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Journal Article

The Influence of Hot Gas Jet on Combustion Enhancement for Lean Mixture in Plasma Jet Ignition

2012-10-23
2012-32-0001
This study clarified the influence of hot gas jet on combustion enhancement effect for lean mixture in the plasma jet ignition. The hot gas jet was generated by the high temperature plasma and was ejected from igniter after plasma jet finished issuing. In combustion tests, propane-air mixture at equivalence ratio of 0.6 was used and the mixture was filled in the combustion chamber at atmosphere pressure and room temperature. For generation of the hot gas jet, the standard air was filled in chamber at same conditions and the hot gas jet was visualized by schlieren method in the absence of combustion. The combustion development processes were also visualized and the combustion pressure was measured. The discharge voltage, discharge current and the plasma luminescence were also measured. The plasma luminescence disappeared within 0.05 ms for any experimental conditions. When cavity depth was deep and orifice diameter was small, the maximum plasma luminescence height was short.
Technical Paper

The Influence of High Voltage Electrical Field on the Flame Propagation

2005-10-12
2005-32-0074
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the development process of hot kernel generated by the laser induced breakdown and to clarify the relationship between corona discharge application and flame propagation. The mixture can be ignited by the laser induced breakdown. Nd:YAG laser is used for the ignition and laser light is optically focused on the central part of combustion chamber by a plano convex lens. The hot kernel is observed in the absence of combustion and is rapidly developed into the laser incidence side. The homogeneous propane-air mixture is used and six equivalence ratios between 0.7 and 1.5 are tested. For generating the positive corona discharge in the combustion chamber, a non-uniform electric field is applied by the needle to plane gap. In a lean mixture, the whole flame front shifts to downward from the breakdown point and, in the rich mixture region, the combustion is strongly enhanced.
Technical Paper

The Fuel Injection System Using the High-Voltage Electrical Discharge

2005-10-12
2005-32-0075
The new fuel injection method which is using the high-voltage electrical discharge has been proposed. The plasma jet ignition technology is applied to this injection system, and the component parts of fuel injector are similar to the plasma jet igniter. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the spray characteristics and the fuel injection development processes of this injection method. To obtain the influence of injector configuration and supplied electrical discharge energy on the fuel spray, the fuel is ejected into the open atmosphere and fuel injection development process is visualized by the schlieren method. The penetration depth, maximum width and projected area of fuel spay increase with increasing in the electrical discharge energy and an orifice diameter. In the case at which the large electrical discharge energy is provided, the fuel injection is finished within a short duration and the mean fuel spray velocity becomes fast.
Technical Paper

The Effects of the Compression Ratio, Equivalence Ratio, and Intake Air Temperature on Ignition Timing in an HCCI Engine Using DME Fuel

2005-10-12
2005-32-0002
Attention has recently been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion (HCCI) as an effective combustion process for resolving the essential nature of combustion. Meanwhile, dimethylether (DME) has attracted interest as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. Authors measured the combustion process of DME HCCI by using a spectroscopic method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. The results of these analyses showed that changes in the compression ratio, intake air temperature and equivalence ratio influenced the ignition timing in the HCCI combustion process. This paper discusses these effects in reference to the experimental and calculated results.
Technical Paper

Study on Knocking Characteristics for High-Efficiency Operation of a Super-Lean Spark Ignition Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0002
This study investigated the influence of EGR and spark advance on knocking under high compression ratio, ultra-lean mixture and supercharged condition using premium gasoline as a test fuel. A high-compression ratio, supercharged single cylinder engine was used in this experiment. As a result, the period from ignition to autoignition was prolonged. In addition, knock intensity was drastically reduced. In other words, it is inferred that by combining an appropriate amount of EGR and spark advance, high efficiency operation avoiding knocking can be realized.
Technical Paper

Study on Combustion and Exhaust Gas Emission Characteristics of Lean Gasoline-Air Mixture Ignited by Diesel Fuel Direct Injection

1998-10-19
982482
The uniform lean gasoline-air mixture was provided to diesel engine and was ignited by direct diesel fuel injection. The mixing region that is formed by diesel fuel penetration and entrainment of ambient mixture is regarded as combustible turbulent jet. The ignition occurs in this region and the ambient lean mixture is burned by flame propagation. The lean mixture of air-fuel ratio between 150 and 35 could be ignited and burned by this ignition method. An increase of diesel fuel injection is effective to ensure combustion and ignition. As diesel fuel injection increases, HC concentration decreases, and NOx and CO concentration increases.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Measurement of OH Radical Emission Behavior Using a 2-Cycle Engine

