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Technical Paper

Engine Oil Air Entrainment and Release - Preliminary Studies

2009-06-15
2009-01-1874
Modern engines rely more and more on the engine oil to serve increasingly complex hydraulic functions such as, for example, controlling cylinder deactivation - a means of significantly increasing fuel efficiency. However, the success of hydraulic methods of activating mechanical responses in engines (or other devices) is dependent on the degree of incompressibility of the hydraulic fluid. As a consequence, those engine oil properties that impart susceptibility to foam formation in areas of hydraulic operations of the engine are detrimental to the engine's performance and durability. This paper is an initial study of aeration, air entrainment, and air release under pressure decrease using a simple bench test. The preliminary information reported suggests the potential application of the instrumental approach developed to measure the rate of foam formation from the air entrained in engine oils and the resistance of such foam to collapse.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions when First Generation Meets Next Generation Biodiesel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1935
Limits on the total future potential of biodiesel fuel due to the availability of raw materials mean that ambitious 20% fuel replacement targets will need to be met by the use of both first and next generation biodiesel fuels. The use of higher percentage biodiesel blends requires engine recalibration, as it affects engine performance, combustion patterns and emissions. Previous work has shown that the combustion of 50:50 blends of biodiesel fuels (first generation RME and next generation synthetic fuel) can give diesel fuel-like performance (i.e. in-cylinder pressure, fuel injection and heat release patterns). This means engine recalibration can be avoided, plus a reduction in all the regulated emissions. Using a 30% biodiesel blend (with different first and next generation proportions) mixed with Diesel may be a more realistic future fuel.
Technical Paper

Effect of In Cylinder Water Injection Strategies on Performance and Emissions of a Hydrogen Fuelled Direct Injection Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1925
The present work examines experimentally the effect of different direct water injection strategies on NOx emissions and performance in a direct injection hydrogen fueled engine. Three water injection strategies were considered including; injection at the suction, compression and expansion strokes. Both injection timing as well as quantity were varied for each strategy. The water injection configuration relative to the spark plug has been also evaluated. The results showed that water injection during expansion stroke has a minor effect on NOx emissions, which has been already formed. Noticeable effect could be achieved when water is injected at the later stages of the compression stroke. Reduction of NOx emissions is strongly dependent on the injection timing as well as quantity of the injected water. Optimum injection timing, for maximum NOx reduction, advances with the increase of the quantity of water being injected.
Journal Article

On the Main Factors Governing Auto-Ignition Phenomenon of Alcohol Spray – A Study from the View Point of Fuel Properties –

2009-06-15
2009-01-1931
This study deals with the development of compression ignition DI alcohol engine with higher efficiency and lower emissions comparing to the conventional internal combustion engines. In order to establish such high performance alcohol engines, development of controlled ignition technology is required. This paper focuses on the main factors that govern auto-ignition phenomenon of alcohol spray from the view point of fuel properties. The reason of poor auto-ignition quality of alcohol spray was theoretically and experimentally revealed. That is difficulty of simultaneous attainments of ignition-suitable concentration and temperature in a spray mixture formation due to their smaller stoichiometric air/fuel ratio and larger latent heat for evaporation in comparison with conventional diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

A New Simple Friction Model for S. I. Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1984
Internal combustion engine modeling is nowadays a widely employed tool for modern engine development. Zero and mono dimensional models of the intake and exhaust systems, combined with multi-zone combustion models, proved to be reliable enough for the accurate evaluation of in-cylinder pressure, which in turn allow the estimation of the engine performance in terms of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). In order to evaluate the net engine output, both the torque dissipation due to friction and the energy drawn by accessories must be taken into consideration, hence a model for the friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) evaluation is needed.
Technical Paper

Simulation and experimental investigations of a direct-injection combustion system for high speed - high performance engines

2009-11-03
2009-32-0045
This publication presents the development of a GDI combustion system for high speed - high performance engines. The paper describes the development of the combustion process and its results, the development methodology, covering 1D and 3D CFD simulations, and shows extensive experimental investigations. With 3D CFD simulations the necessary deeper insights in the mixture preparation process of a homogenous GDI combustion system are gained. The findings of the simulation are transferred to an injection and combustion system for a 4-cylinder test engine. The results of the experimental investigations of the 4-cylinder engine equipped with GDI technology show the potential of GDI applications for high performance engines.
Technical Paper

Study on Single Cylinder Engine for Performance and Exhaust Emission with Diesel, Bio Diesel, LPG and CNG.

