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Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Effect of Surface Irregularities of Piston Ring and Sleeve Materials in High-Speed Reciprocating Test

The reciprocating frictional test is a common approach for screening the materials of the piston and sleeve of an automobile engine. The frictional speed of this test is, however, limited mainly by the vibration of test apparatus due to the absence of damping factors in engines. Considering that the frictional velocity between the piston and sleeve reaches around 20 m/s, common test conditions at less than 2 m/s are not sufficient to understand the real phenomena at a frictional interface. We therefore developed a high-speed reciprocating test apparatus that can operate at a much higher speed range and examined two materials used for piston rings and sleeves. For the piston ring material, nitrided SUS440C was used. Plates were made of centrifugal cast iron FC250 or cast aluminum AC2B, which were coated with Nikasil. The experimental results showed that the lubrication regimes of the two plate materials were different even at the same reciprocating speeds.
Technical Paper

Engine Seizure Monitoring System Using Wear Debris Analysis and Particle Measurement

Several attempts have been reported in the past decade or so which measured the sizes of particles in lubricant oil in order to monitor sliding conditions (1). Laser light extinction is typically used for the measurement. It would be an ideal if only wear debris particles in lubricant oil could be measured. However, in addition to wear debris, particles such as air bubbles, sludge and foreign contaminants in lubricant oil are also measured. The wear debris particles couldn't have been separated from other particles, and therefore this method couldn't have been applied to measurement devices for detection when maintenance service is required and how the wear state goes on. It is not possible to grasp the abnormal wear in real time by the conventional techniques such as intermittent Ferro graphic analysis. In addition, it is no way to detect which particle size to be measured by the particle counter alone.
Technical Paper

Establishment of Engine Lubrication Oil Pressure and Flow Rate Distribution Prediction Technology Using 3D-CFD and Multi Body Dynamics

To develop ideal oil circuits, it was necessary to establish technology that would accurately predict lubrication oil pressure and flow rates. Therefore, the oil flow rate was predicted by applying load fluctuations, calculated using multi body dynamics, to an oil film model. In addition, the pressure loss of complex oil passages was obtained using 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (hereafter, “3D-CFD”). Furthermore, the pressure loss of the oil pressure switching valves and other parts that are difficult to predict using 3D-CFD were measured as single parts, and these results were linked with one-dimensional internal flow analysis to develop a prediction method for lubrication oil pressure and flow rate distributions. Verification tests were ultimately performed using a completed engine, and the results confirmed that this simulation method accurately reproduces the oil pressure and oil flow rate in each part.
Technical Paper

High Efficiency 6-speed Automatic Transmission

A new 6-speed automatic transmission (AT) has been developed with the aim of enhancing fuel economy, raising efficiency, and achieving greater compactness. The unit was built on a parallel-shaft structure similar to the previous Honda AT, which has high torque transmission efficiency. The new AT was given more gear speeds and the ability to handle higher input torque from the engine. On the one hand, bolt structure for shaft tightening was implemented, the forward-reverse shift mechanism was placed on the input shaft and common gear trains are provided. As a result of these and other measures, the total length of the new transmission is 18 mm shorter than the previous model 5-speed AT. A multi-plate lock-up clutch (LC) structure with a separate chamber in the torque converter was also adopted so that the lock-up torque capacity could be increased and the LC control range expanded.
Journal Article

In-Situ Measurement and Numerical Solution of Main Journal Bearing Lubrication in Actual Engine Environment

A simple method is frequently used to calculate a reciprocating engine’s bearing load from the measured cylinder pressure. However, it has become apparent that engine downsizing and weight reduction cannot be achieved easily if an engine is designed based on the simple method. Because of this, an actual load on a bearing was measured, and the measured load values were compared with a bearing load distribution calculated from cylinder pressure. As a result, it was found that some of actual loads were about half of the calculated ones at certain crank angles. The connecting rod’s elastic deformation was focused on as a factor behind such differences, and the rod’s deformation due to the engine’s explosion load was studied. As a result, it was found that the rod part of the engine’s connecting rod was bent by 0.2 mm and became doglegged. Additional investigation regarding these findings would allow further engine downsizing.
Technical Paper

Shifting Mechanisms and Variation of Frictional Coefficients for CVT Using Metal Pushing V-Belts

In order to reveal the shifting mechanisms for CVT using a metal pushing V-belt, three shifting rates were introduced. The belt motion in the pulley groove was also characterized using mean coefficients of friction as parameters, which identify the slippage condition of the belt in the pulley groove. The experimental results showed that one of shifting rates, dR/ds was almost constant in the narrowing pulley regardless of both rotational speed and transmitted torque. Here, R is the belt pitch radius in the pulley and s is the length measured along the belt pitch line. This fact indicates that the shifting is primarily governed by elastic deformation of blocks of the belt. Power transmitting states were also evaluated using a different type of lubricating oil whose nominal coefficient of friction was higher than that for the conventional AT oil. The observed mean coefficients of friction vary due to oil although the basic response of the CVT unchanged.
Technical Paper

Study of CNG Fueled Two-Wheeled Vehicle with Electronically Controlled Gas Injection System

Owing to its combustion characteristics and chemical composition, natural gas features cleaner emissions and lower CO2 compared to gasoline under equal thermal efficiency. Natural gas can be a promising alternative energy source to respond to crude oil exhaustion and global warming issues. Focusing on the utility of natural gas, a feasibility study on CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) -fueled two-wheeled vehicles has been conducted. A proto-type two-wheeled vehicle was made based on a 125 cm3 class gasoline-fueled scooter. To adapt the engine to the use of CNG fuel, an electronically controlled gas injection system was applied to the fuel supply system. To provide abrasion resistance of engine valves and valve seats, the specific matter of gas-fuel was improved. Furthermore, a lubricant circulation passage was added to maintain the temperature of the pressure reducing valve.