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Technical Paper

Improving Ethanol-Diesel Blend Through the Use of Hydroxylated Biodiesel

2014-10-13
2014-01-2776
Due to the emission benefits of the oxygen in the fuel molecule, the interest for the use of ethanol as fuel blend components in compression ignition engines has been increased. However the use of fuel blends with high percentage of ethanol can lead to poor fuel blend quality (e.g. fuel miscibility, cetane number, viscosity and lubricity). An approach which can be used to improve these properties is the addition of biodiesel forming ternary blends (ethanol-biodiesel-diesel). The addition of castor oil-derived biodiesel (COME) containing a high proportion of methyl ricinoleate (C18:1 OH) is an attractive approach in order to i) reduce the use of first generation biodiesel derived from edible sources, ii) balance the reduction in viscosity and lubricity of ethanol-diesel blends due to the high viscosity and excellent lubricity of methyl ricinoleate.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Characteristics of DISI Injector Deposits Using Advanced Analytical Methods

2014-10-13
2014-01-2722
There is an increasing recognition of injector deposit (ID) formation in fuel injection equipment as direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technologies advance to meet increasingly stringent emission legislation and fuel economy requirements. While it is known that the phenomena of ID in DISI engines can be influenced by changes in fuel composition, including increasing usage of aliphatic alcohols and additive chemistries to enhance fuel performance, there is however still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the physical and chemical structure of these deposits, and the mechanisms of deposit formation. In this study, a mechanical cracking sample preparation technique was developed to assess the deposits across DISI injectors fuelled with gasoline and blends of 85% ethanol (E85).
Technical Paper

Split-Injection Strategies under Full-Load Using DMF, A New Biofuel Candidate, Compared to Ethanol in a GDI Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0403
It is well known that direct injection (DI) is a technology enabler for stratified combustion in spark-ignition (SI) engines. At full load or wide-open throttle (WOT), partial charge stratification can suppress knock, enabling greater spark advance and increased torque. Such split-injection or double-pulse injection strategies are employed when using gasoline in DI (GDI). However, as the use of biofuels is set to increase, is this mode still beneficial? In the current study, the authors attempt to answer this question using two gasoline-alternative biofuels: firstly, ethanol; the widely used gasoline-alternative biofuel and secondly, 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF); the new biofuel candidate. These results have been benchmarked against gasoline in a single-cylinder, spray-guided DISI research engine at WOT (λ = 1 and 1500 rpm). Firstly, single-pulse start of injection (SOI) timing sweeps were conducted with each fuel to find the highest volumetric efficiency and IMEP.
Journal Article

Dual-Injection as a Knock Mitigation Strategy Using Pure Ethanol and Methanol

2012-04-16
2012-01-1152
For spark ignition (SI) engines, the optimum spark timing is crucial for maximum efficiency. However, as the spark timing is advanced, so the propensity to knock increases, thus compromising efficiency. One method to suppress knock is to use high octane fuel additives. However, the blend ratio of these additives cannot be varied on demand. Therefore, with the advent of aggressive downsizing, new knock mitigation techniques are required. Fortuitously, there are two well-known lower alcohols which exhibit attractive knock mitigation properties: ethanol and methanol. Both not only have high octane ratings, but also result in greater charge-cooling than with gasoline. In the current work, the authors have exploited these attractive properties with the dual-injection, or the dual-fuel concept (gasoline in PFI and fuel additive in DI) using pure ethanol and methanol.
Journal Article

Effects of Combustion Phasing, Injection Timing, Relative Air-Fuel Ratio and Variable Valve Timing on SI Engine Performance and Emissions using 2,5-Dimethylfuran

2012-04-16
2012-01-1285
Ethanol has long been regarded as the optimal gasoline-alternative biofuel for spark-ignition (SI) engines. It is used widely in Latin and North America and is increasingly accepted as an attractive option across Europe. Nevertheless, its low energy density requires a high rate of manufacture; in areas which are deficient of arable land, such rates might prove problematic. Therefore, fuels with higher calorific values, such as butanol or 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) deserve consideration; a similar yield to ethanol, in theory, would require much less land. This report addresses the suitability of DMF, to meet the needs as a biofuel substitute for gasoline in SI engines, using ethanol as the biofuel benchmark. Specific attention is given to the sensitivity of DMF to various engine control parameters: combustion phasing (ignition timing), injection timing, relative air-fuel ratio and valve timing (intake and exhaust).
Journal Article

Interrogating the surface: the effect of blended diesel fuels on lubricity

2011-08-30
2011-01-1940
The lubricating properties of two sustainable alternative diesels blended with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) were investigated. The candidate fuels were a biodiesel consisting of fatty acid methyl esters derived from rapeseed (RME) and gas-to-liquid (GTL). Lubricity tests were conducted on a high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). The mating specimen surfaces were analysed using optical microscopy and profilometery for wear scar diameters and profiles respectively. Microscopic surface topography and deposit composition was evaluated using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Like all modern zero sulphur diesel fuel (ZSD), GTL fuels need a lubricity agent to meet modern lubricity specifications. It has been proven that GTL responds well to typical lubricity additives in the marketplace.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions when First Generation Meets Next Generation Biodiesel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1935
Limits on the total future potential of biodiesel fuel due to the availability of raw materials mean that ambitious 20% fuel replacement targets will need to be met by the use of both first and next generation biodiesel fuels. The use of higher percentage biodiesel blends requires engine recalibration, as it affects engine performance, combustion patterns and emissions. Previous work has shown that the combustion of 50:50 blends of biodiesel fuels (first generation RME and next generation synthetic fuel) can give diesel fuel-like performance (i.e. in-cylinder pressure, fuel injection and heat release patterns). This means engine recalibration can be avoided, plus a reduction in all the regulated emissions. Using a 30% biodiesel blend (with different first and next generation proportions) mixed with Diesel may be a more realistic future fuel.
Technical Paper