2009-11-03
2009-32-0048
The present work deals with Study of performance and emission on single cylinder air cooled naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. Same engine was converted into spark ignition engine with suitable compression ratio to adopt LPG and CNG as a dual fuel application. CFD analysis was done to review and subsequently increase the cooling capacity of the engine. Same spark ignition engine was further converted into water cool version to study improvement in engine performance. Engine performance comparison has shown 17% improvement in power with gasoline as compare to its parent diesel engine and there was drop in power by 12% with LPG and CNG as fuel when compared with gasoline engine. Engine has met proposed Bharat Stage-III emission norms with all fuel on chassis dynamometer. Substantial Reduction in CO2 emission was observed with CNG fuel.
Technical Paper

Improving the Fuel Consumption of Small Motorcycle Engine with YMJET-FI

2009-11-03
2009-32-0049
A construction of the technology concerning fuel consumption improvement is an important problem not only for the four-wheeled vehicle but also for the motorcycle in recent years when petroleum resources are depleted rapidly. Yamaha originally developed a new fuel injection system (YMJET-FI) and applied the system to a single cylinder, water-cooled and small-displacement engine. In this paper, we would introduce the results of improving the fuel economy with keeping high performance. Improvements were noted in three matters, namely, in the lower load range, 1.Strengthening of in-cylinder flow, 2.Atomization of fuel spray, and 3.Reduction of wall film quantity.
Technical Paper

Testing and Evaluation of Fuel Properties Effect on High Speed Engine Performance

2009-11-03
2009-32-0068
In the past, the performance of motorcycle engines has improved quite rapidly through intensive competition in racing and marketplace. In today's very competitive market environment, fuel producers also have to continuously develop and renew their products performance and capability in order to improve their business competitive edge and market share. With more consumer awareness on environment concerns, fuel producers require a better mean of assessing their product performance for internal combustion engine market including motorcycle for improve fuel economy and exhaust emission pollutants. Fossil fuel resources depletion and uncertainty in oil prices further worsen the situation. Advancement in internal combustion engine measurement technology allows engineers to have access to improve evaluation tools in enhancing their understanding and knowledge on the effect of fuel properties on engine performance.
Technical Paper

Performance of Motorcycle Engine Oil with Sulfur-Based Additive as Substitute Zn-DTP (Part II)

2009-11-03
2009-32-0080
As well as a four-wheeled vehicle, in the field of motorcycle, development of the CO2 reduction technology and practical use are required for global environment. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (Zn-DTP) type additives are widely used for engine oil formulations. However, phosphorus compounds are environmental load materials. The reduction of the quantity of phosphorus compounds in engine oils is required to reduce poisoning of three-way catalysts used to purify exhaust gases from internal combustion engines. Ito1) reported that they developed a sulfur-based additive as a substitute for Zn-DTP. Their non-phosphorus engine oil formulation for four-wheeled vehicles with a sulfur-based additive was examined to evaluate its anti-wear performance using the following test methods: JASO M328 for gasoline engines (KA24E) and JASO M354 for Diesel engine (4D34T4).
Technical Paper

Global Application Features of KB, a New Gasoline Engine for Compact Vehicles

2009-12-13
2009-28-0059
The main purposes of the KB variant engine development were not only to reduce fuel consumption or to enhance reliability & quality but also to make better productivity for global manufacture. This paper introduces technical approaches of KB, higher thermal efficiency, better performance and emissions, and well balanced product design with such high energy efficiency, and low-cost and global application. Maximum brake torque per displacement is 7% higher and overall engine weight is lighter by 24kg than an existing 1.3L engine. Design feature includes compactness, low noise characteristics and universal production design considered with globally purchasable materials and simple manufacturing requirement. These contribute short production preparation period and short production task time at Suzuki's key overseas local factories e.g., Maruti Suzuki India Limited.
Technical Paper

On Experimental Techniques to Determine Acoustic Performance of Small Exhaust Silencers

2009-11-03
2009-32-0015
In this paper the acoustic performance of silencers has been investigated. The experimental techniques to study the attenuation of a silencer are in focus. A novel test procedure has been described and used to determine the sound transmission through the silencers in hot mean flow conditions. The experiments have been carried out on two motorcycle engine silencers with different design. The results analyzed and discussed clearly present the influence of the induct flow conditions on the sound transmission loss of the silencer.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emissions of a Sequential Port Injection Compressed Natural Gas Converted Engine

2009-11-03
2009-32-0026
A single cylinder port injection gasoline engine was converted to a bi-fuel gasoline-compressed natural gas operation. The engine was run at wide open throttle and speeds ranging from 1500 to 5000 rpm. Cylinder pressure and air-fuel flow rate were recorded to calculate the indicated performance. Results show CNG operation yields higher FCE and lower ISFC. However, the indicated power, indicated torque, IMEP and volumetric efficiency of CNG were reduced due to lower charge density and slower flame speed. In terms of exhaust emissions, CNG shows significantly lower emission of HC, CO2 and CO. The NOx emission however shows mixed behavior.
Technical Paper

A Dual-Fuel System to Achieve High Equivalence Ratio and High Engine Performance in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Mode

2009-11-03
2009-32-0035
A Dual-fuel system has been developed to achieve a large operation range with HCCI mode. The engine could run on equivalence ratio of 0.30 to 0.50 using N-heptane. A secondary fuel, iso-octane was injected at the points of equivalence ratio between 0.40 and 0.50. It's found extending operation point to equivalence ratio of 0.60. The required intake charge temperature distribution was lesser from 75° to 25°C. Maximum thermal efficiency was 46%. HC and CO emissions were improved which keep lower than 650 ppm and 0.8% correspondingly. NOx emissions increased rapidly at high load to maximum of 500 ppm
Technical Paper

