Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Duct Shape Optimization Using Multi-Objective and Geometrically Constrained Adjoint Solver

2019-04-02
2019-01-0823
In the recent years, adjoint optimization has gained popularity in the automotive industry with its growing applications. Since its inclusion in the mainstream commercial CFD solvers and its continuously added capabilities over the years, its productive usage became readily available to many engineers who were previously limited to interfacing the customized adjoint source code with CFD solvers. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate using an adjoint solver a method to optimize duct shape that meets multiple design objectives simultaneously. To overcome one of the biggest challenges in the duct design, i.e. the severe packaging constraints, the method here uses geometrically constrained adjoint to ensure that the optimum shape always fits into the user-defined packaging space. In this work, adjoint solver and surface sensitivity calculations are used to develop the optimization method.
Technical Paper

Copper Effect on the Ultrasonic Fatigue Life of A356 Aluminum Alloy Under Variable Humidity Levels

2018-04-03
2018-01-1411
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20kHz) have been conducted on A356 aluminum alloys with different copper contents and AS7GU aluminum alloy. Tests were performed in dry air and submerged in water conditions. The effect of copper content was investigated and it was concluded that copper content plays an important role influencing the humidity effect on A356 aluminum alloy ultrasonic fatigue lives. Also, for the same copper content, copper in solute solution or in precipitate have different humidity sensitivities.
Journal Article

Characterization of Powertrain Technology Benefits Using Normalized Engine and Vehicle Fuel Consumption Data

2018-04-03
2018-01-0318
Vehicle certification data are used to study the effectiveness of the major powertrain technologies used by car manufacturers to reduce fuel consumption. Methods for differentiating vehicles effectively were developed by leveraging theoretical models of engine and vehicle fuel consumption. One approach normalizes by displacement per unit distance, which puts both fuel used and vehicle work in mean effective pressure units, and is useful when comparing engine technologies. The other normalizes by engine rated power, a customer-relevant output metric. The normalized work/power is proportional to weight/power, the most fundamental performance metric. Certification data for 2016 and 2017 U.S. vehicles with different powertrain technologies are compared to baseline vehicles with port fuel injection (PFI) naturally aspirated engines and six-speed automatic transmissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Wireless Message for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0027
This paper summarizes the development of a wireless message from infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) for safety applications based on Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). During the development of the Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure (RSZW/LC) safety applications [1], the Basic Information Message (BIM) was developed to wirelessly transmit infrastructure-centric information. The Traveler Information Message (TIM) structure, as described in the SAE J2735, provides a mechanism for the infrastructure to issue and display in-vehicle signage of various types of advisory and road sign information. This approach, though effective in communicating traffic advisories, is limited by the type of information that can be broadcast from infrastructures.
Technical Paper

A Packaging Layout to Mitigate Crosstalk for SiC Devices

2018-04-03
2018-01-0462
SiC devices have inherent fast switching capabilities due to their superior material properties, and are considered potential candidates to replace Si devices for traction inverters in electrified vehicles in future. However, due to the comparatively low gate threshold voltage, SiC devices may encounter oscillatory false triggering especially during fast switching. This paper analyzed the causes of false triggering, and also studied the impact of a critical parasitic parameter - common source inductance. It is shown that crosstalk is the main cause for the false triggering in the case and some positive common source inductance help to mitigate the crosstalk issue. A packaging layout method is proposed to create the positive common source inductance through layout of control terminals / busbars, and/or the use of control terminal bonded wires at different height.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Engine Air Induction System Hydrocarbon Traps

2017-03-28
2017-01-1014
Engine air induction systems hydrocarbon trap (HC trap) designs to limit evaporative fuel emissions, have evolved over time. This paper discusses a range of HC traps that have evolved in engine air induction systems. (AIS) The early zeolite flow through HC trap utilized an exhaust catalyst technology internal stainless steel furnace brazed substrate coated with zeolite media. This HC trap was installed in the AIS clean air tube. This design was heavy, complicated, and expensive but met the urgency of the implementation of the new evaporative emissions regulation. The latest Ford Motor Company HC trap is a simple plastic tray containing activated carbon with breathable non-woven polyester cover. This design has been made common across multiple vehicle lines with planned production annual volume in the millions. The cost of the latest HC trap bypass design is approximately 5% of the original stainless steel zeolite flow through HC trap.
Technical Paper

Fuel Filler System Check Valves - Dynamic Evaluation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1350
The fuel filler tube check valve (FTCV) is an integral part of a vehicle’s refueling system. The primary function of this valve is to control the refueling characteristics in a manner that enables the vehicle to be refueled efficiently and under wide ranging conditions, while limiting the amount of fuel or fuel vapor emissions being released into the environment. These valves accomplish this function by allowing the flow of gasoline to pass through the valve and into the tank during the refueling process with minimal restriction while limiting the reverse flow as the fuel tank approaches full. The location of these valves varies from vehicle to vehicle but are generally located within the fuel filler or fuel tank system. They have been engineered and developed to ensure the vehicle will meet customer and industry refueling requirements as well as refueling emissions mandates from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB).
Technical Paper