Performance, Emissions and Exhaust-Gas Reforming of an Emulsified Fuel: A Comparative Study with Conventional Diesel Fuel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1809
The fuel reforming technology has been extensively investigated as a way to produce hydrogen on-board a vehicle that can be utilized in internal combustion engines, fuel cells and aftertreatment technologies. Maximization of H2 production in the reforming process can be achieved when there is optimized water (steam) addition for the different reforming temperatures. A way to increase the already available water quantity on-board a vehicle (i.e. exhaust gas water content) is by using emulsified fuel (e.g. water-diesel blend). This study presents the effect of an emulsified diesel fuel (a blend of water and diesel fuel with an organic surfactant to make the mixture stable) on combustion in conjunction with exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming on a compression ignition engine. No engine modification was required to carry out these tests. The emulsified diesel fuel consisted of about 80% (mass basis) of conventional ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel and fixed water content.
Technical Paper

Engine Performance and Emissions from Dual Fuelled Engine with In-Cylinder Injected Diesel Fuels and In-Port Injected Bioethanol

2009-06-15
2009-01-1853
Biofuels development and specification are currently driven by the engine (mainly gasoline- and diesel-type) technology, existing fossil fuel specification and availability of feedstock. The ability to use biofuels with conventional fuels without jeopardising the standard fuel specifications is a very effective means for the implementation of these fuels. In this work the effect of dual fuelling with in-cylinder injected ULSD fuel or synthetic second generation biofuels (a Gas-To-Liquid GTL fuel as a surrogate of these biofuels as its composition, specifications and production process are very similar to second generation biofuels) and with inlet port injected bioethanol on the engine performance and emissions were investigated. The introduction of anhydrous bioethanol improved the NOx and smoke emissions, but increased total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.
Technical Paper

The Risk Posed to Vehicle Occupants and Rescue Personnel by Dual-Fuelled Vehicles Fitted with Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) Tanks

2006-04-03
2006-01-1274
In recent years in the United Kingdom, dual-fuelled vehicles incorporating Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) have become more prevalent, as there are the perceived benefits of reduced fuelling costs, whilst also reducing the harmful emissions that effect air quality and climate change. In 2001, over 75,000 vehicles were registered as being powered by LPG and it is estimated that nearly 250,000 conversions were made to UK cars by the end of 2004. It is considered that the world population of such vehicles is in the order of 5 million vehicles, 2 million of which are being driven within EU countries.1 This paper will therefore examine the incidence of car fires in the area covered by Hereford and Worcester Fire and Rescue Service (HWFRS) in the UK. The data was used to establish the travel time for fire pumps to such incidents, the amount of time those units were detained at the scene and the possible cause of the fires themselves.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Trapping for Natural Gas HCCI

2004-06-08
2004-01-1973
With the high auto ignition temperature of natural gas, various approaches such as high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating are required for auto ignition. Another approach utilizes the trapping of internal residual gas (as used before in gasoline controlled auto ignition engines), to lower the thermal requirements for the auto ignition process in natural gas. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the degree of internal trapping of exhaust gas supplemented by intake charge heating. Special valve strategies were used to control the internal retention of exhaust gas. Significant differences in the degree of valve overlap were necessary when compared to gasoline operation at the same speeds and loads, resulting in lower amounts of residual gas observed. The dilution effect of residual gas trapping is hence reduced, resulting in higher NOx emissions for the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio operation as compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Natural Gas HCCI Combustion

2004-06-08
2004-01-1972
Natural gas has a high auto-ignition temperature, requiring high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating to achieve HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine operation. Previous work by the authors has shown that hydrogen addition improves combustion stability in various difficult combustion conditions. It is shown here that hydrogen, together with residual gas trapping, helps also in lowering the intake temperature required for HCCI. It has been argued in literature that the addition of hydrogen advances the start of combustion in the cylinder. This would translate into the lowering of the minimum intake temperature required for auto-ignition to occur during the compression stroke. The experimental results of this work show that, with hydrogen replacing part of the fuel, a decrease in intake air temperature requirement is observed for a range of engine loads, with larger reductions in temperature noted at lower loads.
Technical Paper

Exhaust-Gas Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels

1993-04-01
931096
This paper presents the findings of theoretical and practical studies of an exhaust-gas reforming process, as applied to hydrocarbon fuels. It is shown that hydrogen-containing gaseous reformed fuels can be produced by the interaction of hot combustion products and an n-heptane feedstock in a small-scale catalytic reforming reactor. Predicted and observed reformed fuel chemical compositions were found to correlate well at the lower reactor space velocities tested, where chemical equilibrium conditions can be closely approached. Under these conditions, respective hydrogen and carbon monoxide yields of around 32 and 20 volume per cent were obtained. Under certain conditions, it was found that carbon solids were deposited on the reforming catalyst. Measures taken to avoid this problem included changes in the reforming oxidant to fuel ratio, and the addition of excess steam to the oxidant composition.
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