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Technical Paper

Using Chemical Kinetics to Understand Effects of Fuel Type and Compression Ratio on Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of Various EGR Constituents

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to mitigate knock in SI engines. However, experiments have shown that the effectiveness of various EGR constituents to suppress knock varies with fuel type and compression ratio (CR). To understand some of the underlying mechanisms by which fuel composition, octane sensitivity (S), and CR affect the knock-mitigation effectiveness of EGR constituents, the current paper presents results from a chemical-kinetics modeling study. The numerical study was conducted with CHEMKIN, imposing experimentally acquired pressure traces on a closed reactor model. Simulated conditions include combinations of three RON-98 (Research Octane Number) fuels with two octane sensitivities and distinctive compositions, three EGR diluents, and two CRs. The experimental results point to the important role of thermal stratification in the end-gas to smooth peak heat-release rate (HRR) and prevent acoustic noise.
Journal Article

Theoretical Study on Spray Design for Small-Bore Diesel Engine (Second Report)

Generally, soot emissions increase in diesel engines with smaller bore sizes due to larger spray impingement on the cavity wall at a constant specific output power. The objective of this study is to clarify the constraints for engine/nozzle specifications and injection conditions to achieve the same combustion characteristics (such as heat release rate and emissions) in diesel engines with different bore sizes. The first report applied the geometrical similarity concept to two engines with different bore sizes and similar piston cavity shapes. The smaller engine emitted more smoke because air entrainment decreases due to the narrower spray angle. A new spray design method called spray characteristics similarity was proposed to suppress soot emissions. However, a smaller nozzle diameter and a larger number of nozzle holes are required to maintain the same spray characteristics (such as specific air-entrainment and penetration) when the bore size decreases.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Wall Impinging Behavior with a Fan Shaped Spray

The experiment-based droplet impinging breakup model was applied to a fan shaped spray and the impinging behavior was analyzed quantitatively. Evaluation of the quantitative results with validation tests verified the following. The model enables prediction of fan shaped spray thickness after impingement caused by the breakup of fuel droplets, which could not be represented with the Wall-Jet model, widely used at present. Fuel film movement on a wall is negligible when the injection pressure of the fan shaped spray is high and the spray travelling length is not too short. The proposed heat transfer coefficient between fuel film and the wall is too small to represent the vaporizing rate of the fuel film.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Pressure Loop EGR System for Diesel Engines

Low pressure loop (LPL) EGR systems are effective means of simultaneously reducing the NOx emissions and fuel consumption of diesel engines. Further lower emission levels can be achieved by adopting a system that combines LPL EGR with a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst. However, this combined system has to overcome the issue of combustion fluctuations resulting from changes in the air-fuel ratio due to EGR gas recirculation from either NOx reduction control or diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. The aim of this research was to reduce combustion fluctuations by developing LPL EGR control logic. In order to control the combustion fluctuations caused by LPL EGR, it is necessary to estimate the recirculation time. First, recirculation delay was investigated. It was found that recirculation delay becomes longer when the LPL EGR flow rate or engine speed is low.
Technical Paper

Development of Closed-Loop Robust Control System for Diesel Engines - Combustion Monitoring by Crank Angular Velocity Analysis and its Applications -

Closed-loop robust control system that can monitor combustion state and control it into optimal state using crank angular velocity analysis was established. The system can be constructed without any change of the current hardware. It can avoid engine stall, deterioration of drivability and white smoke emission by misfire after filling low cetane fuels. This study was attempted to grasp the frequency characteristics of crank angular velocity both normal combustion and misfire with FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and Wavelet Transform. FFT used for frequency analysis is generic method to acquire the frequency characteristics of steady oscillation, however is unsuitable for acquiring the frequency characteristics of transient oscillation. Therefore authors adopted Wavelet Transform and succeeded in grasping the phenomenon in misfiring in time sequential.
Journal Article

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Using the Transient Adjoint Method and Its Application to Engine In-Cylinder Flow

Conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology that uses parametric shape modification and optimal solutions searching algorithms has the two problems: (1) outcome of optimized shapes depend on the selection of design parameters made by the designer, and (2) high computational costs. To resolve those problems, two innovative inverse analysis technologies based on the Adjoint Method were developed in previous study: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape for maximizing the cost function in the constrained design space. However, these technologies are only applicable to steady flows. Since most flows in a vehicle (such as engine in-cylinder flow) are transient, a practical technology for surface geometry sensitivity analysis has been developed based on the Transient Adjoint Method.
Technical Paper

Development of CFD Inverse Analysis Technology Targeting Heat or Concentration Performance Using the Adjoint Method and Its Application to Actual Components

To resolve two major problems of conventional CFD-based shape optimization technology: (1) dependence of the outcome on the selection of design parameters, and (2) high computational costs, two types of innovative inverse analysis technologies based on a mathematical theory called the Adjoint Method were developed in previous studies for maximizing an arbitrary hydrodynamic performance aspect as the cost function: surface geometry deformation sensitivity analysis to identify the locations to be modified, and topology optimization to generate an optimal shape. Furthermore, these technologies were extended to transient flows by the application of the transient Adjoint Method theory. However, there are many cases around flow path shapes in vehicles where performance with respect to heat or concentration, such as the total amount of heat transfer or the flow rate of a specific gas component, is very important.