Green Endurance: An EV Record will share the story from start to finish, and will also focus on the technology used to achieve such a feat, with particular mention of the electric motors. Presenter Alexander Schey, Imperial College London

Mainstream and Main Street Hybrids

Several technological advancements have enabled hybrid technology to become a viable option in the commercial truck market. Although hybrid trucks are becoming more mainstream, they are not the right alternative fuel solution for every application. When matched with the right duty cycle, hybrid technology can provide a significant cost savings. Due to these advancements and anticipated benefits, hybrid commercial trucks are forecasted to become a significant part of the commercial truck market. Presenter Glenn Ellis, Hino Motors Sales USA Inc.

A Journalist's Perspective on Hybrids

Automotive journalists are uniquely located to gain a broad perspective of the field. We learn from specialists, the engineers who perform the actual work, in relatively neutral settings. We also communicate with our readers, the ultimate consumers of both your products and ours. Here I propose to share elements of several of these interactions, especially those pertaining to the coming array of plug-in hybrids from GM, Toyota and Porsche. I also propose to give a brief update of KERS, Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems, in Formula 1. Presenter Dennis J. Simanaitis, Road & Track Magazine
Technical Paper

Parametric Modeling for Semi-trailer Tank Vehicle

This paper treats the study case of semi-trailer structures by using Finite Element Method (FEM). It has the main proposal to stablish an automatic procedure for model preparation, that means: meshing generation, design loads and constraints applications, for a family of semi-trailer from 15000 to 35000 dm3 capacity, automatically built by the computer program GERTAP with a very few user interference. For this reason, the program does not demand any FEM expertise so that engineers can focus main construction problems without excessive concerning about model theoretical characteristics and model mistakes. At present moment, we are able to develop static analysis, with use of equivalent accelerations, in order to compute weighting, braking and turning loads. Soon, in a very near future, we are going to apply dynamics analysis that will simulate the actual bad conditions of Brazilian roads, so that fatigue-cracking problems could be prevented in design stage.
White Paper

Rethinking the Way We Move Beyond COVID-19

As the world grapples to combat the spread of COVID-19, our city streets have nearly emptied. Unprecedented community mitigation interventions have been applied in efforts to “flatten the curve” and slow the transmission of the virus. Social distancing measures have dramatically altered our daily behavior; notably, in the ways we do or do not move. This report seeks to identify emerging trends in urban mobility and road safety in respect to COVID-19. This is followed by a discussion of how we could shape our mobility future as communities begin to reopen.

Interaction Between Heavy Vehicles and Roads

Written by David Cebon, Research Director of the Cambridge vehicle dynamics consortium, this award winning publication focuses on the interaction between heavy vehicles and roads. Organized into six sections, contents include: road response and damage; static loading considerations; dynamic tire forces; road damage due to dynamic tire forces; suspension assessment.
Technical Paper

Shock- Absorber Characteristics

AN effort is made to determine the essentials of an ideal shock-absorber and to describe the types that approach or depart from this ideal. Mathematical analysis is not used, but judgment is based on the experience of the author with various types. The requirements of a satisfactory shock-absorber are defined and the methods used by the author in culling out certain shock-absorbers that fail to meet these requirements are outlined. By means of a machine based on the principle, of a steam-engine indicator, the energy required to move a shock-absorber throughout its cycle at varying speeds is measured and charts are obtained. When these charts are compared with a characteristic shape of diagram of a shock-absorber found from repeated trials on the road to give the most satisfactory riding, the merits or shortcomings of any other shock-absorber can be deduced from the difference in shape.
Technical Paper

Airplane Lighting Requirements

INCREASE in the amount of night flying with the advent of airplanes into the commercial field makes more acute the need for proper lighting facilities, not only of airports and airways, but of the airplanes themselves. As only about one-half of the regularly used airways in this Country are lighted for night flying, and few airports are equipped with lighting facilities for night landings, it is necessary for airplanes to be provided with lighting equipment for flying and for emergency landing at night. Besides the high-intensity lighting needed for following unlighted airways and for landing, airplanes need navigation lights and illumination for the instruments and the cabin. Immediate study and direction should be given to the problems of meeting each of these requirements most effectively and economically before it becomes too difficult to standardize methods and equipment.
Technical Paper

