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Technical Paper

4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Special Conditions

2011-09-13
2011-01-2158
This paper introduces the characteristics of the 4 wheel independent driving/4 wheel independent steering (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle (EV). Models of Subsystems and the vehicle are constructed based on Matlab/simulink. The vehicle model allows the inputs of different drive torques and steer angles of four wheels. The dynamic characteristics of drive motors and steer motors are considered, and also it can reflect the vehicle longitudinal dynamics change due to the increase of the mass and inertia of the four wheels. Besides, drive mode selection function that is unique to this type vehicle is involved. Simulations and analyses of crab, oblique driving and zero radius turning which are the special conditions of 4WID/4WIS EV are conducted. The results show that the model can reflect the dynamic response characteristics. The model can be used to the simulation analyses of handling, stability, energy saving and control strategies verification of 4WID/4WIS EVs.
Journal Article

A New Method for Bus Drivers' Economic Efficiency Assessment

2015-09-29
2015-01-2843
Transport vehicles consume a large amount of fuel with low efficiency, which is significantly affected by drivers' behaviors. An assessment system of eco-driving pattern for buses could identify the deficiencies of driver operation as well as assist transportation enterprises in driver management. This paper proposes an assessment method regarding drivers' economic efficiency, considering driving conditions. To this end, assessment indexes are extracted from driving economy theories and ranked according to their effect on fuel consumption, derived from a database of 135 buses using multiple regression. A layered structure of assessment indexes is developed with application of AHP, and the weight of each index is estimated. The driving pattern score could be calculated with these weights.
Technical Paper

A New Type of Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering System for Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1502
The earth's fossil energy is not limitless, and we should be taking advantage of the highly developed fields of science and technology to utilize it more efficiently and to create a fully environmentally friendly life. Considering the prodigious amount of vehicles in the world today, even a small improvement in their energy-saving performance could have a significant impact. In this paper, a new type of electro-hydraulic power steering (EHPS) system is described. It has two main advantages. First, it can significantly decrease the demand on the motor so that it can be used for a wider range of vehicles. Second, its pressure-flow characteristic can be programmed and is more flexible than hydraulic power steering (HPS) system. A prototype with a 500 W motor was applied to a truck with a front load of 2,700 kg, and static steer sweep tests were conducted to validate its feasibility.
Technical Paper

Application of Narrow Cone Angle Injectors to Achieve Advanced Compression Ignition on a Mass-Production Diesel Engine - Control Strategy and Engine Performance Evaluation

2009-11-02
2009-01-2700
Advanced compression ignition combustion system which reduces simultaneously both nitride oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) is a promising approach to meet future emission regulations. In order to achieve advanced compression ignition, flexible fuel injection is required for ultra-early and post-TDC injections, which conventional injector fails to accomplish due to wall-wetting effect. In this work, special injectors with the spray angle of 60 degree are applied on a 4 cylinder mass-production diesel engine without modification of the engine configuration. For application-oriented study, sweep experiments of injection timings and durations, fuel injection pressure and the boost pressure are carried out to investigate the relationships between the control parameters and the engine performance. Model based calibration and real application tests validate the maximum applicable operation range of maximum speed of 2200 RPM and IMEP of 8.0 bar.
Technical Paper

Control Optimization of a Charge Sustaining Hybrid Powertrain for Motorsports

2018-04-03
2018-01-0416
The automotive industry is aggressively pursuing fuel efficiency improvements through hybridization of production vehicles, and there are an increasing number of racing series adopting similar architectures to maintain relevance with current passenger car trends. Hybrid powertrains offer both performance and fuel economy benefits in a motorsport setting, but they greatly increase control complexity and add additional degrees of freedom to the design optimization process. The increased complexity creates opportunity for performance gains, but simulation based tools are necessary since hybrid powertrain design and control strategies are closely coupled and their optimal interactions are not straightforward to predict. One optimization-related advantage that motorsports applications have over production vehicles is that the power demand of circuit racing has strong repeatability due to the nature of the track and the professional skill-level of the driver.
Technical Paper

