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Technical Paper

Biomechanical and Scaling Basis for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values

2016-11-07
2016-22-0018
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, ES-2 and SID-IIs.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Risk Curves for Rib Deflections of the SID-IIs Build Level D

2016-11-07
2016-22-0016
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
Technical Paper

Age-Specific Injury Risk Curves for Distributed, Anterior Thoracic Loading of Various Sizes of Adults Based on Sternal Deflections

2016-11-07
2016-22-0001
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

2009-11-02
2009-22-0016
The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Technical Paper

Data-Driven Driving Skill Characterization: Algorithm Comparison and Decision Fusion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1286
By adapting vehicle control systems to the skill level of the driver, the overall vehicle active safety provided to the driver can be further enhanced for the existing active vehicle controls, such as ABS, Traction Control, Vehicle Stability Enhancement Systems. As a follow-up to the feasibility study in [1], this paper provides some recent results on data-driven driving skill characterization. In particular, the paper presents an enhancement of discriminant features, the comparison of three different learning algorithms for recognizer design, and the performance enhancement with decision fusion. The paper concludes with the discussions of the experimental results and some of the future work.
Journal Article

Safety Analysis of Software-intensive Motion Control Systems

2009-04-20
2009-01-0756
The auto industry has had decades of experience with designing safe vehicles. The introduction of highly integrated features brings new challenges that require innovative adaptations of existing safety methodologies and perhaps even some completely new concepts. In this paper, we describe some of the new challenges that will be faced by all OEMs and suppliers. We also describe a set of generic top-level potential hazards that can be used as a starting point for the Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of a vehicle software-intensive motion control system. Based on our experience with the safety analysis of a system of this kind, we describe some general categories of hazard causes that are considered for software-intensive systems and can be used systematically in developing the PHA.
Technical Paper

A Unified Approach to Forward and Lane-Change Collision Warning for Driver Assistance and Situational Awareness

2008-04-14
2008-01-0204
A unified approach to collision warning due to in-lane and neighboring traffic is presented. It is based on the concept of velocity obstacles, and is designed to alert the driver of a potential front collision and against attempting a dangerous lane change maneuver. The velocity obstacle represents the set of the host velocities that would result in collision with the respective static or moving vehicle. Potential collisions are simply determined when the velocity vector of the host vehicle penetrates the velocity obstacle of a neighboring vehicle. The generality of the velocity obstacle and its simplicity make it an attractive alternative to competing warning algorithms, and a powerful tool for generating collision avoidance maneuvers. The velocity obstacle-based warning algorithm was successfully tested in simulations using real sensor data collected during the Automotive Collision Avoidance System Field Operational Test (ACAS FOT) [10].
Technical Paper

Motor Vehicle Fire Investigation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0555
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) publishes NFPA 921, “Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations” (1) on generally a three to four year cycle. This guide includes a chapter on the investigation of motor vehicle fires. For the new 2008 edition of this publication the SAE and the NFPA worked closely together in the revision of this chapter. This paper provides a broad overview of the revised chapter and summarizes the major revisions. By using SAE participation in the chapter revision, engineers familiar with or even directly involved in the design of the vehicle systems discussed, helped to develop many of the system descriptions included in the revised chapter. The revised Motor Vehicle chapter like the parent document is both a consensus document and an effective guide which provides origin and cause analysis of motor vehicle fires, an investigative process consistent with principles stated throughout NFPA 921 and adherence to scientific methods.
Technical Paper

Simulating Neck Injury in Frontal Impact using LS-DYNA

2007-04-16
2007-01-0677
Neck injury assessment is part of the FMVSS208 requirements. Hardware tests are often conducted to validate whether the vehicle safety system meets the requirements. This paper presents a full vehicle finite element model using LS-DYNA, including structural components, restraint system components, and dummies. In the case of a frontal impact at 30deg angle, in the areas of neck compression, neck extension and neck kinematics, it is demonstrated that a good correlation is achieved between the response of a FE dummy in the model and those of ATDs in the physical hardware tests. It is concluded that the math tool may be applied to comprehend test and design variations that may arise throughout a vehicle development lifecycle and to help develop a vehicle restraint system.
Technical Paper

