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Technical Paper

32 Development of Silent Chain Drive System for Motorcycles

Examining the noise reduction of a motorcycle, the requirement of an effective method of reducing a drive chain noise has been a pending issue similarly to noise originating from an engine or exhaust system, etc. Through this study, it became clear that the mechanism of chain noise could be classified into two; low frequency noise originated from cordal action according to the degree of chain engagement and high frequency noise generated by impact when a chain roller hits sprocket bottom. An improvement of urethane resin damper shape, mounted on a drive side sprocket, was effective for noise reduction of the former while our development of a chain drive that combined an additional urethane resin roller with an iron roller worked well for the latter. The new chain system that combined this new idea has been proven to be capable of reducing the chain noise to half compared with a conventional system.
Technical Paper

3D-PIV Measurement and Visualization of Streamlines Around a Standard SAE Vehicle Model

In CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) verification of vehicle aerodynamics, detailed velocity measurements are required. The conventional 2D-PIV (Two Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry) needs at least twice the number of operations to measure the three components of velocity ( u,v,w ), thus it is difficult to set up precise measurement positions. Furthermore, there are some areas where measurements are rendered impossible due to the relative position of the object and the optical system. That is why the acquisition of detailed velocity data around a vehicle has not yet been attained. In this study, a detailed velocity measurement was conducted using a 3D-PIV measurement system. The measurement target was a quarter scale SAE standard vehicle model. The wind tunnel system which was also designed for a quarter scale car model was utilized. It consisted of a moving belt and a boundary suction system.
Technical Paper

A Study of Compatibility Test Procedure in Frontal Impact

The purpose of this study is to examine compatibility test procedures proposed in the IHRA Vehicle Compatibility Working Group. Various crash tests were conducted with different vehicle weights and stiffness in our previous study, and each of the compatibility problems, namely mass; stiffness and geometric incompatibility were identified in these tests. In order to improve the compatibility, it is necessary to evaluate and control relevant vehicle characteristics of compatibility in test procedures. According to the IHRA study, relevant aspects for compatibility in frontal impact are: Good structural interaction; Frontal stiffness matching; Maintaining passenger compartment integrity; Control the deceleration time histories of impacting cars.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of the New Honda FIT/JAZZ

This paper discusses the characteristic flow field of the new Honda FIT/Jazz as determined from the aerodynamic development process, and introduces the technique that reduced aerodynamic drag in a full model change. The new FIT was the first model to take full advantage of the Flow Analysis Simulation tool (FAST), our in-house CFD system, in its development. The FAST system performs aerodynamic simulation by automatically linking the exterior surface design with a predefined platform layout. This allows engineers to run calculations efficiently, and the results can be shared among vehicle stylists and aerodynamicists. Optimization of the exterior design gives the new FIT a moderate pressure peak at the front bumper corner as compared to the previous model, resulting in a smaller pressure difference between the side and underbody.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Evaluation System at the Early Concept Stage of Automotive Styling Development Based on CFD

An aerodynamic styling evaluation system employed at an early automotive development stage was constructed. The system based on CFD consists of exterior model morphing, computational mesh generation, flow calculation and result analysis, and the process is automatically and successively executed by process automation software. Response surfaces and a parallel coordinates chart output by the system allow users to find a well-balanced exterior form, in terms of aerodynamics and exterior styling, in a wide design space which are often arduous to be obtained by a conventional CAE manner and scale model wind tunnel testing. The system was designed so that 5-parameter study is completed within approximately two days, and consequently, has been widely applied to actual exterior styling development. An application for a hatchback vehicle is also introduced as an actual example.
Technical Paper

Analysis for Influence of Inhomogeneity of Air-Fuel Mixture to Super-Knock Caused by Pre-ignition in Supercharged Direct-Injected SI Engine Based on Numerical Calculation

Nowadays, highly super charging is required corresponded to downsizing concept for improving thermal efficiency in direct-injected spark ignition (DISI) engine. However, highly super charging increases the possibility of super-knock caused by pre-ignition. Recently, in many studies, the reason of pre-ignition has been investigated but the reason why pre-ignition leads such strong knocking called super-knock has not been investigated. In DISI engine, it is estimated that there is more inhomogeneity of equivalence ratio and temperature of air-fuel mixture than it in port injection SI engine. In this study, factors which decide self-ignition timing was reviewed and the influence of inhomogeneity of air-fuel mixture to super-knock was investigated based on numerical calculation.
Technical Paper

Analysis on In-Cylinder Flow by Means of LDA, PIV and Numerical Simulation under Steady State Flow Condition