Costs, Benefits and Range: Application of Lightweight Technology in Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0724
The lightweight technology takes an important role in electric vehicle(EV) energy conservation domain, as lighter vehicle means less energy consumed under same condition. In this paper, the typical energy requirement in an NEDC cycle is investigated, and the relationship between lightweight rate and energy consumption reduction effectiveness is given. The benefit of lightweight to EV come from the less battery cost because of less energy requirement. For EVs, with less battery cost, a certain lightweight rate can be obtained with less total cost. On the other hand, if lightweight rate is very high, the battery cost won't be able to cover the lightweight cost. Besides, the relationship between driving range and battery capacity is discussed in this paper. It is found that there is a limitation of EV driving range, which is determined by the battery energy density.
Journal Article

Cyber-Physical System Based Optimization Framework for Intelligent Powertrain Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0426
The interactions between automatic controls, physics, and driver is an important step towards highly automated driving. This study investigates the dynamical interactions between human-selected driving modes, vehicle controller and physical plant parameters, to determine how to optimally adapt powertrain control to different human-like driving requirements. A cyber-physical system (CPS) based framework is proposed for co-design optimization of the physical plant parameters and controller variables for an electric powertrain, in view of vehicle’s dynamic performance, ride comfort, and energy efficiency under different driving modes. System structure, performance requirements and constraints, optimization goals and methodology are investigated. Intelligent powertrain control algorithms are synthesized for three driving modes, namely sport, eco, and normal modes, with appropriate protocol selections. The performance exploration methodology is presented.
Technical Paper

DEHB (Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System) Having a Holding Function

2015-03-10
2015-01-0017
Many types of brake by wire systems have been developed in past years, such as EMB (Electro-mechanical Brake) [1, 2], DEHB (Distributed Electro-hydraulic Braking System) [3] and EWB (Electric Wedge Brake) [4]. When the vehicle need braking in long period such as waiting for traffic light or downhill braking in those brake systems, the current will sustain very long time with very high level. This current will result in high temperature in motor, and will damage the power supplier. When a new DEHB is developing, a holding function is added in this DEHB. The holding function is self-energized when holding the brake, and automatic released after the brake. Advantageously, after activation of the holding function, the current delivered to the motor for braking is substantially decreased, especially, will be zero when the brake torque is not need to adjust.
Technical Paper

Development of Model Based Closed Loop Control Strategy of SCR System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2383
Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a key technology for heavy-duty diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent nitric oxides (NOx) emission limits of regulations. The urea water solution injection control is critical for urea SCR systems to achieve high NOx conversion efficiency while keeping the ammonia (NH3) slip at a required level. In general, an open loop control strategy is sufficient for SCR systems to satisfy Euro IV and Euro V NOx emission limits. However, for Euro VI emission regulation, advanced control strategy is essential for SCR systems due to its more tightened NOx emission limit and more severe test procedure compared to Euro IV and Euro V. This work proposed an approach to achieve model based closed loop control for SCR systems to meet the Euro VI NOx emission limits. A chemical kinetic model of the SCR catalyst was established and validated to estimate the ammonia storage in the SCR catalyst.
Technical Paper

Development of Model Predictive Control Strategy of SCR System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines with a One-State Control-Oriented SCR Model

