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Technical Paper

Study of Load Distribution for a Semi - Tracked Air - Cushion Vehicle

A new design method is proposed for a semi-tracked air-cushion vehicle for soft terrain by using a flexible bind, which offers more flexibility in designing. This paper describes the design principle focusing on optimizing the total power consumption of the vehicle. The relationships of load distribution and power consumption are analyzed. The prototype experiments showed that the proposed design can meet the demand of tractive and transport efficiency with its optimal state of using minimum total power consumption and meanwhile maintaining ride comfort.
Technical Paper

On Dynamic Characteristics and Electronic Control of Chinese City Bus Powertrain Consisting of Hydro-dynamic Transmission with Lock-up Clutch

A newly developed GYB-100 hydrodynamic transmission consisting of DFZFB-323 torque converter with lock-up clutch and power shift gearbox for Chinese city bus has been put into operation. The locking-up process of the torque converter is a transient one, and it will bring great shudder to powertrain and thus reduce the lifespan of the clutch. Measures must be taken to eliminate the shudder. In this paper, the city bus powertrain is supposed to be a concentrated mode, i.e, a spring-mass system having multi-degrees of freedom. From analysis of dynamic characteristics of the lock-up clutch it gives that the friction characteristics of the lock-up clutch are of main importance for avoidance of shudder and the proper control of oil pressure operating the lock-up clutch and oil-filling time will lead to improved friction characteristics. The judgement of quality of the lock-up clutch is presented. Using modern control theory, we get optimal control schedule of the lock-up clutch.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Stresses within the High Speed Flywheel in the Regenerative Braking System of a City Bus

In this paper,the flywheel is considered to be linear elastic composition in accordance with its operating characteristic, mechanical and mathematical model are presented,the finite element method is employed to carry out the numerical analysis of steady and unsteady stresses within the high speed flywheel in the regenerative braking system of a city bus,and these provide the basis foŕ its structural modification and further rational design.
Technical Paper

In Cylinder Gas Motions Via Non-Isotropic Turbulent Modeling and Experiment

In cylinder gas motion of an open chamber diesel engine is modeled via a newly developed non-isotropic turbulent flow approach. The theoretical treatment is based on the turbulent kinetic energy-dissipation-random model of Reynolds stress (k - ε - R) which incorporates the non-isotropic fluctuating characteristics of gas movement during a compression stroke of a direct injection diesel engine. The validity of the model was compared to the experimental measurement obtained on an axisymmetric reentrant bowl chamber engine configuration. The experimental data fit much more closely to the established non-isotropic behavior in contrast to the traditional isotropic approach.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical Model of Non-Steady State Tire Cornering Properties and its Experimental Validation

Based on the tire cornering properties in steady state condition, a theoretical model of non-steady state tire cornering properties (NSSTCP) with small lateral inputs is presented. The outputs of the model are lateral force and aligning moment, while the inputs are yaw angle and lateral displacement (or turn slip and slip angle). The deformation characteristics of contact patch are analyzed in non-steady state condition. The flexibility of tread and that of carcass are both taken into account. The deformation of carcass is assumed to compose of translating part, bending part and twisting part. The tests of NSSTCP including pure yaw motion and pure lateral motion are realized with step inputs of yaw angle and slip angle respectively and test data is then transformed into frequency domain. The model is validated through comparing the computational results with test frequency response.
Technical Paper

A Generalized Theoretical Model of Tire Cornering Properties in Steady State Condition

A generalized theoretical model of tire cornering properties is presented in steady state condition with lateral deflection of tread and complex deformation of carcass under consideration. The model is suitable for full range of vertical load and slip angle. Six parameters are defined to represent the characteristics of tire stiffness, contact pressure distribution and carcass deformation. The model is validated against test data. Some simplified models, e.g. brush model, HSRI model when longitudinal force is zero, Fiala model etc., can be derived as some specific cases of this model. The analytic model provides a sound foundation for semi-empirical expression and gains insight into study of vehicle system dynamics.