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Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulations and Tracer-LIF Diagnostics of Wall Film Dynamics in an Optically Accessible GDI Research Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0131
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and tracer-based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements were performed to study the dynamics of fuel wall-films on the piston top of an optically accessible, four-valve pent-roof GDI research engine for a total of eight operating conditions. Starting from a reference point, the systematic variations include changes in engine speed (600; 1,200 and 2,000 RPM) and load (1000 and 500 mbar intake pressure); concerning the fuel path the Start Of Injection (SOI=360°, 390° and 420° CA after gas exchange TDC) as well as the injection pressure (10, 20 and 35 MPa) were varied. For each condition, 40 experimental images were acquired phase-locked at 10° CA intervals after SOI, showing the wall-film dynamics in terms of spatial extent, thickness and temperature.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Turbulence and Fuel-Air Mixing within a Scavenged Pre-Chamber Using RANS and LES

2019-04-02
2019-01-0198
It is well-known that the spatial distribution of turbulence intensity and fuel concentration at spark-time play a pivotal role on the flame development within the pre-chamber in gas engines equipped with a scavenged pre-chamber. The combustion within the pre-chamber is in turn a determining factor in terms of combustion behaviour in the main chamber, and accordingly it influences the engine efficiency as well as pollutant emissions such as NOx and unburned hydrocarbons. This paper presents a numerical analysis of fuel concentration and turbulence distribution at spark time for an automotive-sized scavenged pre-chamber mounted at the head of a rapid compression-expansion machine (RCEM). Two different pre-chamber orifice orientations are considered: straight and tilted nozzles. The latter introduce a swirling flow within the pre-chamber. Simulations have been carried out using with two different turbulence models: Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES).
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Pre-Chamber Combustion Systems for Lean Burn Gas Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0260
The current trend in automobiles is towards electrical vehicles, but for the most part these vehicles still require an internal combustion engine to provide additional range and flexibility. These engines are under stringent emissions regulations, in particular, for the reduction of CO2. Gas engines which run lean burn combustion systems provide a viable route to these emission reductions, however designing these engines to provide sustainable and controlled combustion under lean conditions at λ=2.0 is challenging. To address this challenge, it is possible to use a scavenged Pre-Chamber Ignition (PCI) system which can deliver favorable conditions for ignition close to the spark plug. The lean charge in the main combustion chamber is then ignited by flame jets emanating from the pre-chamber nozzles. Accurate prediction of flame kernel development and propagation is essential for the analysis of PCI systems.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Nozzle-Geometry Variations and Back-Pressure Changes on High Pressure Gas Injections under Application-Relevant Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1138
In the present work numerical simulations were carried out investigating the effect of fuel type, nozzle-geometry variations and back-pressure changes on high-pressure gas injections under application-relevant conditions. Methane, hydrogen and nitrogen with a total pressure of 500 bar served as high-pressure fuels and were injected into air at rest at 200 bar and 100 bar. Different nozzle shapes were simulated and the analysis of the results lead to a recommendation for the most advantageous geometry regarding jet penetration, volumetric growth, mixing enhancement and discharge coefficient. Additionally an artificial inlet boundary conditions was tested for the use with real-gas thermodynamics and was shown to be capable of reducing the simulation time significantly.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Soot Dynamics at Engine-Relevant Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0204
Formation of soot in an auto-igniting n-dodecane spray under diesel engine relevant conditions has been investigated numerically. As opposed to research addressing turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) by coupling diffusive turbulence models with more sophisticated models in the context of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS), this study employs the advanced sub-grid scale k-equation model in the framework of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) together with the uninvolved Direct Integration (DI) approach. A reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism has been employed and artificially accelerated in order to predict the ignition for n-dodecane accurately. Soot processes have been modelled with an extended version of the semi-empirical, two-equation model of Leung, which considers C2H2 as the soot precursor and accounts for particle inception, surface growth by C2H2 addition, oxidation by O2, oxidation by OH and particle coagulation.
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of Sooting Propensity of n-Dodecane Pilot/Lean-Premixed Methane Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0258
The sooting propensity of dual-fuel combustion with n-dodecane pilot injection in a lean-premixed methane-air charge has been investigated using an optically accessible Rapid Compression-Expansion Machine (RCEM) to achieve engine-relevant pressure and temperature conditions at the start of pilot injection. A Diesel injector with a 100 μm single-hole coaxial nozzle, mounted at the cylinder periphery, has been employed to admit the pilot fuel. The aim of this study was to enhance the fundamental understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes of n-dodecane in the presence of methane in the air charge by parametric variation of methane equivalence ratio, charge temperature, and pilot fuel injection duration. The influence of methane on ignition delay and flame extent of the pilot fuel jet has been determined by simultaneous excited-state hydroxyl radical (OH*) chemiluminescence and Schlieren imaging.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Engine Operational Conditions’ Influences on a Small Un-Scavenged Pre-Chamber’s Behavior

