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Technical Paper

Trends in Engine Valve Development for Automobiles and Motorcycles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0907
Engine valve development trends are to first, reduce the costly metal content and secondly, increase strength or reduce weight. These developments can be used to reduce valve cost or fuel consumption or increase power. The authors developed a new strain age hardening type alloy, NCF2415C, which has both good cold forgeability and heat resistance. Its chemical composition is Fe-24Ni-15Cr-2.2Ti-1.5Al-0.5Nb-0.02C-.006B-2Cu. This new alloy and the establishment f cold forging technology made it possible to develop cold forged exhaust valves having durability equal or better than the conventional hot forged exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Research on High Strength Material and Its Surface Modification for Parts Used Under Rolling Contact Cycles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0633
This paper describes a newly developed steel composition and surface modification methods for improving the rolling contact fatigue strength of parts used in transmission systems, especially continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) to increase their torque capacity. The mechanisms of two types of typical rolling contact fatigue phenomenon in case hardening steel were examined with the aim of improving rolling contact fatigue strength. One concerned white etching constituents (WEC) and the other one concerned peculiar microstructural changes caused by hydrogen originating from decomposition of the lubrication oil as a result of repeated rolling contact stress cycles. The rolling contact fatigue strength limit due to WEC has been improved markedly by dispersing fine M23C6 alloy carbides in the martensite matrix at the subsurface layer of parts.
Technical Paper

Medium Carbon-Boron Steels for Automobile Components

1982-02-01
820123
In order to save molybdenum (Mo) in chromium - molybdenum steels for automobile components, medium carbon - boron steels were investigated. Boron is not a new alloying element for structural steels, however, to date boron steels have not been widely used because of their unstable hardenability and poor machinability. Therefore, in this paper, the optimum content of boron was reexamined, and also the appropriate addition of titanium as a stabilizer of boron was investigated from the view point of hardenability. Furthermore the upper limit of manganese (Mn) content was studied to keep good machinability. The new steel grades, established on the basis of the above fundamental research, have been used on vital components of passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Pitting Resistance of Transmission Gears by Plasma Carburizing Process

1994-03-01
940727
The application of both high strength gear steels and shot peening technology has succeeded in strengthening automotive transmission gears. This technology, though, improves mainly the fatigue strength at the tooth root, but not the pitting property at the tooth face. Therefore, demand has moved to the development of new gear steels with good pitting resistance. In order to improve pitting resistance, the authors studied super carburizing which is characterized by carbide dispersion in the case, especially processed with a plasma carburizing furnace. Firstly, the influence of the carburizing temperature and carburizing period on the carbide morphology was investigated and the optimum carburizing conditions were determined. Secondly, the fatigue strength and pitting resistance was evaluated using carbide dispersed specimens.
Technical Paper

High Strength Steel for Cylinder Head Bolt

1984-02-01
840573
JIS SCM440M (SAE4140H), heat treated to the strength level of 120 to 140 kgf/mm2(171 to 199 ksi) -ISO 12.9 class-, is currently used for cylinder head bolts of Japanese passenger cars. Lower alloy steels, such as SAE 1541 for example, have not been substituted for JIS SCM440H so far because of their high susceptibility to delayed fracture. Daido Steel has tackled this problem and succeeded in applying the lower alloy SAE 1541 steel to 12.9 class cylinder head bolts by enhancing the resistance to delayed fracture by reducing impurities, especially sulphur. In this paper mechanical properties and delayed fracture characteristics of SAE 1541-ULS (Ultra Low Sulphur) steel are reported. 1541-ULS (S<0.005%, S+P< 0.020%) shows outstanding resistance to delayed fracture compared to conventional steel. Furthermore, the amount of MnS inclusions decreases remarkably in ULS steel, which results in high toughness.
Technical Paper

High Performance Differential Gear

1989-02-01
890531
Excellent fuel economy and high performance have been urgent in Japanese automobile industries. With increasing engine power, many of the power train components have to withstand higher loads. Differential pinion gear being one of those highly stressed parts, excellent fatigue and shock resistance have been demanded. At first the fundamental study on the fatigue and impact crack behavior of carburized components was studied and the new grade composed of 0.18%C-0.7%Mn-1.0%Cr-0.4%Mo was alloy designed. Furthermore, Si and P is reduced less than 0.15 and 0.015%, respectively aiming at the reduction of intergranular oxidation and improved case toughness. The differential gear assembly test has proved that the new grade shows three times as high impact strength as that of conventional steel, SCM418, and almost the same as that of SNCM420 containing 1.8%Ni.
Technical Paper

