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Technical Paper

09 AVL Lean Burn Systems CCBR and CBR Light for Fuel Economy and Emission Optimization on 4-Stroke Engines

The CBR [1] (Controlled Burn Rate) is a port deactivation concept developed by AVL and is already applied in series production cars. The benefit of this concept is the low engine-out emission (CO, HC and NOx) and good fuel economy. By creating turbulent kinetic energy at the correct time and place in the combustion chamber a rapid and stable combustion occurs which allows to run the engine well above a Lambda Excess Air Ratio of 1.5. The CBR system features two different intake ports, one charge motion port and one filling port. Additionally a device for port-deactivation (slider, butterfly) is applied. At part load points and lower engine speeds the filling port is switched off. The CBR concept was now evoluted for compact engines as CCBR - with carburetor and as CBR Light - for engines with electronic fuel injection. CCBR stands for Carbureted Controlled Burn Rate.
Technical Paper

100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20)

Nine identical 40-ft. transit buses were operated on B20 and diesel for a period of two years - five of the buses operated exclusively on B20 (20% biodiesel blend) and the other four on petroleum diesel. The buses were model year 2000 Orion V equipped with Cummins ISM engines, and all operated on the same bus route. Each bus accumulated about 100,000 miles over the course of the study. B20 buses were compared to the petroleum diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, vehicle maintenance cost, road calls, and emissions. There was no difference between the on-road average fuel economy of the two groups (4.41 mpg) based on the in-use data, however laboratory testing revealed a nearly 2% reduction in fuel economy for the B20 vehicles. Engine and fuel system related maintenance costs were nearly identical for the two groups until the final month of the study.
Journal Article

1000-Hour Durability Evaluation of a Prototype 2007 Diesel Engine with Aftertreatment Using B20 Biodiesel Fuel

A prototype 2007 ISL Cummins diesel engine equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particle filter (DPF), variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was tested at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) under a high-load accelerated durability cycle for 1000 hours with B20 soy-based biodiesel blends and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel to determine the impact of B20 on engine durability, performance, emissions, and fuel consumption. At the completion of the 1000-hour test, a thorough engine teardown evaluation of the overhead, power transfer, cylinder, cooling, lube, air handling, gaskets, aftertreatment, and fuel system parts was performed. The engine operated successfully with no biodiesel-related failures. Results indicate that engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 and 1000 hours of accumulated durability operation.
Technical Paper

125cc Small Engine Fuel Injection System with Low Emissions Solutions

In many countries of the world, carburetor motorcycles are the major transportation system for people. The large volumes of these motorcycles contribute to high levels of urban emissions and this fact promotes the relevant emissions regulations to become more stringent. This paper presents an approach to satisfy various new emissions regulations such as Euro-III and Taiwan 4th generation emissions regulations by optimizing the 4-stroke PFI (Port Fuel Injection) engine management system (EMS) and after-treatment system.
Technical Paper

16 Optimisation of a Stratified Charge Strategy for a Direct Injected Two-Stroke Engine

Direct fuel injection is becoming mandatory in two-stroke S.I. engines, since it prevents one of the major problems of these engines, that is fuel loss from the exhaust port. Another important problem is combustion irregularity at light loads, due to excessive presence of residual gas in the charge, and can be solved by charge stratification. High-pressure liquid fuel injection is able to control the mixing process inside the cylinder for getting either stratified charge at partial loads or quasi-stoichiometric conditions, as it is required at full load. This paper shows the development of this solution for a small engine for moped and light scooter, using numeric and experimental tools. In order to obtain the best charge characteristics at every load and engine speed, different combustion chambers have been conceived and studied, examining the effects of combustion chamber geometry, together with injector position and injection timing
Technical Paper

180MPa Piezo Common Rail System

The challenge for the diesel engines today is to reduce harmful emissions, such as particulate matter (PM) and Nitrogen oxides (NOx), and enhance the fuel efficiency and power, which are its main advantages. To meet this challenge, DENSO has developed an advanced common rail system (CRS) that uses piezo actuated fuel injectors capable of delivering up to five injection events per combustion cycle at 180MPa, currently the world's highest commercially available diesel fuel injection pressure. The DENSO piezo injector incorporates an internally developed piezoelectric element that energizes quicker than its solenoid counterpart, thereby reducing the transition time for the start and end of the fuel injection event. The piezoelectric element and unique passage structure of the DENSO injector combine to provide a highly reliable and responsive fuel injection event.
Technical Paper

1980 Prince Edward Island Auto Fuel Economy and Emissions Test Program

A program of emission testing and carburetor adjustment to reduce the levels of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases and to demonstrate fuel economy improvements was held in Charlottetown during the week of July 14 to 19, 1980. The program was a co-operative effort of the Centre of Energy Studies of the Technical University of Nova Scotia, the Mobile Sources Division of the Air Pollution Control Directorate, Environment Canada and the Prince Edward Island Energy Corporation. Five hundred and twenty vehicles were tested during the period. The program was well received by the public and indicated that only 32% of the vehicle fleet were within specification when initially tested. A large percentage of these vehicles were satisfactorily adjusted. Mailback record cards were used to obtain an indication of the improved fuel economy. The data suggests that a substantial saving in fuel can be attained through carburetor tuning for low exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge Design Strategy -University of Waterloo