Effect of Six-Wheel Vehicles on Highway Design

TWO distinct phases of the subject are the physical and the economic, both of which are included in the conclusions stated in the paper, based on investigations made by the Bureau of Public Roads. It is as pertinent to inquire what effect the highways have on the motor-vehicle as to inquire what effect the motor-vehicle has on the highways. Mutual adjustment must be made if real economy is to result. Two general conclusions that may be drawn from the observations presented are that the six-wheel vehicle offers a desirable and effective answer to (a) the problem of the load in excess of the normal desirable limit of weight for the four-wheel truck, and (b) the problem of the load equal to the heavier four-wheel truck in areas where road conditions do not permit the maximum wheel-load concentration.
Technical Paper

Application of Motor Transport to the Movement of Freight

AFTER defining the function of transport as the transfer of persons and things from one part of the earth's surface to another in the minimum time and at the minimum cost, and dividing modern transport into human, animal and mechanical, the author proceeds to describe the part played by commercial motor-vehicles in the Country's economic structure. Since food and drink are necessities of life, the first examples of motor-truck transportation discussed include the haulage of milk, bakery products, livestock, produce, vegetables and fruit. These are followed by the use of the motor-truck in local and long-distance general hauling, retail delivery service of dry-goods and chain-store supplies, the oil industry and for the transportation of express matter. A section follows on the use made of this form of transportation by public utilities and municipalities.
Technical Paper

Applying the Motor-Vehicle to Business

MANY FACTORS gradually forced a recognition of motor-vehicles as necessary adjuncts to business, and now the motor-vehicle is being called upon more than ever before to serve also as a labor-saving device. The author believes that present-day business will demand further development of this nature. The groups interested in establishing and developing the motor-vehicle in business are the manufacturers thereof, the commercial organizations operating vehicles for their individual needs, the commercial operators supplying service for a variety of customers, and the railroads. The author pays tribute to the manufacturers for the present dependability of motor-vehicles and comments upon the extension of motor-vehicle service in the respective fields of the three other groups. Present competition in all forms of business makes the problem of cost accounting equally serious for all users of commercial vehicles, in the author's opinion.
Technical Paper

Profitable Motorcoach Operation

CONSIDERATION is given by the author to possibilities of radical changes in design of the motorcoach to meet the increasing demands of transportation, and he outlines and analyzes the practices of the company he represents in connection with the operation and maintenance of a fleet of 57 motorcoaches, all of the same make, which supplement the street-railway system in Youngstown, Ohio. The tendency toward a narrowed field for public-transportation service because of the increasing use of the private automobile is discussed and, in the author's opinion, the urban transportation-company will find the field for the motorcoach and the field for the street-car; but he states that the total use of the combined agencies will be far less than would be the case if the conditions of 10 years ago still prevailed.
Technical Paper

Antiknock Research Coordinates Laboratory and Road Tests

ALTHOUGH the C.F.R. Engine-Test Method of knock evaluation, now designated as the Research Method, is accurate and reproducible to a remarkable degree, investigation developed that it was not adequately simulating service conditions as judged by the most critical technician or the less critical lay user. To bring the laboratory method in line with road evaluation of a fuel, a definite technique of road test was evolved that, while not to be considered in commercially determining octane numbers, was regarded by the Committee as sufficiently accurate and reproducible to serve as the first step in the development of a satisfactory laboratory method. With a satisfactory road-test method available, the next step was to test a representative group of fuels and then develop a laboratory method which closely approximates the road results.
Technical Paper


Railroads are facing a crisis in operating costs, the urge toward reduction of unnecessary weight has become widespread and the crusade for noise abatement is no longer to be denied, according to the author. The pneumatic-tired railroad-coach not only answers these requirements, he says, but anticipates a demand for a new traveling comfort. The desire to rubberize railroad equipment is old but much fruitless research has resulted from directing it chiefly toward solid-rubber or cushion tires. Road and rail surfaces present entirely different problems so far as the tire is concerned. No uniformity of conditions obtains on highways but rails are even and smooth. A badly aligned joint such as would wreck a metal wheel makes no impression on a pneumatic tire. As simple as the tire problem may seem, its solution represents years of courageous and skillful research on the part of the Michelin company in France.