Development of the Ferritic Stainless Steel Welding Wire Providing Fine Grain Microstructure Weld Metal for the Components of Automotive Exhaust System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0979
Ferritic stainless steel gas metal arc welding (GMAW) wires have been widely using for automotive exhaust system components made of ferritic stainless steels. In order to enhance the high temperature strength of weld metal, it is necessary to make the microstructure of weld metal finer. In this study, the effect of the chemistry of ferritic stainless steel GMAW wire on the weld metal microstructure was investigated and new ferritic stainless steel GMAW wire providing fine grain microstructure of the weld metal was developed to improve high temperature mechanical properties, oxidation resistance, corrosion resistance of the weld metal and weldabiliy of the wire.
Technical Paper

Development of a High-Performance TiA1 Exhaust Valve

1996-02-01
960303
A new high-performance and lightweight TiA1 intermetallic compound exhaust valve has been developed. The TiA1 valve can improve power output and fuel economy by contributing higher engine speeds and a reduction in valvetrain friction. It was achieved by developing a Ti-33.5A1-0.5Si-1Nb-0.5Cr (mass%) intermetallic compound, a precision casting method for TiA1 that provides a low-cost, high-quality process, and a plasma carburizing technique for assuring good wear resistance on the valve stem end, stem and face.
Technical Paper

Development of Ultra Fine Grain Steel for Carburizing

1995-02-01
950209
The cold forging process is one of the most popular in the manufacture the automotive parts such as gears and shafts, cold forging saves material and machining costs by near-net shape the principle of forming. However, abnormal austenite grain growth sometimes occurs when the cold forged parts are heated for surface carburizing without a prior normalizing process. The size of the coarse grains can be large, sometimes ASTM Grain Size Number -2 to -4. The abnormal grain growth may cause post-carburizing distortion and is harmful to both fracture toughness and fatigue strength of the parts [1]. The purpose of our research was to develope new steels which would keep the fine grains during the carburizing treatment without normalizing. First, we studied the influence of elements on the grain growth property of case hardening steels and Naiobum (Nb) was selected as the element to control the grain growth. Secondly, we developed an ultra fine grain steel containing a small amount of Nb.
Journal Article

Development of Thermal Fatigue Resistant Ferritic Cast Steel for Turbine Housing of Diesel Engine Automobile

2009-04-20
2009-01-0215
In recent years, the temperature of automobile exhaust gas is on a rising trend due to lowering pollutant emissions and improving fuel economy, and exhaust gas temperature reaches as high as 1173K in the case of diesel engine cars. Against this background, Ni-resist D-5S cast iron has been chosen extensively as a turbine housing material for the diesel engine cars. But, Ni-resist D-5S has become a material of great cost volatility due to high Nickel content of 35 mass%, which price is expensive and unstable. On the contrary Ferritic cast steels, which possesses favorable thermal fatigue properties and good material cost stability, are considered to be promising substitutions for the Ni-resist D-5S. However conventional ferritic cast steels have relatively high melting points, which cause poor castability.
Technical Paper

Development of Thermal Fatigue Resistant Austenitic Cast Alloys for High Temperature Engine Exhaust Gas Systems

2003-03-03
2003-01-0830
As trends of automobile engine exhaust gas temperature are reducing emissions, the material for the exhaust components have been changed from ductile irons to ferritic cast alloys or stainless steel, further to austenitic cast alloys for higher performance engines. The current austenitic alloys, however, have thermal fatigue failure over 1273K. The authors developed excellent thermal fatigue resistant austenitic cast alloys, by investigating the effects of alloying elements on strength and thermal expansion, which correlate with thermal fatigue property. Developed alloys are expected to apply to exhaust components at gas temperatures over 1273K.
Technical Paper

Development of Shape-Controlled-Sulfide Free Machining Steel for Application in Automobile Parts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1526
A free machining Pb-free steel was developed with shape controlled sulfide (SCS) for use in automobile applications such as rocker arms and crankshafts. This free-machining steel is characterized by its improved chip breakability, for which a technique that adds very small quantities of Ca and Ti to control sulfide shape was specifically applied. It was confirmed that this free-machining steel can offer almost equivalent machinability and equivalent or higher fatigue strength by comparison with Pb-added steel for use in rocker arms or crankshafts with S and Ti modifications.
Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

2019-04-02
2019-01-1116
A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt.
Technical Paper

Development of Pitting Resistant Steel for Transmission Gears

2001-03-05
2001-01-0827
It was found that pitting resistance of gears is strongly influenced by resistance to temper softening of carburized steel. The investigation about the influence of chemical compositions on hardness after tempering revealed that silicon, chromium and molybdenum are effective elements to improve resistance to temper softening and pitting resistance. Considering the production of gears, molybdenum is unfavorable because it increases hardness of normalized or annealed condition. Developed new steel contains about 0.5 mass% of silicon and 2.7 mass% chromium. The new steel has excellent pitting resistance and wear resistance. Fatigue and impact strength are equivalent to conventional carburized steels. Cold-formability and machinability of the new steel are adequate for manufacturing gears because of its ordinary hardness before carburizing. The new steel has already been put to practical use in automatic transmission gears. Application test results are also reported.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburizing Steel for Crankshafts