The conversion design strategy, and emissions and performance results for a dedicated propane, vapour injected, 1995 Dodge Dakota truck are reported. Data is obtained from the University of Waterloo entry in the 1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge. A key feature of the design strategy is its focus on testing and emissions while preserving low engine speed power for drivability. Major changes to the Dakota truck included the following: installation of a custom shaped fuel tank, inclusion of a fuel temperature control module, addition of a vaporizer and a fuel delivery metering unit, installation of a custom vapour distribution manifold, addition of an equivalence ratio electronic controller, inclusion of a wide range oxygen sensor, addition of an exhaust gas recirculation cooler and installation of thermal insulation on the exhaust system. A competition provided natural gas catalyst was used.
Technical Paper

1997 UTEP LPP-FI Propane Challenge Vehicle

As part of the 1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge, a team of twelve UTEP students converted a 1996 Dodge Grand Caravan with a 3.3 L V6 engine to dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) operation according to the 1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge (PVC) competition rules (16). The 1997 UTEP team developed an LPG liquid phase port fuel injection (LPP-FI) system for the minivan. The UTEP design strategy combines simplicity and sound engineering practices with the effective use of heat resistant materials to maintain the LPG in the liquid phase at temperatures encountered in the fuel delivery system. The team identified two options for fuel storage with in-tank fuel pumps. The competition vehicle incorporates a five-manifold eight inch diameter Sleegers Engineering LPG tank fitted with a Walbro LPTS in-tank pump system, providing a calculated range of 310 city miles and 438 highway miles.
Technical Paper

1998 POLARIS INDY TRAIL: An Entry by Minnesota State University, Mankato in the “Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2000”

A student team from Minnesota State University, Mankato's Automotive Engineering Technology program entered the Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2000. A 1998 Polaris Indy Trail was converted to indirect fuel injection running on a computer controlled closed loop fuel system. Also chassis, exhaust, and hood design modifications were made. The snowmobile was designed to compete in eight events. These events included acceleration, emissions, hill climb, cold start, noise, fuel economy/range, handling/driveability, and static display. The snowmobile modifications involved every aspect of the snowmobile with special emphasis on emissions and noise. Laboratory testing led to the final design. This paper details the modifications and test results.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of Alternative Fuels Spray in a Compression Ignition Engine using Injection Rate Shaping Strategy

The Injection Rate Shaping consists in a novel injection strategy to control air-fuel mixing quality via a suitable variation of injection timing that affects the injection rate profile. This strategy has already provided to be useful to increase combustion efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions in the modern compression ignition engines fed with fossil Diesel fuel. But today’s, the ever more rigorous emission targets are enhancing a search for alternative fuels and/or new blends to replace conventional ones, leading in turn a change in the air-fuel mixture formation. In this work a 1D model aims to investigate the combined effects of both Injection Rate Shaping and alternative fuels on the air-fuel mixture formation in a compression ignition engine. In a first step, a ready-made model for conventional injection strategies has been set up for the Injection Rate Shaping.
Technical Paper

1D-3D Coupled Simulation of the Fuel Spray Propagation Inside the Air-Box of a Moto3 Motorbike: Analysis of Spray Targeting and Injection Timing

In this work an integration between a 1D code (Gasdyn) with a CFD code (OpenFOAM®) has been applied to improve the performance of a Moto3 engine. The four-stroke, single cylinder S.I. engine was modeled, in order to predict the wave motion in the intake and exhaust systems and to study how it affects the cylinder gas exchange process. The engine considered was characterized by having an air induction system with integrated filter cartridge, air-box and intake runner, including two fuel injectors, resulting in a complex air-path from the intake mouth to the intake valves, which presents critical aspects when a 1D modeling is addressed. The exhaust and intake systems have been optimized form the point of view of the wave action. However, due to the high revolution speed reached by this type of engine, the interaction between the gas stream and the fuel spray becomes a key aspect to be addressed in order to achieve the best performance at the desired operating condition.
Technical Paper

2-Color Thermometry Experiments and High-Speed Imaging of Multi-Mode Diesel Engine Combustion

Although in-cylinder optical diagnostics have provided significant understanding of conventional diesel combustion, most alternative combustion strategies have not yet been explored to the same extent. In an effort to build the knowledge base for alternative low-temperature combustion strategies, this paper presents a comparison of three alternative low-temperature combustion strategies to two high-temperature conventional diesel combustion conditions. The baseline conditions, representative of conventional high-temperature diesel combustion, have either a short or a long ignition delay. The other three conditions are representative of some alternative combustion strategies, employing significant charge-gas dilution along with either early or late fuel injection, or a combination of both (double-injection).
Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Fuel Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray via Exciplex-Based Fluorescence Technique

