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Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel and On-Road Wind Noise: Comparison and Replication

2013-04-08
2013-01-1255
A KIA Soul was instrumented to measure the relative velocity (magnitude and yaw angle) at the front of the vehicle and in-cabin sound at a location close to the side glass near the A-pillar vortex impingement. Tests were conducted at a proving ground under a range of conditions from low wind conditions (~3 m/s) to moderate (7-8 m/s) wind speeds. For any given set of atmospheric conditions the velocity and sound data at any given position on the proving ground were noted to be very repeatable, indicating that the local wakes dominated the "turbulent" velocity field. Testing was also conducted in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel in smooth flow and with a number of novel turbulence generating methods. The resulting sounds were analyzed to study the modulation at frequencies likely to result in fluctuation strength type noise.
Technical Paper

Wind-Tunnel Tests of Vehicle Cooling System Performance at High Blockage

2000-03-06
2000-01-0351
Wind tunnels provide a convenient, repeatable method of assessing vehicle engine cooling, yet important draw-backs are the lack of a moving ground and rotating wheels, blockage constraints and, in some tunnels, the inability to simulate ambient temperatures. A series of on-road and wind-tunnel experiments has been conducted to validate a process for evaluating vehicle cooling system performance in a high blockage aerodynamic wind tunnel with a fixed ground simulation. Airflow through the vehicle front air intake was measured via a series of pressure taps and the wind-tunnel velocity was adjusted to match the corresponding pressures found during the road tests. In order to cope with the inability to simulate ambient temperatures, the technique of Specific Dissipation (SD) was used (which has previously been shown to overcome this problem).
Technical Paper

The Unsteady Wind Environment of Road Vehicles, Part Two: Effects on Vehicle Development and Simulation of Turbulence

2007-04-16
2007-01-1237
This paper summarises the effects of turbulence on the aerodynamics of road vehicles, including effects on forces and aero-acoustics. Data are presented showing that a different design of some vehicles may result when turbulent flow is employed. Methods for generating turbulence, focusing on physical testing in full-size wind tunnels, are discussed. The paper is Part Two of a review of turbulence and road vehicles. Part One (Cooper and Watkins, 2007) summarised the sources and nature of the turbulence experienced by surface vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Passenger Vehicle Wake Under the Influence of Upstream Turbulence

2003-03-03
2003-01-0650
In this study, flow measurements were taken in the wake of a 3/10 scale model of a passenger vehicle using a high frequency, four-hole pressure probe (Dynamic Cobra Probe). The purposes of this study were to further the understanding of the wake development of a passenger vehicle in isolation (in order to provide representative input boundary conditions for CFD and EFD simulations of vehicles traveling in traffic) and to also investigate the wake properties under the influence of upstream turbulence (i.e. with a turbulence generator upstream). The results from several downstream planes are presented and include the time-averaged contour plots of turbulence intensity, velocity deficit and vorticity and cross-flow velocity fields. The presence of increased levels of upstream turbulence mostly affected the upper region of the vehicle wake. In this region, the A-pillar vortex was reduced in size and strength, while the C-pillar vortex had increased in both respects.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Vehicle A-Pillar Aerodynamics using various Turbulence Models

2004-03-08
2004-01-0231
Vortices formed around the A-pillar region dictates the pressure distribution on the side panels of a passenger vehicle and also can lead to aerodynamic noise generation. This paper compares the suitability of various turbulence models in simulating the flow behind a vehicle A-pillar region under laboratory operating conditions. Commercial software's (FLUENT and SWIFT) were used to compare the performance of various turbulence models. In FLUENT, a simplified vehicle model with slanted A-pillar geometry was generated using GAMBIT and in SWIFT, the simplified vehicle model was generated using Fame Hybrid. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out using FLUENT under steady state conditions using various turbulence models (k-, k- Realize, k- RNG, k- and Spalart Allamaras). In SWIFT, k-, A-RSM and HTM2 turbulence models were used for the steady state simulations. Investigations were carried out at velocities of 60, 100 and 140km/h and at 0-degree yaw angle.
Technical Paper

Reduced Drag and Adequate Cooling for Passenger Vehicles Using Variable Area Front Air Intakes

2006-04-03
2006-01-0342
Engine cooling systems are usually designed to meet two rare and extreme conditions; driving at maximum speed and driving up a specified gradient at full throttle while towing a trailer of maximum permitted mass. At all other times, the cooling system operates below its maximum capacity with an incurred drag penalty. In this work it is being suggested to design the system using the existing methods and then vary the area of the cooling air intakes to permit the minimum amount of cooling air for adequate engine cooling. A full-size, Australian made Ford Falcon car (a large modern 'family' saloon) was tested at the Monash University Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel. The cooling air intakes of the vehicle were shielded progressively until fully blocked. Four different possibilities of shielding were investigated with the aim of determining the variation of drag reduction with the shielding method employed.
Technical Paper

Green Racing; Solar and FSAE

2011-10-06
2011-28-0023
Green racing technologies are described with a focus on two categories of sustainable racing; solar racing, including an overview of the World Solar Challenge (WSC) held in Australia, and Formula SAE-E (Society of Automotive Engineers-Electric). Both types of cars utilise sustainably generated electricity, the former uses solar arrays integrated into the vehicle body and the latter electricity generated from a renewable energy park and stored onboard in lithium polymer cells. The design considerations of both vehicles are contrasted with a focus on energy usage minimisation. The Aurora team (which has broken many records, including winning the World Solar Challenge across Australia) is used to illustrate the importance of minimizing the power requirements by having a low aerodynamic drag, frontal area, a highly efficient powertrain and low rolling resistance. To illustrate the technology behind FSAE Electric the R10E car from RMIT is described.
Technical Paper