2017-09-04
2017-24-0094
Despite significant benefits in terms of the ignition enhancement, the strength and timing of the turbulent flame jets subsequently issuing into the main chamber strongly depend on the pre-chamber combustion process and, thus, are sensitive to the specific engine operating conditions it experienced. This poses considerable difficulties in optimizing engine operating conditions as well as controlling engine performance. This paper investigates the influence of engine operating conditions on the pre-chamber combustion event using both experimental and numerical methods. A miniaturized piezo-electric pressure transducer was designed to be placed inside the engine cylinder head to record the pre-chamber inner volume pressure, in addition to conventional pressure indication inside the main chamber.
Journal Article

The Effect of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations on the NOx-SFC Tradeoff in Diesel Engines under Long Ignition Delay Conditions

2017-09-04
2017-24-0100
Cycle-to-cycle variations in internal combustion engines are known to lead to limitations in engine load and efficiency, as well as increases in emissions. Recent research has led to the identification of the source of cyclic variations of pressure, soot and NO emissions in direct injection common rail diesel engines, when employing a single block injection and operating under long ignition delay conditions. The variations in peak pressure arise from changes in the diffusion combustion rate, caused by randomly occurring in-cylinder pressure fluctuations. These fluctuations result from the excitation of the first radial mode of vibration of the cylinder gases which arises from the rapid premixed combustion after the long ignition delay period. Cycles with high-intensity fluctuations present faster diffusion combustion, resulting in higher cycle peak pressure, as well as higher measured exhaust NO concentrations.
Journal Article

Modeling Split Injections of ECN “Spray A” Using a Conditional Moment Closure Combustion Model with RANS and LES

2016-10-17
2016-01-2237
This study investigates n-dodecane split injections of “Spray A” from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) using two different turbulence treatments (RANS and LES) in conjunction with a Conditional Moment Closure combustion model (CMC). The two modeling approaches are first assessed in terms of vapor spray penetration evolutions of non-reacting split injections showing a clearly superior performance of the LES compared to RANS: while the former successfully reproduces the experimental results for both first and second injection events, the slipstream effect in the wake of the first injection jet is not accurately captured by RANS leading to an over-predicted spray tip penetration of the second pulse. In a second step, two reactive operating conditions with the same ambient density were investigated, namely one at a diesel-like condition (900K, 60bar) and one at a lower temperature (750K, 50bar).
Journal Article

Extension of the Phenomenological 3-Arrhenius Auto-Ignition Model for Six Surrogate Automotive Fuels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0755
An existing three-stage ignition delay model which has seen successful application to Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) has been extended to six surrogate fuels which constitute potential candidates for future Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. The fuels include petroleum-derived and oxygenated components and can be divided into low, intermediate and high cetane number groups. A new methodology to obtain the model parameters is presented which relies jointly on simulation and experimental data: in a first step, constant volume adiabatic reactor simulations using chemical kinetic mechanisms are performed to generate ignition delays for a very wide range of conditions, namely variations in equivalence ratio, Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), pressure and temperature.
Technical Paper

THE Post Injection: Coalescence of 3D CFD-CMC Simulation, 2D Visualizations in a Constant Volume Chamber and Application in a Modern Passenger Car Diesel Engine