To measure the fuel vapor concentration in an unsteady evaporating spray injected into nitrogen atmosphere, the exciplex-forming method, which produces spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phase, was applied in this study. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative applicability of the technique in a high temperature and high pressure atmosphere during the fuel injection period. One is to examine the thermal decomposition of TMPD dopant at a high temperature and a high pressure nitrogen atmosphere during a short period of time. The other is to calibrate the relationship between fluorescence intensity and vapor concentration of TMPD at different vapor temperatures. And then, the qualitative measurement of fuel vapor concentration distributions in diesel sprays was made by applying the technique.
Technical Paper

2-D Measurements of the Liquid Phase Temperature in Fuel Sprays

Cross-sectional distributions of the liquid phase temperatures in fuel sprays were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. The liquid fuel (n-hexadecane or squalane) was doped with pyrene(C16H10). The fluorescence intensity ratios of the pyrene monomer and excimer emissions has temperature dependence, and were used to determine the liquid phase temperatures in the fuel sprays. The measurements were performed on two kinds of sprays. One was performed on pre-heated fuel sprays injected into surrounding gas at atmospheric conditions. The other was performed on fuel sprays exposed to hot gas flow. The spray was excited by laser radiation at 266nm, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged by an intensified CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of the liquid phase temperature was estimated from the fluorescence image by the temperature dependence of the intensity ratio.
Technical Paper

2-D Visualization of Liquid Fuel injection in an Internal Combustion Engine

A sheet of laser light from a frequency-doubled Nd-YAG laser (λ = 532 nm) approximately 150 μm thick is shone through the cylinder of a single cylinder internal combustion engine. The light scattered by the fuel spray is collected through a quartz window in the cylinder and is imaged on a 100 × 100 diode array camera. The signal from the diode array is then sent to a microcomputer for background subtraction and image enhancement. The laser pulse is synchronized with the crank shaft of the engine so that a picture of the spray distribution within the engine at different times during injection and the penetration and development of the spray may be observed. The extent of the spray at different positions within the chamber is determined by varying the position and angle of the laser sheet with respect to the piston and the injector.
Technical Paper

21 Development of a Small Displacement Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

We have developed a small-displacement gasoline direct-injection engine (1.3L). Gasoline direct-injection engines rely on ultra-lean stratified combustion to deliver significantly better fuel economy, and are already used in many practical applications. When gasoline direct-injection is applied to a small-displacement engine, however, the amount of wall wetting of fuel on the piston surface will increase because the traveled length of the fuel spray is short. This may result in problems such as smoke production, high emissions of unburned HC, and poor combustion efficiency.
Journal Article

3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Low CO2 and NOx Emissions

Today turbo-diesel powertrains offering low fuel consumption and good low-end torque comprise a significant fraction of the light-duty vehicle market in Europe. Global CO₂ regulation and customer fuel prices are expected to continue providing pressure for powertrain fuel efficiency. However, regulated emissions for NO and particulate matter have the potential to further expand the incremental cost of diesel powertrain applications. Vehicle segments with the most cost sensitivity like compacts under 1400 kg weight look for alternatives to meet the CO₂ challenge but maintain an attractive customer offering. In this paper the concepts of downsizing and downspeeding gasoline engines are explored while meeting performance needs through increased BMEP to maintain good driveability and vehicle launch dynamics. A critical enabler for the solution is adoption of gasoline direct injection (GDi) fuel systems.
Technical Paper

3-D CFD Analysis of CO Formation in Diesel Combustion - The use of intake air throttling to create reducing atmospheres for NSR catalysts -

The efficiency of the NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) catalysts used in the aftertreatment of diesel engine exhaust gases can potentially be increased by using reactive reductants such as CO and H₂ that are formed during in-cylinder combustion. In this study, a multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code coupled with complex chemical analysis was used to study combustion with various fuel after-injection patterns. The results obtained will be useful in designing fuel injection strategies for the efficient formation of CO.
Technical Paper

3-D Diesel Spray Simulations Using a New Detailed Chemistry Turbulent Combustion Model

Until recently, the application of the detailed chemistry approach as a predictive tool for engine modeling has been sort of a “taboo” for different reasons, mainly because of an exaggerated rigor to the chemistry/turbulence interaction modeling. In terms of this ideology, if the interaction cannot be simulated properly, the detailed chemistry approach makes no sense. The novelty of the proposed methodology is the coupling of a generalized partially stirred reactor, PaSR, model with the high efficiency numerics to treat detailed oxidation kinetics of hydrocarbon fuels. In terms of this approach, chemical processes are assumed to proceed in two successive steps: the reaction follows after the micro-mixing is completed on a sub-grid scale.