1997-10-27
978515
The aim of this research was to investigate the mechanism causing autoignition and the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion by detecting the behavior of the OH radical and other excited molecules present in the flame in a spark ignition engine. The test equipment used was a 2-cycle engine equipped with a Schnürle scavenging system. Using emission spectroscopy, the behavior of the OH radical was measured at four locations in the end zone of the combustion chamber. The OH radical plays an important role in the elemental reactions of hydrocarbon fuels. When a certain level of EGR was applied according to the engine operating conditions, the unburned gas became active owing to heat transfer from residual gas near the measurement positions on the exhaust port side and the influence of excited species in the residual gas, and autoignition tended to occur.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Analysis of Light Absorption and Emission in Preflame Reactions under Knocking Operation

2000-01-15
2000-01-1416
The study deals with the light absorption and emission behavior in the preflame reaction interval before hot flame reactions.(1-3) Absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the behavior of HCHO and OH radicals during a progression from normal combustion to knocking operation. Emission spectroscopic measurements were obtained in the same way that radical added HCO. Radical behavior in preflame reactions was thus examined on the basis of simultaneous measurements, which combined each absorption wavelength with three emission wavelength by using a monochromator and a newly developed polychromator.(4-5) When n-heptane (0 RON) and blended fuel (50 RON) were used as test fuel, it was observed that radical behavior differed between normal combustion and knocking operation and a duration of the preflame reaction was shorter during the progression from normal combustion to a condition of knocking.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Plasma Jet and Newly Developed Plasma Jet Igniter

1998-10-19
982564
In plasma jet ignition, combustion enhancement effects are caused toward the plasma jet issuing direction. Therefore, when the igniter is attached at the center of cylindrically shaped combustion chamber, the plasma jet should issues toward the round combustion chamber wall. The plasma jet igniter that had a concentric circular orifice has been developed. It is expected that the plasma jet is issued and is diffused from concentric circular orifice toward the combustion chamber wall. Relationship between plasma jet and igniter configuration was experimentally clarified. Plasma jet can issue from the entire concentric circular orifice for some igniter. Plasma jet is extended with increasing concentric circular orifice area. Plasma jet penetration increases with increasing concentric circular orifice width.
Journal Article

Optical Measurement of Autoignition and Combustion Behavior in an HCCI Engine

2010-09-28
2010-32-0089
In this study, optical measurements were made of the combustion chamber gas during operation of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine in order to obtain a better understanding of the ignition and combustion characteristics. The principal issues of HCCI engines are to control the ignition timing and to optimize the combustion state following ignition. Autoignition in HCCI engines is strongly influenced by the complex low-temperature oxidation reaction process, alternatively referred to as the cool flame reaction or negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. Accordingly, a good understanding of this low-temperature oxidation reaction process is indispensable to ignition timing control. In the experiments, spectroscopic measurement methods were applied to investigate the reaction behavior in the process leading to autoignition.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Radical Behavior in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Using Dimethyl Ether

2003-09-16
2003-32-0006
Attention has recently been focused on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as an effective combustion process for resolving issues inherent to the nature of combustion. Dimethyl ether (DME; CH3OCH3) has attracted interest as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. We measured the HCCI process of DME in a test diesel engine by using a spectroscopic method. Simultaneous measurements were also done on exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Based on the experimental data, this paper discusses the relationship between the equivalence ratio and the observed tendencies.
Technical Paper

Light Emission and Absorption Spectroscopic Study of HCCI Combustion

2009-06-15
2009-01-1846
In this study, light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurement techniques were used to investigate the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process in detail, about which there have been many unclear points heretofore. The results made clear the formation behavior and wavelength bands of the chemical species produced during low-temperature reactions. Specifically, with a low level of residual gas, a light emission band was observed from a cool flame in a wavelength range of 370–470 nm. That is attributed to the light emission of formaldehyde (HCHO) produced in the cool-flame reactions. Additionally, it was found that these light emission spectra were no longer observable when residual gas was applied. The light emission spectra of the combustion flame thus indicated that residual gas has the effect of moderating cool-flame reactions.
Technical Paper

Influences of Compression Ratio and Methane Additive on Combustion Characteristics in a DME-HCCI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3745
In this study, a spectroscopic method was used to measure the combustion characteristics of a test diesel engine when operated on dimethyl ether (DME) under a homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. A numerical analysis was made of the elementary reactions using Chemkin 4.0 to perform the calculations. The results of the analysis showed that compression ratio changes and the methane additive influenced the autoignition timing in the DME-HCCI combustion process. In the experiments, reducing the compression ratio delayed the time of the peak cylinder pressure until after top dead center, thereby increasing the crankshaft output and thermal efficiency. The addition of methane enabled the DME-HCCI engine to provide crankshaft output equivalent to that seen for diesel engine operation at a low equivalence ratio. This paper discusses these effects in reference to the experimental and calculated results.
Technical Paper