2015-09-06
2015-24-2515
Past research has shown that post injections have the potential to reduce Diesel engine exhaust PM concentration without any significant influence in NOx emissions. However, an accurate, widely applicable rule of how to parameterize a post injection such that it provides a maximum reduction of PM emissions does not exist. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms are not thoroughly understood. In past research, the underlying mechanisms have been investigated in engine experiments, in constant volume chambers and also using detailed 3D CFD-CMC simulations. It has been observed that soot reduction due to a post injection is mainly due to two reasons: increased turbulence from the post injection during soot oxidation and lower soot formation due to lower amount of fuel in the main combustion at similar load conditions. Those studies do not show a significant temperature rise caused by the post injection.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Gas Jet Behavior for a Hollow Cone Piezoelectric Injector

2014-10-13
2014-01-2749
Direct injection of natural gas in engines is considered a promising approach toward reducing engine out emissions and fuel consumption. As a consequence, new gas injection strategies have to be developed for easing direct injection of natural gas and its mixing processes with the surrounding air. In this study, the behavior of a hollow cone gas jet generated by a piezoelectric injector was experimentally investigated by means of tracer-based planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). Pressurized acetone-doped nitrogen was injected in a constant pressure and temperature measurement chamber with optical access. The jet was imaged at different timings after start of injection and its time evolution was analyzed as a function of injection pressure and needle lift.
Technical Paper

Simulations of In-Cylinder Processes in a Diesel Engine Operated with Post-Injections Using an Extended CMC Model

2014-10-13
2014-01-2571
In this study, numerical simulations of in-cylinder processes associated to fuel post-injection in a diesel engine operated at Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) have been performed. An extended Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model capable of accounting for an arbitrary number of subsequent injections has been employed: instead of a three-feed system, the problem has been described as a sequential two-feed system, using the total mixture fraction as the conditioning scalar. A reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism coupled with a two-equation soot model is employed. Numerical results have been validated with measurements from the optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine installed at Sandia National Laboratories by comparing apparent heat release rate (AHRR) and in-cylinder soot mass evolutions for three different start of main injection, and a wide range of post injection dwell times.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigations of Soot Reduction Mechanisms using Post-Injections in a Cylindrical Constant Volume Chamber (CCVC)

2014-10-13
2014-01-2839
Past research has shown that post injections have the potential to reduce Diesel engine exhaust PM concentration without any significant influence in the NOx emissions. In earlier research it was observed that soot reduction due to a post injection is based on three reasons: increased turbulence (1) and heat (2) from the post injection during soot oxidation and lower soot formation due to smaller main injection for similar load conditions (3). The second effect of heat addition during the soot oxidation is debated in the literature. The experimental investigation presented in the current work provides insight into the underlying mechanisms of soot formation and reduction using post injections under different operating conditions. The experimental data have been obtained using a cylindrical constant volume chamber with high optical access. The soot evolution has been obtained using 2-color-pyrometry.
Journal Article

Influence of EGR on Post-Injection Effectiveness in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with n-Heptane

2014-10-13
2014-01-2633
Numerical simulations of a heavy-duty diesel engine fuelled with n-heptane have been performed with the conditional moment closure (CMC) combustion model and an embedded two-equation soot model. The influence of exhaust gas recirculation on the interaction between post- and main- injection has been investigated. Four different levels of EGR corresponding to intake ambient oxygen volume fractions of 12.6, 15, 18 and 21% have been considered for a constant intake pressure and temperature and unchanged injection configuration. Simulation results have been compared to the experimental data by means of pressure and apparent heat-release rate (AHRR) traces and in-cylinder high-speed imaging of natural soot luminosity and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII). The simulation was found to reproduce the effect of EGR on AHRR evolutions very well, for both single- and post-injection cases.
Journal Article