Effects of Vehicle A-pillar Shape on Local Mean and Time-Varying Flow Properties

2001-03-05
2001-01-1086
Separated flow is the main generator of aerodynamic noise in passenger vehicles. The flow around the A-pillar is central to the wind noise as many modern vehicles still have high fluctuating pressures due to flow separations in this region. Current production vehicle geometry is restricted due to the amount of three dimensionality possible in laminated windscreen glass (and door opening etc). New materials (e.g., polycarbonate) offer the possibility of more streamlined shapes which allow less or no flow separation. Therefore, a series of experimental investigations have been conducted to study the effects of the A-pillar and windshield geometry and yaw angles on the local flow and noise using a group of idealised road vehicle models. Surface mean and fluctuating pressures were measured on the side window in the A-pillar regions of all models at different Reynolds numbers and yaw angles.
Technical Paper

Effects of On-Road Turbulence on Automotive Wind Noise: Comparing Wind-Tunnel and On-Road Tests

1997-02-24
970406
For high-speed driving conditions, the air flow around a car creates wind noise that is transmitted into the cabin, which can dominate other noises. If an atmospheric wind is present, it will create a turbulent cross wind, which not only changes the air flow velocity and direction as experienced by the vehicle, but leads to continuously varying wind noise, as heard inside the car. The purpose of this paper is to look at how the on-road wind environment affects wind noise, and to evaluate the need to simulate real on-road conditions such as fluctuating yaw angles and velocities in vehicle wind tunnels.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cross-Winds on Motor Car Engine Cooling

1997-02-24
970138
The sensitivity of cross-winds in reducing the engine cooling ability in motor cars is highlighted. Tests on three different motor cars were conducted in the Monash University full-scale wind tunnel at different yaw angles under different wind velocities. The test results show that motor car engine cooling capability decreases with an increase in yaw angles. For a wind velocity of 14 m/s, a 13% decrease in radiator cooling capability was found at a yaw angle of 20° compared to a zero yaw angle. The effect of yaw angles on the engine cooling also depends on the motor car front-end configuration, but this becomes less important with increasing wind velocity. The effect of cross-winds on car engine cooling was also evaluated by on-road engine cooling tests. A convenient experimental method to measure wind velocity and yaw angle relative to a moving car is also described.
Technical Paper

Design of a Morphing Bi-Stable Composite Air Intake

2015-03-10
2015-01-0066
A morphing ram-air intake, capable of deploying from a flat, closed surface to an open state is investigated. Via geometric and material optimisation, an origami-inspired folding structure is developed to exhibit bi-stable behaviour. An iterative finite element design process was conducted, noting the effects of the critical design properties of geometry, bending stiffness and material strain limits on bi-stability and the achievable geometric shape change. As a first step, thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer materials are proposed while increased stiffness by fibre reinforcements are considered at a later design stage and evaluated under aerodynamic loading. The bi-stable structure is capable of remaining in either open or closed stable configurations without sustained actuation. The ability to retract the intake when not required has the potential to reduce drag. It is envisioned that such a concept may be readily adopted within automotive and aerospace applications.
Technical Paper

Comparison of On-Road and Wind-Tunnel Tests for Tractor-Trailer Aerodynamic Devices, and Fuel Savings Predictions

1985-02-01
850286
Wind tunnels which are large enough for full-scale trucks are rare, and the cost of satisfactorily-detailed models for smaller tunnels is high. The work presented shows the results from the application of a method which provides an over-the-road evaluation of the incremental changes in fuel consumption and drag coefficient produced following the addition of a variety of aerodynamic drag reducing devices to a tractor-trailer truck combination. The devices tested were an aerodynamic sunvisor, a roof-mounted air deflector, cab extenders, cab skirts, a trailer nose fairing, a set of trailer quads (quarter-rounds), and trailer skirts which were mounted on a low-forward-entry tractor and high box-van trailer. The significant differences between the wind tunnel and on-road drag reductions suggest that the effects of on-road wind turbulence can substantially reduce the wind tunnel results even though a 1.5% turbulence intensity level was used in the tunnel experiments.
Technical Paper

Airflow Parameters Near the Differential of a Rear Drive Passenger Car

2001-03-05
2001-01-1015
The paper presents experimental analysis of the airflow around the differential center housing of a rear drive full-scale passenger car. The study included investigation of local airflow total and static pressure, as well as surface flow visualization. Estimation of the local airflow velocity is based on the measured pressure coefficients. The experiments were carried out at different test facilities: in a climatic wind tunnel, in a full-scale wind tunnel and on-road. Influence of side wind was modeled by the yawing of the car in the full-scale wind tunnel. The results show the asymmetrical structure of the flow in both, vertical and horizontal planes. Estimated longitudinal relative local velocity decreases from maximum Vr ≈ 0.4 at the lower surface of the center housing, to about Vr ≈ 0 above the upper surface. Side wind increases airflow velocity around the center housing within the investigated yaw range ± 20°
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Structure and Development of Formula 1 Racing Car Wakes

2014-04-01
2014-01-0600
For the modern Formula 1 racing car, the degradation in aerodynamic performance when following another car is well documented. The problem can be broken into two parts; firstly the wake flow generated by these vehicles and the subsequent interaction a following car has with this field. Previous research [1, 2 & 3] has focused upon investigating the later without completely characterizing the former. This paper seeks to address this deficiency with initial data from a newly commissioned 30% scale Formula One wind tunnel model built to the 2011 technical regulations. Experimentation was carried out in the Industrial Wind-Tunnel (IWT) at RMIT University. In the absence of a rolling road an elevated ground plane was implemented; the results obtained show good agreement with the limited published material available. Using a high frequency response, four-hole pressure probe the aft body flow was investigated at multiple downstream locations.
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