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Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions Simulator for Verification of Extremely Low Emission Measurement Systems

With the support of Horiba and Horiba STEC, Toyota Motor Corporation has developed an exhaust emissions simulator to verify the accuracy of extremely low emissions measurement systems. It can reliably verify the accuracy (correlation) of each SULEV emission measurement system to within 5% under actual conditions. The simulator's method of simulating SULEV gasoline engine cold-start emissions is to inject bottled gases with known concentrations of each emission constituent to the base gas, which is clean exhaust gas from a SULEV vehicle with new fully warmed catalysts. First, the frequencies and dynamic ranges of the SULEV cold-start emissions were analyzed and the method of 2 injecting the bottled gases was considered based on the results of that analysis. A high level of repeatability and accuracy was attained for all injection flow ranges in the SULEV cold-start emission simulation by switching between high-response digital Mass Flow Controllers (MFCs) of different full scales.
Technical Paper

Development of a New V-6 High Performance Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

A new V-6 stoichiometric gasoline direct injection engine was developed for high performance FR (Front Engine Rear Drive) vehicles. High power performance, low fuel consumption and low exhaust emissions were achieved by employing a stoichiometric direct injection system that uses Toyota's unique slit nozzle injector that generates a fan-shaped fuel spray and variable intake and exhaust valve timing systems. Focusing on the power performance, maximum power of 183kW (61kW/L) is achieved at 6200rpm and maximum torque is 312Nm at 3600rpm. This power performance is among the top production 3.0 L gasoline engines in the world. This paper outlines the features of this engine and some special technologies contributing to the achievement of the above-mentioned high performance. Optimizing the intake-port design was done to improve power performance.
Technical Paper

Development of V-6 3.5-liter Engine Adopting New Direct Injection System

A new V-6 3.5-liter gasoline engine (2GR-FSE) uses a newly developed stoichiometric direct injection system with two fuel injectors in each cylinder (D-4S: Direct injection 4-stroke gasoline engine system Superior version). One is a direct injection injector generating a dual-fan-shaped spray with wide dispersion, while the other is a port injector. With this system, the engine achieves a power level among the highest for production engines of this displacement and a fuel economy rating of 24mpg on the EPA cycle. Emissions are among the lowest level for this class of sedans, meeting Ultra Low Emission Vehicle standards (ULEV-II). The dual-fan-shaped spray was adopted to improve full-load performance. The new spray promotes a homogeneous mixture without any devices to generate intense in-cylinder air-motion at lower engine speeds.