Radiation Efficiency Measurements of a Microstrip Antenna Designed for the Reception of XM Satellite Radio Signals

2006-04-03
2006-01-1354
The efficiency of several Microstrip (Patch) antennas with varying substrate heights etched on a substrate material with a relatively high dielectric constant was calculated from gain measurement data. The radiation efficiency of a 4, 5, 6 and 7mm thick patches were measured to be 0.8887, 0.9097, 0.9163 and 0.9202, respectively. The efficiency of a λ/4 monopole at the same frequency was measured to be 0.9389. To achieve a -2.0 dBi of gain at an elevation angle θ = 90° and a +2 dBic at elevation angles between 30° and 70° for the XM signal reception, the patch efficiency has to exceed the efficiency of a λ/4 monopole at the same frequency.
Technical Paper

A Subsystem Crash Test Methodology for Retention of Convenience Organizer Equipment System in Rear Impact

2005-04-11
2005-01-0735
Any equipment system or vehicle component like the Convenience Organizer storage system needs to be retained within the cargo compartment without intruding into the passenger compartment for occupant safety during a high speed impact. This paper outlines a test method to evaluate the retention of such a system in a rear impact environment. The method utilizes a low speed barrier to simulate a high speed RMB (Rear Moving Barrier) impact. The content of the low speed RMB impact test setup was developed utilizing DYNA3D analytical simulation results from a full vehicle model subjected to high-speed RMB impact. The retention of the equipment developed through this test method was confirmed on a full scale rear impact test.
Technical Paper

Development of an MDB Concept for Crash Compatibility

2005-04-11
2005-01-1374
The essential concepts for developing a moving deformable barrier that may serve as a vehicle surrogate in assessing vehicle compatibility are described in this paper. Although moving deformable barriers have been used for assessing other safety criteria, their purpose in those cases is to reproduce a limited set of responses in the struck vehicle. An MDB for vehicle compatibility however, needs to be able to reproduce the responses of both the vehicles. The present study describes the concept of developing such barriers by generating ‘response corridors’ for the significant variables by nonlinear finite element simulations and then selecting design parameters such that the MDB response is within this corridor. It is observed that the response of the equivalent MDB representing a light truck vehicle is reproducible when response corridors are utilized.
Technical Paper

Design of a Full-Scale Impact System for Analysis of Vehicle Pedestrian Collisions

2005-04-11
2005-01-1875
The complexity of vehicle-pedestrian collisions necessitates extensive validation of pedestrian computational models. While body components can be individually simulated, overall validation of human pedestrian models requires full-scale testing with post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). This paper presents the development of a full-scale pedestrian impact test plan and experimental design that will be used to perform PMHS tests to validate human pedestrian models. The test plan and experimental design is developed based on the analysis of a combination of literature review, multi-body modeling, and epidemiologic studies. The proposed system has proven effective in testing an anthropometrically correct rescue dummy in multiple instances. The success of these tests suggests the potential for success in a full-scale pedestrian impact test using a PMHS.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Automatic Fire Suppression Systems in Full Scale Vehicle Fire Tests and Static Vehicle Fire Tests

2005-04-11
2005-01-1788
A prototype fire suppression system was tested in one full-scale vehicle crash tests and three static vehicle fire tests. The prototype fire suppression system consisted of 2 Solid Propellant Gas Generators and two optical detectors. These components were installed on the hood of the test vehicle. A vehicle crash test and a series of static vehicle fire tests were performed to determine the effectiveness of this prototype fire suppression systems in extinguishing fires in the engine compartment of a crashed vehicle
Technical Paper