This paper describes the evaluation of flow characteristics inside a model engine cylinder using particle image velocimetry (PIV), laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), and numerical simulation by Partial Cells in Cartesian coordinate (PCC) method. The main goal of the study is to clarify the differences in the velocity characteristics obtained by these methods. The model engine head has a four-valve system. Single- and dual- valve opening conditions of the model engine head were tested by a steady flow test rig. The flow structures were completely different for these valve opening conditions. The mean velocities and their distributions obtained by the three methods show satisfactory agreement. However, there were differences in the turbulence intensities under several conditions and measuring positions. Taylor's hypothesis in the integral length scale of turbulence was also compared with single LDA and PIV measurements.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Correlation Tests Between Japanese Full-Scale Automotive Wind Tunnels Using the Correction Methods for Drag Coefficient

This paper describes results of the correlation tests between several full-scale automotive wind tunnels in Japan. The tests were carried out during FY 2003 by members of the working group for wind tunnel correlation test, which was organized in JSAE Vehicle Aerodynamics Research Committee. Five wind tunnels were selected, i.e., three open test section type wind tunnels and two closed ones. Four test models were selected, i.e., sedan, station wagon, minivan and hatch back car, all of which are current production models. Tests were done with EADE test conditions. Correlation formulas for drag coefficient, which are based on the previous methods by Mercker and Wiedemann [13] and Mercker [3, 10] respectively for open and closed test section type wind tunnels, were used. Also considered were the differences of the boundary layer thickness between five wind tunnels.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Finite Element Model for the Human Lower Limb of Pedestrians

An impact test procedure with a legform addressing lower limb injuries in car-pedestrian accidents has been proposed by EEVC/WG17. Although a high frequency of lower limb fractures is observed in recent accident data, this test procedure assesses knee injuries with a focus on trauma to the ligamentous structures. The goal of this study is to establish a methodology to understand injury mechanisms of both ligamentous damages and bone fractures in car-pedestrian accidents. A finite element (FE) model of the human lower limb was developed using PAM-CRASH™. The commercially available H-Dummy™ lower limb model developed by Nihon ESI for a seated position was modified to represent the standing posture of pedestrians. Mechanical properties for both bony structures and knee ligaments were determined from our extensive literature survey, and were carefully implemented in the model considering their strain rate dependency in order to simulate the dynamic response of the lower limb accurately.
Technical Paper

Development of JASO 2-Stroke Engine Oil Standards

The 2-Stroke Engine Oil Subcommittee of the JSAE has developed the following five JASO (Japan Automobile Standards Organization) 2-Stroke Gasoline Engine Oil Quality Standards for motorcycle, utility and outboard engines: 1) JASO M340-92 Lubricity test procedure for evaluating two stroke gasoline engine oils 2) JASO M341-92 Detergency test procedure for evaluating two stroke gasoline engine oils 3) JASO M342-92 Smoke test procedure for evaluating two stroke gasoline engine oils 4) JASO M343-92 Exhaust system blocking test procedure for evaluating two stroke gasoline engine oils 5) JASO M345-93 Two stroke gasoline engine oils These standards consist of four kinds of engine test procedure and a classification system which includes three physico chemical properties of an oil.
Journal Article

Development of a New Metal Substrate for Lean NOx Trap

This paper presents a new substrate for Lean NOx Traps (LNT) which enables high NOx conversion efficiency, even after long-term aging, when using alkali metals as the NOx adsorber. When a conventional metal honeycomb is used as the LNT substrate, the chromium in the metal substrate migrates into the washcoat and reacts with the alkali metals after thermal aging. In order to help prevent this migration, we have developed a new substrate where a fine -alumina barrier is precipitated to the surface of the metal substrate. The new substrate is highly capable of preventing migration of chromium into the washcoat and greatly enhances the NOx conversion. The durability of the new substrate and emission test using a test vehicle are also examined.
Journal Article

Differences between Air-Dam Spoiler Performances in Wind Tunnel and On-Road Tests

An air-dam spoiler is commonly used to reduce aerodynamic drag in production vehicles. However, it inexplicably tends to show different performances between wind tunnel and coast-down tests. Neither the reason nor the mechanism has been clarified. We previously reported that an air-dam spoiler contributed to a change in the wake structure behind a vehicle. In this study, to clarify the mechanism, we investigated the coefficient of aerodynamic drag CD reduction effect, wake structure, and underflow under different boundary layer conditions by conducting wind tunnel tests with a rolling road system and constant speed on-road tests. We found that the air-dam spoiler changed the wake structure by deceleration of the underflow under stationary floor conditions. Accordingly, the base pressure was recovered by approximately 30% and, the CD value reduction effect was approximately 10%.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure Using Crankshaft Angular Velocity Variation