Influence of Supercharging and EGR on Multi-stage Heat Release in an HCCI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0009
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest as a combustion system that offers the advantages of high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion system owing to the lack of a physical means of initiating ignition like the spark plug in a gasoline engine or fuel injection in a diesel engine. Moreover, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the cylinder, it produces an enormous amount of heat in a short period of time, which causes greater engine noise, abnormal combustion and other problems in the high load region. The purpose of this study was to expand the region of stable HCCI engine operation by finding a solution to these issues of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Influence of Internal EGR on Knocking in an HCCI Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0807
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have attracted much attention and are being widely researched as engines characterized by low emissions and high efficiency. However, one issue of HCCI engines is their limited operating range because of the occurrence of rapid combustion at high loads and misfiring at low loads. It is known that knocking accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations also occurs in HCCI engines at high loads, similar to knocking seen in spark-ignition engines. In this study, HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations was visualized by taking high-speed photographs of the entire bore area. In addition, the influence of internal exhaust gas circulation (EGR) on HCCI knocking was also investigated. The visualized combustion images revealed that rapid autoignition occurred in the end-gas region during the latter half of the HCCI combustion process when accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations.
Technical Paper

Influence of Initial Turbulence in RCM on Spontaneous Ignition of End Gas under SI Combustion

2015-09-01
2015-01-1876
The influence of the eddy scale of initial turbulence in RCM on the pressure rise rate after spontaneous ignition of end gas was investigated. The combustion time of the end gas after spontaneous ignition was observed by using high-speed direct photography. As a result, the large scale eddy reduced the pressure rise rate after spontaneous ignition. The temperature inhomogeneity of end gas was higher with the large scale eddy. The combustion time of end gas after spontaneous ignition was prolonged by variation in local ignition delay due to inhomogeneity. The large scale eddy may prevented the knocking occurrence.
Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Speed on Autoignition and Combustion Characteristics in a Supercharged HCCI Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0090
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. However, because HCCI engines lack a physical means of initiating ignition, it is difficult to control the ignition timing. Another issue of HCCI engines is that the combustion process causes the cylinder pressure to rise rapidly. The time scale is also important in HCCI combustion because ignition depends on the chemical reactions of the mixture. Therefore, we investigated the influence of the engine speed on autoignition and combustion characteristics in an HCCI engine. A four-stroke single-cylinder engine equipped with a mechanically driven supercharger was used in this study to examine HCCI combustion characteristics under different engine speeds and boost pressures.
Technical Paper

Influence of EGR on Knocking in an HCCI Engine Using an Optically Accessible Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0012
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of cooled recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) on abnormal combustion in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The condition of abnormal HCCI combustion accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations was photographed with a high-speed camera using a 2-stroke optically accessible engine that enabled visualization of the entire bore area. Exhaust gas was cooled with a water-cooled intercooler for introducing cooled EGR. Experiments were conducted in which the quantity of cooled EGR introduced was varied and a comparison was made of the autoignition behavior obtained under each condition in order to investigate the influence of cooled EGR on abnormal HCCI combustion. The results revealed that cylinder pressure oscillations were reduced when cooled EGR was introduced. That reduction was found to be mainly ascribable to the effect of cooled EGR on changing the ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Influence of Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature on Combustion in an HCCI Engine Using an Alternative Fuel

2015-11-17
2015-32-0790
Internal combustion engines today are required to achieve even higher efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions. Currently, research interest is focused on premixed compression ignition (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, HCCI) combustion. However, HCCI engines have no physical means of initiating ignition such as a spark plug or the fuel injection timing and quantity. Therefore, it is difficult to control the ignition timing. In addition, combustion occurs simultaneously at multiple sites in the combustion chamber. As a result, combustion takes place extremely rapidly especially in the high load region. That makes it difficult for the engine to operate stably at high loads. This study focused on the fuel composition as a possible means to solve these problems. The effect of using fuel blends on the HCCI operating region and combustion characteristics was investigated using a single-cylinder test engine.
Technical Paper

Influence of Calcium-Based Additives with Different Properties on Abnormal Combustion in an SI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0007
Technologies for further improving vehicle fuel economy have attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, one problem with some approaches is the occurrence of abnormal combustion such as low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs under low-speed, high-load operating conditions. One proposed cause of LSPI is that oil droplets diluted by the fuel enter the combustion chamber and become a source of ignition. Another proposed cause is that deposits peel off and become a source of ignition. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine was used in this study to investigate the influence of Ca-based additives having different properties on abnormal combustion by means of in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic measurements. The results obtained for neutral and basic Ca-based additives revealed that the former had an effect on advancing the time of autoignition.
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