Dual Depth Passenger Air Bag

2005-04-11
2005-01-1226
A dual depth passenger air bag technology has been developed which provides two different deployed cushion shapes coupled with two inflation levels, but only uses two initiators, one for a single level inflator and one for a dual depth mechanism. The developed dual depth air bag module design utilizes a seat position switch to help determine deployed output. The module deploys a shallow cushion depth for occupants in the forward portion of seat track travel and a deep cushion depth for occupants in the rearward portion of seat track travel. The mechanism controls the release of an air bag cushion tether and also enables the inflator to vent a portion of gas through the module housing. This paper summarizes the development effort including initial sled and out-of-position testing. The final design was found to be a useful tool when balancing in-position restraint performance between otherwise competing in-position test conditions.
Technical Paper

Significant Factors in Height of Force Measurements for Vehicle Collision Compatibility

2004-03-08
2004-01-1165
The concept of height of force has been suggested by some researchers as one possible parameter defining the structural interaction probability between vehicles of different sizes. This proposed parameter was defined as the vertical centroid of forces exerted on a flat barrier surface when a vehicle crashes into the barrier. It is therefore measured as a function of elapsed time since crash. In this paper, the height of force is obtained from theoretical calculations and also measured in crash tests at 56 km/h against barriers instrumented with an array of load cells. It is observed that the measured values of height of force have significant errors which are dependent on factors other than the crash conditions and the properties of the vehicle's structure and geometry. These factors need to be taken into account in future discussions of using the height of force or the average height of force as an indicator of vehicle compatibility.
Technical Paper

10 Year-Old Hybrid III ATD Positions in Panic Brake Conditions

2004-03-08
2004-01-0848
Panic braking can cause an “in-position” unbelted occupant to become “out-of-position.” Although the braking event dynamics and initial positioning of the occupant affect the final position at time of impact (if any), general trends are assumed. FMVSS208 now includes “out-of-position” (OOP) performance for Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) sizes twelve month to six year-old. Airbag suppression technologies currently address that range of OOP occupants. The objective of this study is to develop an approach to defining OOP test positions for the recently released 10 year old ATD and to assist restraint engineers in developing strategies to help reduce the risk of inflation induced injury to the larger out-of-position child. A series of panic brake tests was conducted with the 10 year-old Hybrid III to study panic braking kinematics. Antilock braking (ABS) generated the desired constant deceleration from high initial speeds (40 to 60mph) in three types of vehicles.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical and Scaling Bases for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values

2003-10-27
2003-22-0009
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, EuroSID2 and SID-IIs.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Panel Vibro-Acoustic Behavior and Damping

2003-05-05
2003-01-1406
Damping treatments are widely used in passenger vehicles, but the knowledge of damping treatments is often fragmentary in the industry. In this study, vibro-acoustics behavior of a set of vehicle floor and dash panels with various types of damping treatments was investigated. Sound transmission loss, sound radiation efficiency as well as damping loss factor were measured. The damping treatments ranged from laminated steel construction (thin viscoelastic layer) and doubler plate construction (thick viscoelastic layer) to less structural “bake-on” damping and self-adhesive aluminum foil-backed damping treatments. In addition, the bare vehicle panels were tested as a baseline and the fully carpeted floor panel was tested as a reference. The test data were then examined together with analytical modeling of some of the test configurations. As expected, the study found that damping treatments add more than damping. They also add mass and change body panel stiffness.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Different Countermeasures and Packaging Limits for the FMVSS201U

2003-03-03
2003-01-0329
Different countermeasure designs for reducing the HIC (d) and to comply with FMVSS201U have been evaluated in many component-level studies by suppliers and OEMs. This study presents guidelines to support future countermeasure and interior designs. FMVSS201U has changed the way OEMs design interiors of the vehicles today. Most recently, much more work is being done to find ways to design interiors of the vehicles that comply with FMVSS201U while keeping the interiors aesthetically pleasing, attaining driver comfort and meeting driver visibility requirements. Introduction of side-rail airbags has further affected countermeasure design and packaging. This study focuses on several countermeasure designs in the side-rail region as used in a mid-sized vehicle implemented to meet FMVSS201U requirements and their efficiency with respect to Head Injury Criterion (HIC) reduction given a fixed packaging space.
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