We have successfully developed a system to estimate Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (hereafter "IMEP") by detecting the crankshaft angular velocity variation during one cycle of a four-stroke single-cylinder gasoline engine. The system has been commercially applied to the spark-ignition timing control system for small-displacement motorcycle engines. The determined amplitude of crankshaft angular velocity variation during one cycle is defined as "delta omega (Δω)." The relationship between Δω and IMEP has been experimentally examined using engine unit bench tests and actual motorcycles. From the experimental results, it was confirmed that Δω represents IMEP. This paper discusses the experimental study on the estimation of IMEP using crankshaft angular velocity variation.
Journal Article

Evaluation of the Performance of a Boosted HCCI Gasoline Engine with Blowdown Supercharge System

HCCI combustion can realize low NOx and particulate emissions and high thermal efficiency. Therefore, HCCI combustion has a possibility of many kinds of applications, such as an automotive powertrain, general-purpose engine, motorcycle engine and electric generator. However, the operational range using HCCI combustion in terms of speed and load is restricted because the onset of ignition and the heat release rate cannot be controlled directly. For the extension of the operational range using either an external supercharger or a turbocharger is promising. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of the intake pressure on the HCCI high load limit and HCCI combustion characteristics with blowdown supercharging (BDSC) system. The intake pressure (Pin) and temperature (Tin) were varied as experimental parameters. The intake pressure was swept from 100 kPa (naturally aspirated) to 200 kPa using an external mechanical supercharger.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Connecting Rod Bearing Seizures in Four-Cycle Gasoline Engines

In this work, the connecting rod bearing seizures as one of the problems latent to the high-output, high-speed engines are investigated. Studies are conducted on the evaluation of anti-seizure properties of a single connecting rod bearing installed in the test rig as well as in commercial engines. As the results of the former study, the bearing wear is affected by the rod surface roughness (Rmax ) and the oil temperature (viscosity). Further, frequent metal to metal contacts of bearings are observed by the electrical measuring apparatus under higher temperature, and full load conditions. While in the latter, it is found the total heat generated of the bearing is the important factor affective to the bearing seizures, and can be analyzed by using PV value, rod surface roughness and oil viscosity.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of Test Procedures for Frontal Collision Compatibility

This paper investigates test procedures for vehicle frontal crash compatibility. Both Full Width Deformable Barrier (FWDB) tests and Moving Deformable Barrier (MDB) tests were studied to assess relevant factors of compatibility issues. The FWDB test with load cells was examined to evaluate the stiffness and interaction areas of vehicles (sometimes referred to as the “aggressivity” of vehicles). Compatibility metrics were computed using barrier load cell data and the output from the FWDB test was compared with that from the Full Width Rigid Barrier (FWRB) test. Since the results obtained from these two full width tests were considerably different, a full frontal vehicle-to-vehicle test was carried out to identify structural deformation modes. The results indicated that similar deformation modes were observed between the vehicle-to-vehicle test and the FWDB test.
Technical Paper

Flow Field Analysis in the Development of the 2013 Model Year Accord Hybrid

There is a need to reduce vehicle's running resistance through aerodynamic performance in terms of having less negative impact on the global environment. In the Accord full model change, the package design is changed, so it is an opportunity to propose methods for improving aerodynamic performance. During the preliminary study, phenomenon analyses were conducted to identify areas that have a significant effect on aerodynamics by using a 25% scale model of the previous model. Based on more than 500 variation measurements as parameter study, the analysis was conducted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A proposal was made to the package design. For development that began with the fundamental frame proposed in preliminary studies, wind tunnel testing using 25% scale model was conducted jointly with the Styling Design Office to achieve enhancement styling while also increasing aerodynamic performance.
Technical Paper

Four Wheel Steering System with Rear Wheel Steer Angle Controlled as a Function of Steering Wheel Angle

This paper discusses the desired steer angle characteristics of rear wheels in the new concept of four wheel steering system in which the rear wheels are controlled as a function of the steering wheel angle in a manner that the rear wheels are steered in the same direction as the front wheels when the steering wheel angle is kept within a small range while the rear wheels are steered in the opposite direction to the front in the case the steering wheel angle is steered over a larger range. This paper also indicates the basic principle of the four wheel steering system and lists items for consideration in determining the function, and then presents a variety of effects the new steering system produces on operating performances based upon a series of proving ground tests.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Economy in a Four Stroke Spark Ignition Engine for a Small Motorcycle

For the purpose of reducing the fuel consumption of a motorcycle with a small-displacement, four-stroke spark-ignition engine, a compact combustion chamber was tried and the weight of the moving parts of the engine was reduced. As a result, the gas mileage under 30 km/h cruising condition was increased to 110 km/l with an improvement of 50% over a conventional motorcycle.