MyFord Dock Development

2017-03-28
2017-01-1694
Demand for enhanced infotainment systems with features like navigation, real-time traffic, music streaming service, mirroring and others is increasing, forcing automakers to develop solutions that fulfill customer needs. However, many of those systems are too expensive to be fitted to an entry-level vehicle leaving a gap in the market that fails customer’s expectation. This gap is usually filled by a smartphone which may have all the features the customer wants but in many cases it cannot be properly fitted in the vehicle due to lack of specific storage space. This paper describes how the engineering team developed an innovative, flexible and effective solution that holds a smartphone in an ergonomic location.
Technical Paper

Alternative to Phthalate Plasticizer for PVC/NBR Formulation Used in Automotive Fuel System with Biodiesel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0482
Phthalates have been extensively used in rubbers formulation as plasticizer additive for PVC and NBR promoting processing parameters or for cost reduction. The most commonly used plasticizer in PVC compounds was di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) currently not recommend due toxicity. DEHP is listed as prohibited to the Global Automotive Declarable Substance List (GADSL). Phthalates alternatives are already available but the compatibility in automotive fuel system with biodiesel was not extensively understood. This aspect is important since plasticizer may migrate and change rubber properties. Tri-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate (TOTM) and di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHT) were selected in this work as alternative additives to a rubber formulation since is not listed to GADSL and have good potential as plasticizer.
Technical Paper

Bench Test Method for Fuel Tank Vent Valve Noise Induced by EVAP System Pressure Pulsation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0447
In gasoline Powertrain systems, the evaporative emission control (EVAP) system canister purge valve (CPV) can be actuated by pulse-width modulated (PWM) signals. The CPV is an electronically actuated solenoid. The PWM controlled CPV, when actuated, creates pressure pulsations in the system. This pulsation is sent back to the rest of the EVAP system. Given the right conditions, the fill limit vent valve (FLVV) inside the fuel tank can be excited. The FLVV internal components can be excited and produce noise. This noise can be objectionable to the occupants. Additional components within the EVAP system may also be excited in a similar way. This paper presents a bench test method using parts from vehicle’s EVAP system and other key fuel system components.
Journal Article

Advancements and Opportunities for On-Board 700 Bar Compressed Hydrogen Tanks in the Progression Towards the Commercialization of Fuel Cell Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1183
Fuel cell vehicles are entering the automotive market with significant potential benefits to reduce harmful greenhouse emissions, facilitate energy security, and increase vehicle efficiency while providing customer expected driving range and fill times when compared to conventional vehicles. One of the challenges for successful commercialization of fuel cell vehicles is transitioning the on-board fuel system from liquid gasoline to compressed hydrogen gas. Storing high pressurized hydrogen requires a specialized structural pressure vessel, significantly different in function, size, and construction from a gasoline container. In comparison to a gasoline tank at near ambient pressures, OEMs have aligned to a nominal working pressure of 700 bar for hydrogen tanks in order to achieve the customer expected driving range of 300 miles.
Technical Paper

Advanced Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using Turbulence Model and Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0516
Today numerical models are a major part of the diesel engine development. They are applied during several stages of the development process to perform extensive parameter studies and to investigate flow and combustion phenomena in detail. The models are divided by complexity and computational costs since one has to decide what the best choice for the task is. 0D models are suitable for problems with large parameter spaces and multiple operating points, e.g. engine map simulation and parameter sweeps. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate physical models to improve the predictive capability of these models. This work focuses on turbulence and mixing modeling within a 0D direct injection stochastic reactor model. The model is based on a probability density function approach and incorporates submodels for direct fuel injection, vaporization, heat transfer, turbulent mixing and detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

Optical Methodology for Characterization of a Gasoline Direct Injection Closing Event Droplet Distribution

2017-03-28
2017-01-0858
The characteristics of gasoline sprayed directly into combustion chambers are of critical importance to engine out emissions and combustion system development. The optimization of the spray characteristics to match the in-cylinder flow field, chamber geometry, and spark location are vital tasks during the development of an engine combustion strategy. Furthermore, the presence of liquid fuel during combustion in Spark-Ignition (SI) engines causes increased hydro-carbon (HC) emissions [1]. Euro 6, LEVIII, and US Tier 3 emissions regulations reduce the allowable particulate mass significantly from the previous standards. LEVIII standards reduce the acceptable particulate emission to 1 mg/mile [2]. A good DISI strategy vaporizes the correct amount of fuel just in time for optimal power output with minimal emissions. The opening and closing phases of DISI injectors is crucial to this task as the spray produces larger droplets during both theses phases.
Journal Article

CFD Driven Parametric Design of Air-Air Jet Pump for Automotive Carbon Canister Purging