2018-09-10
2018-01-1763
Urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxides (NOx) is a key technology for heavy-duty diesel engines to achieve the increasingly stringent NOx emission standards. The aqueous urea injection control is critical for urea-SCR systems in order to achieve high NOx conversion efficiency while restricting the tailpipe ammonia (NH3) slip. For Euro VI emission regulation, an advanced control strategy is essential for SCR systems since its NOx emission limits are tighter and test procedure are more stringent compared to Euro IV and Euro V. The complex chemical kinetics of the SCR process has motivated model-based control design approaches. However, the model is too complex to allow real-time implementation. Therefore, it is very important to have a reduced order model for SCR control system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Detergent on Injector Deposit Formation and Engine Emissions in a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2247
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been developed rapidly in recent years, driven by stringent legislative requirements on vehicle fuel efficiency and emissions. However, one challenge facing GDI is the formation of particulate emissions, particularly with the presence of injector tip deposits. The Chinese market features some gasoline fuels that contain no detergent additives and are prone to deposit formation, which can affect engine performance and emissions. The use of detergent additives to mitigate the formation of injector deposits in a GDI engine was investigated in this study by testing a 1.5L turbocharged GDI engine available in the Chinese market. The engine was operated both on base gasoline and on gasoline dosed with detergent additives to evaluate the effect on injector deposit formation and engine performance and emissions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Oil and Gasoline Properties on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in a Thermal Research Engine (TRE) and an Optical Rapid Compression Machine (RCM)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0720
High boost and direct injection are effective ways for energy saving in gasoline engines. However, the occurrence of super-knock at high load has become a main obstacle for further improving power density and fuel economy. It has been known that super-knock can be induced by pre-ignition, and oil droplet auto-ignition is found to be one of the possible mechanisms. In this study, experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder thermal research engine (TRE), in which different types of oil and surrogates were directly injected into the cylinder and then led to pre-ignition and super-knock. The effect of oil injection timing, oil injection quantity, different gasoline and different oil were tested. All the oil in this work could induce pre-ignition, even though their combustion phasing was much later than that in the case of n-hexadecane.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermodynamic Conditions on Spark Ignition to Compression Ignition in Ultra-Lean Mixture Using Rapid Compression Machine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0963
Compression ratio and specific heat ratio are two dominant factors influencing engine thermal efficiency. Therefore, ultra-lean burn may be one method to deal with increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations in the approaching future. To achieve high efficiency and clean combustion, innovative combustion modes have been applied on research engines including homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), and gasoline direct-injection compression ignition (GDCI), etc. Compared to HCCI, SACI can extend the load range and more easily control combustion phase while it is constrained by the limit of flame propagation. For SACI with ultra-lean burn in engines, equivalence ratio (φ), rich-fuel mixture around spark plug, and supercharging are three essentials for combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Improving Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) Combustion at Medium and High Load by Reducing Compression Ratio

2017-03-28
2017-01-0765
This research focuses on the potential of Homogeneous Charge Induced Ignition (HCII) combustion meeting the Euro V emission standard on a heavy-duty multi-cylinder engine using a simple after-treatment system. However, in our previous studies, it was found that the gasoline ratio was limited in HCII by the over-high compression ratio (CR). In this paper, the effects of reducing CR on the performances of HCII at medium and high loads were explored by experimental methods. It was found that by reducing CR from 18:1 to 16:1 the peak in-cylinder pressure and the peak pressure rise rate were effectively reduced and the gasoline ratio range could be obviously extended. Thus, the combustion and emission characteristics of HCII at medium and high loads were noticeably improved. Soot emissions can be significantly reduced because of the increase of premixed combustion ratio. The reduction could be over 50% especially at high load and high speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study and Numerical Interpretation on the Temperature Field of DPF during Active Regeneration with Hydrocarbon Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-1257
Diesel particulate filter (DPF) is indispensable for diesel engines to meet the increasingly stringent emission regulations. Both the peak temperature and the maximum temperature gradient of the DPF during active regeneration should be well controlled in order to enhance the reliability and durability of the filter. In this paper, the temperature field of the DPF during active regeneration with hydrocarbon (HC) injection was investigated with engine bench tests and numerical simulation. For the experimental study, 24 thermocouples were inserted into the DPF channels to measure the inner temperature of the filter to capture its temperature field, and the circumferential, axial and radial distribution of the filter temperature was analyzed to understand the DPF temperature field behavior during active regeneration.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lean Mixture Combustion at Ultra-High Compression Ratios in a Rapid Compression Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1422
In order to meet increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission regulations, more attentions are paid to improve engine efficiency. A large amount of energy-saving technologies have been applied in automotive field especially in gasoline engines. It is well known that lean burn and ultra-high compression ratio technologies are two basic and important methods to increase efficiency. In this paper, a rapid compression machine was employed to study combustion process of lean iso-octane mixture at ultra-high compression ratios (16 to 19:1). Regardless of flammability of the mixture, spark was triggered at the timing right after the end of compression, then, the flame propagation and/or auto-ignition can be recorded using high-speed photography simultaneously. The effects of equivalence ratio (φ), compression ratio (ε), dilution ratio, and effective temperature (Teff) on the combustion process was investigated.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption Analysis and Optimizing of a Heavy Duty Dual Motor Coaxial Series-Parallel Hybrid Lorry under C-WTVC