Development and Operation of a 1kW Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

2009-11-03
2009-32-0031
Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd. has been developing 1kW generator system of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The performance and durability characterization of a 1kW DMFC stack that the weight of the stack was decreased 20% in comparison with that of previous stack was evaluated. The DMFC operation condition was optimized from the design of experiment and the results of the net output. The overall system efficiency of the Yamaha DMFC system using the stack became a maximum in current 20A, was 30%. The stack was generated at 20A under the Daily Start up and Shutdown (DSS) condition for 1500h. This report describes some latest results concerning the durability characterization, which were obtained in the NEDO's project.
Technical Paper

Electronic Ignition of four stroke single cylinder engine

2009-12-13
2009-28-0024
The demand for the economy due to scarcity of fuel and increased engine performance with less emission will lead to the high level complexity in engine control system. The important factors which affect fuel economy and engine performance are ignition timing and fuel induction. Primitive engines had mechanical system for ignition advancing and retarding. These mechanical systems had their own limitations which are inefficient and unfriendly to the environment. Therefore need of system which has precise adjustment of ignition timing become inevitable. This project focuses on the modeling, developing of electronic ignition system and also the implementation using MC09S12XDT512 Freescale microcontroller. A concept verification of Electronic Ignition control algorithm is simulated using the MATLAB simulink and the Hardware In Loop (HIL) testing is done using dSPACE for ignition angle determination. The microcontroller based ignition system is implemented using the core MC09S12XDT512.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Emission and Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel and its Blends on a CRDe SUV Engine/Vehicle

2009-12-13
2009-28-0034
The present study is to evaluate the performance & emission characteristics of biodiesel on a 2.6L turbocharged common rail direct injection engine powered on Sports utility vehicle (SUV). The effect of neat biodiesel and its blends with diesel at various ratios was evaluated. The study was extended to analyze combustion characteristics using pressure time history with various blends. This paper elaborate the effect of biodiesel on both engine & vehicle level. Impact on fuel economy, noise level and drivability was also discussed. Experimental results revealed significant reduction of power throughout the operating range while running with biodiesel. So the engine injection strategy was optimized specially for biodiesel to obtain the desired performance & emission. Engine performance results were discussed based on the analysis of heat release, which made it possible to give more precise information about the combustion process.
Technical Paper

IMPROVEMENT OF PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DI DIESEL ENGINE WITH TURBULENCE INDUCED PISTON (INTERNAL JET PISTON) USING BIODIESEL BLENDS

2009-12-13
2009-28-0035
Biodiesel derived from vegetable oil are quite promising alternative fuels for diesel engines, because of their low environmental impact and has potential as an alternative fuel for diesel engine without any modification on the engine Use of vegetable oils in diesel engines leads to slightly inferior performance and higher smoke emissions due to their high viscosity. The performance of vegetable oils can be improved by modifying them through the transesterification process. In this study, an attempt is made to investigate the influence of turbulence inducement using internal jets in a Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine combustion chamber with diesel and palm oil methyl ester (POME). The turbulence in engine cylinder is induced by providing internal jets on the piston crown, located diametrically opposite on the piston crown. The working fluid has a tangential entry into the bowl through these holes.
Technical Paper

Study of Flame Characteristics of a Spark Ignition Engine for Gasoline Fuel

2009-12-13
2009-28-0028
The performance and emission of spark ignition engines are optimized using combustion characteristics. The flame characteristics such as flame kernel growth rate, flame speed, flame development angle, rapid burning angle, over all burning angle and drift velocity influence the combustion process of SI engines. In this direction, experiments were conducted to measure flame kernel growth rate in AVL research spark ignition engine using AVL VISIO FEM instrument. The flame kernel growth rate measured at different engine speeds and spark timing. The measured flame kernel growth rate for gasoline fuel was in the range of 4 to 6 m/s. It was observed from the results that flame kernel growth rate is the highest at MBT spark timing. The effects of flame kernel growth rate on performance and emission characteristics were analyzed in detail. Brake thermal efficiency increases with the increase of flame growth rate. CO emission is good agreement with the kernel growth rate.
Technical Paper

COMBUSTION AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL, B100 AND B20 FUEL ON A THERMAL BARRIER COATING ON PISTON CROWN IN DIRECT INJECTION C.I. ENGINE AT OPTIMUM IOP AND IT

2009-12-13
2009-28-0042
The objective of this study is to investigate the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel and its blend fueled in standard CI engine (without coating piston crown) and thermal barrier coating (with coating of piston crown) CI engine at optimum injector opening pressure (IOP) and injection timing (IT). Tests were performed on a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, water cooled, CI engine whose piston crown were coated with a 300µm thickness of zirconium oxide over a 150µm thickness of nickel chromium and aluminum oxide bond coat at optimum IOP and IT (220 bar and 26° btdc). The working conditions for the standard and thermal barrier coating of piston crown CI engine were kept exactly the same to ensure a realistic comparison between the two configurations of the engine.
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