Extending the NOx Reduction Potential with Miller Valve Timing Using Pilot Fuel Injection on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2632
New emission legislations applicable in the near future to sea-going vessels, off-road and off-highway vehicles require drastic nitric oxides emission reduction. A promising approach to achieve part of this decrease is charge air temperature reduction using Miller timing. However, it has been shown in literature that the reduction potential is limited, achieving a minimum in NOx emissions at a certain end-of-compression temperature. Further temperature reduction has shown to increase NOx emissions again. Some studies have shown that this increase is correlated to an increased amount of premixed combustion. In this work, the effects of pilot injection on engine out NOx emissions for very early intake valve closure (i.e. extreme Miller), high boost pressures and cold end-of-compression in-cylinder conditions are investigated. The experiments are carried out on a 3.96L single cylinder heavy-duty common-rail Diesel engine operating at 1000 rpm and at constant global air-to-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Integration of a Cool-Flame Heat Release Rate Model into a 3-Stage Ignition Model for HCCI Applications and Different Fuels

2014-04-01
2014-01-1268
The heat release of the low temperature reactions (LTR or cool-flame) under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has been quantified for five candidate fuels in an optically accessible Rapid Compression Expansion Machine (RCEM). Two technical fuels (Naphthas) and three primary reference fuels (PRF), (n-heptane, PRF25 and PRF50) were examined. The Cetane Numbers (CN) of the fuels range from 35 to 56. Variation of the operating parameters has been performed, in regard to initial charge temperature of 383, 408, and 433K, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate of 0%, 25%, and 50%, and equivalence ratio of 0.29, 0.38, 0.4, 0.53, 0.57, and 0.8. Pressure indication measurements, OH-chemiluminescence imaging, and passive spectroscopy were simultaneously implemented. In our previous work, an empirical, three-stage, Arrhenius-type ignition delay model, parameterized on shock tube data, was found to be applicable also in a transient, engine-relevant environment.
Journal Article

Numerical Study of the Influence of EGR on In-Cylinder Soot Characteristics in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine using CMC

2014-04-01
2014-01-1134
This paper presents numerical simulations of in-cylinder soot evolution in the optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine of Sandia Laboratories performed with the conditional moment closure (CMC) model employing a reduced n-heptane chemical mechanism coupled with a two-equation soot model. The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on in-cylinder processes is studied considering different ambient oxygen volume fractions (8 - 21 percent), while maintaining intake pressure and temperature as well as the injection configuration unchanged. This corresponds to EGR rates between 0 and 65 percent. Simulation results are first compared with experimental data by means of apparent heat release rate (AHRR) and temporally resolved in-cylinder soot mass, where a quantitative comparison is presented. The model was found to fairly well reproduce ignition delays as well as AHRR traces along the EGR variation with a slight underestimation of the diffusion burn portion.
Journal Article

LES Multi-Cycle Analysis of the Combustion Process in a Small SI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1138
Large eddy simulations (LES) of a port-injected 4-valve spark ignited (SI) engine have been carried out with the emphasis on the combustion process. The considered operating point is close to full load at 3,500 RPM and exhibits considerable cyclic variation in terms of the in-cylinder pressure traces, which can be related to fluctuations in the combustion process. In order to characterize these fluctuations, a statistically relevant number of subsequent cycles, namely up to 40, have been computed in the multi-cycle analysis. In contrast to other LES studies of SI engines, here the G-equation (a level set approach) has been adopted to model the premixed combustion in the framework of the STAR-CD/es-ICE flow field solver. Tuning parameters are identified and their impact on the result is addressed.
Journal Article

Ignition Delays of Different Homogeneous Fuel-air Mixtures in a Rapid Compression Expansion Machine and Comparison with a 3-Stage-ignition Model Parameterized on Shock Tube Data

2013-10-14
2013-01-2625
An optically accessible Rapid Compression Expansion Machine (RCEM) has been used to investigate the homogeneous auto-ignition of five candidate fuels for Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion. Two technical fuels (Naphthas) and three primary reference fuels (PRF), (n-heptane, PRF25 and PRF50) were examined. The Cetane Numbers (CN) of the fuels range from 35 to 56. The PRF25 and PRF50 were selected in order to approximately match the CN of the two Naphthas. Variation of the operating parameters has been performed, in regard to initial charge temperature of 383, 408, and 433K, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate of 0%, 25%, and 50%, and equivalence ratio of 0.29, 0.38, 0.4, 0.53, 0.57, and 0.8. Pressure indication measurements, OH-chemiluminescence imaging, and passive spectroscopy were simultaneously implemented.
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