2017-10-08
2017-01-2359
Energy saving is becoming one of the most important issues for the next generation of commercial vehicles. The fuel consumption limits for commercial vehicles in China have stepped into the third stage, which is a great challenge for heavy duty commercial vehicles. Hybrid technology provides a promising method to solve this problem, of which the dual motor coaxial series parallel configuration is one of the best options. Compared with parallel configuration, the powertrain can not only operate in pure electric or parallel mode, but also can operate in series mode, which shows better flexibility. In this paper, regulations on test cycle, fuel consumption limits and calculation method of the third stage will be introduced in detail. Then, the quasi-static models of the coaxial series parallel powertrain with/without gearbox under C-WTVC (China worldwide transient vehicle cycle) are built. The control strategies are designed based on engine and motor performance.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Regulations and Technology Roadmaps of China and the US: Comparison and Outlook

2018-09-10
2018-01-1826
In order to address the increasing energy and environmental concerns, China and the US both launched the fuel economy regulations and aim to push the development of technology. In this study, the stringency of CAFC and CAFE regulations and the technology development of two countries are compared. Besides, the optimal technology pathways of America and automakers for the compliance of CAFE regulations are calculated based on the modified VOLPE model, and the results are used as reference for China. The results indicate that the annual regulation improvement rates of China is higher than America and the AIR of China 2015-2020 regulation reaches 6.2% and is the most stringent phase in 10 years from 2015 to 2025. From the perspective of technology, there are still big gaps between China and the US in the applications of advanced fuel saving technologies.
Technical Paper

Injection Strategy Study of Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Naphtha

2015-09-01
2015-01-1797
This study investigates the performance of a diesel engine fueled with naphtha under different load by varying injection parameters and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate. The experiments were conducted on a 1.9-liter common rail diesel engine with a compression ratio of 17.5. Naphtha with a research octane number of 60.5 was tested. Three multi-injection strategies were designed. Each injection strategy, aided with EGR, conducts a characteristic combustion mode. Multi-injection strategies and single-injection strategy were tested and compared at one operating point under different main injection timing and EGR conditions. Results indicate that the well-designed multi-injection strategy has advantages over the single injection strategy in lowering noise, emissions and improving combustion efficiency. Among the three strategies, the strategy with 15-degree pilot timing and 2mg/cycle pilot injection could achieve both low NOx and PM emissions without sacrificing much fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Design of CFRP Automobile Tailgate Based on Multi-Step Optimization

2019-04-02
2019-01-1103
As a critical part of auto-body, the design of tailgate not only affects the beauty, usability and safety of automobile, but also involves more and more issues about environmental protection and energy saving. Hence, it is of vital importance to investigate lightweight of tailgate. This paper mainly focuses on lightweight design of CFRP tailgate based on conventional SUV metal tailgate, which can be realized under the condition of meeting requirements of stiffness, modal and manufacturing with the adoption of multi-step optimization method. To start with, finite element (FE) model of metal tailgate is established. Meanwhile, the stiffness and modal analyses, including bending stiffness, torsional stiffness, lateral stiffness, vertical stiffness and free modal are set up. Then, the structural performances of metal tailgate are analyzed, and the topology optimization of CFRP tailgate is performed.
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