2017-03-28
2017-01-1316
A jet pump (also known as ejector) uses momentum of a high velocity jet (primary flow) as a driving mechanism. The jet is created by a nozzle that converts the pressure head of the primary flow to velocity head. The high velocity primary flow exiting the nozzle creates low pressure zone that entrains fluid from a secondary inlet and transfers the total flow to desired location. For a given pressure of primary inlet flow, it is desired to entrain maximum flow from secondary inlet. Jet pumps have been used in automobiles for a variety of applications such as: filling the Fuel Delivery Module (FDM) with liquid fuel from the fuel tank, transferring liquid fuel between two halves of the saddle type fuel tank and entraining fresh coolant in the cooling circuit. Recently, jet pumps have been introduced in evaporative emission control system for turbocharged engines to remove gaseous hydrocarbons stored in carbon canister and supply it to engine intake manifold (canister purging).
Journal Article

Soy Biodiesel Oxidation at Vehicle Fuel System Temperature: Influence of Aged Fuel on Fresh Fuel Degradation to Simulate Refueling

2017-03-28
2017-01-0809
An experimental study of the effects of partially-oxidized biodiesel fuel on the degradation of fresh fuel was performed. A blend of soybean oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in petroleum diesel fuel (30% v:v biodiesel, B30) was aged under accelerated conditions (90°C with aeration). Aging conditions focused on three different degrees of initial oxidation: 1) reduced oxidation stability (Rancimat induction period, IP); 2) high peroxide values (PV); and 3) high total acid number (TAN). Aged B30 fuel was mixed with fresh B30 fuel at two concentrations (10% and 30% m:m) and degradation of the mixtures at the above aging conditions was monitored for IP, PV, TAN, and FAME composition. Greater content of aged fuel carryover (30% m:m) corresponded to stronger effects. Oxidation stability was most adversely affected by high peroxide concentration (Scenario 2), while peroxide content was most reduced for the high TAN scenario (Scenario 3).
Journal Article

The Effects of CO, C2H4, and H2O on the NOx Storage Performance of Low Temperature NOx Adsorbers for Diesel Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0942
Model low temperature NOx adsorbers (LTNA) consisting of Pd on a ceria/zirconia washcoat on monoliths were evaluated for low temperature NOx storage under lean conditions to assess their potential for adsorbing the cold-start NOx emissions on a diesel engine during the period before the urea/SCR system becomes operational. A reactor-based transient test was performed with and without C2H4, CO/H2, and H2O to assess the effects of these species on the NOx storage performance. In the absence of C2H4 or CO/H2, H2O severely suppressed the NOx storage of these model LTNAs at temperatures below 100°C, presumably by blocking the storage sites. When C2H4 was included in the feedgas, H2O still suppressed the NOx storage below 100°C. However, the C2H4 significantly increased the NOx storage efficiency above 100°C, attributable to the formation of alkyl nitrites or alkyl nitrates on the catalyst.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0666
Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection Design Principles for Noise Vibration Harshness

2017-03-28
2017-01-1052
1 Engine ticking noise is one of the key failure modes in today’s direct injection (DI) engines. High ticking noise results in high Things Gone Wrong (TGW) index, which negatively affects customer satisfaction. In this paper, the root cause of the ticking noise from DI injector in direct mounting will be presented. Design principle such as injector impact force to cylinder head and DI injector isolator design with 2 stage stiffness is proposed.
Technical Paper

High Frequency Sloshing - Energy Dissipation and Viscous Damping through CFD

2017-03-28
2017-01-1317
Liquid sloshing is an important issue in ground transportation, aerospace and automotive applications. Effects of sloshing in a moving liquid container can cause various issues related to vehicle stability, safety, component fatigue, audible noise and, liquid level measurement. The sloshing phenomenon is a highly nonlinear oscillatory movement of the free-surface of liquid inside a container under the effect of continuous or momentarily excitation forces. These excitation forces can result from sudden acceleration, braking, sharp turning or pitching motions. The sloshing waves generated by the excitation forces can impact on the tank surface and cause additional vibrations. For the loads with the frequencies between 2 to 200 Hz, the structural fatigue failure is a major concern for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Customer Data Driven PHEV Refuel Distance Modeling and Estimation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0235
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have an EV mode driving range which can cover a portion of customer daily driving. This EV mode range affects the refuel frequency substantially compared with conventional vehicle. For a conventional vehicle, daily driving pattern, tank size and fuel economy are the factors affecting the refuel frequency. While for a PHEV, EV range is another factor would affect the results substantially. Traditional method of label range can’t represent real world driving range between fill-ups for PHEV well. How to accurately predict the PHEV refuel distance taking into account real world customer driving patterns and PHEV parameters become critical for PHEV system design and optimization. This paper presents real world big customer data based PHEV refuel distance estimation modeling. The target is to estimate PHEV refuel distance given several specific parameters such as EV range, hybrid mode fuel economy, tank size etc.
X