1999-03-01
1999-01-0601
The purpose of our research is to omit normalizing after hot forging in nitrocarburized crankshafts. Based on fundamental studies about the influence of chemical composition on as-forged and nitrocarburized properties, the authors have developed a new nitrocarburizing steel composed of 0.3% carbon, 0.8% manganese, and 0.02% nitrogen. The newly designed crankshafts for compact cars using the steel can be in use without the normalizing and have equivalent properties to conventional crankshafts, though the treatment is an indispensable process for conventional ones.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburized High Strength Crankshaft Through Controlling Vanadium Carbonitride Precipitation by Normalizing

2009-11-03
2009-32-0076
In addition to the requirements of high power output and compactness, further reduction of weight is being required for motorcycle engines from the standpoint of fuel economy and reduction of CO2 emissions. For this purpose, it is important to reduce crankshaft weight, which is the heaviest rotating part in the engine. The crankshaft has to be strong enough to bear loads, as the demands of weight reduction are increasing. Yet, productivity has to be considered at the same time even when increasing crankshaft strength. In this report of crankshaft material studies that feature high fatigue strength, machinability and distortion correct-ability, attention is given to the fact that the amount of vanadium, which is known as an element that enhances the strength with its precipitation, accelerates deposition, dissolved in the steel depends on the heating temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of New High Strength Spring Steel and Its Application to Automotive Coil Spring

2000-03-06
2000-01-0098
For the purpose of saving natural resources and energy, the requirements of vehicle weight-saving have been increasing continuously. As for Automotive Suspension Coil Spring, its weight-saving has been achieved by increasing the design stress. Since the increase of design stress requires higher fatigue life and sag resistance, the strength of spring is usually increased. However, in case of the conventional spring steel, the high strength over σB=1900MPa can dramatically reduce the corrosion fatigue life of spring, to decrease the reliability of spring at the actual usage. In this paper, newly developed spring steel material, satisfying higher strength and corrosion fatigue life simultaneously, is proposed, and its application of Automotive Suspension Coil Spring under the appropriate spring manufacturing processes in introduced.
Technical Paper

Development of Microalloyed Steel for Fracture Split Connecting Rod

2007-04-16
2007-01-1004
In Europe and the U.S., fracture split connecting rods are used in many types of current engines. This process can eliminate the machining of crankshaft end and eliminate the dowel pin for positioning. The most important key for fracture split connecting rods is a reduction in the plastic deformation during the fracture splitting process. For this reason, sinter-forged materials and pearlitic steels (C70S6) are used for fracture split connecting rods because of their low ductility. Such types of steel, however, are inferior to the hot forged microalloyed steels typically used as connecting rod material in Japan in terms of buckling strength and machinability although they are easier to fracture split. On the other hand, the conventional microalloyed steels used for connecting rods in Japan are not suitable for fracture splitting. The reason is that these steels have too much ductility and associated plastic deformation for fracture splitting.
Technical Paper

Development of Low-Nickel Superalloys for Exhaust Valves

1998-02-01
980703
Honda has developed, in collaboration with Hitachi Metals and Daido Steel, two types of low-nickel heat-resistant alloys for exhaust valves which are more cost effective than the conventional nickel alloys. They are NCF4015 that contains approximately 40% nickel and NCF3015 with approximately 30% nickel content. The two types of new alloys were developed based on our unique alloy design concept. Both alloys feature superb high-temperature strength and are capable of maintaining favorable material properties, even after an high-temperature exposure. The NCF4015 is compatible with the conventional Inconel 751 and 60Ni alloys in terms of high-temperature strength. The NCF3015 falls slightly behind the two metals, but overwhelms the 21-4N (SUH35) in high-temperature strength. The exhaust valves made of the two alloys developed have been used for mass production engines.
Technical Paper

Development of Lightweight Connecting Rod Based on Fatigue Resistance Analysis of Microalloyed Steel

1990-02-01
900454
Application of microalloyed steel to automobile parts is becoming increasingly common in Japan. However, fatigue properties of actual automotive forged parts with slight notches on their surface have not been fully clarified. In this work, the fatigue properties of microalloyed steel were studied using test specimens and also actual automotive parts. The results indicated that microalloyed steel with an optimal microstructure showed higher notch fatigue resistance than quenched-tempered steel. The improvement of material technology and the application of microalloyed steel have not only served to bring product costs down, but have paved the way for part weight reductions. Lightweight connecting rods for the newly developed Nissan engines have been produced, contributing to improved engine performance.
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