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Technical Paper

Coefficients of Discharge at the Aperatures of Engines

This paper reports on the experimental evaluation of certain aspects concerning the mathematical modelling of pressure wave propagation in engine ducting. A particular aspect is the coefficient of discharge of the various ports, valves or apertures of the ducting connected to the cylinder of an engine or to the atmosphere. The traditional method for the deduction of the coefficients of discharge employs steady flow experimentation. While the traditional experimental method may well be totally adequate, it is postulated in this paper that the traditional theoretical approach to the deduction of the discharge coefficient from the measured data leads to serious inaccuracies if incorporated within an engine simulation by computer. An accurate theoretical method for the calculation of the discharge coefficient from measured data is proposed.
Technical Paper

Initial Development of a Two-Stroke Cycle Diesel Engine for Automotive Applications

A three cylinder two-stroke cycle diesel engine is proposed for automotive use. The engine is of the simple loop or cross-scavenging type with a crosshead seal and under piston scavenging pump. This paper records the initial investigations of this concept using a purpose built single cylinder engine. Results from different combustion systems are presented together with tests with the same engine when using an external air supply. Measurements from a parallel investigation using a laser doppler anemometer to measure air swirl motion within one of the chambers are also presented.
Technical Paper

Computational Fluid Dynamics Applied to Two-Stroke Engine Scavenging

A three dimensional computational fluid dynamics program is used to simulate theoretically the scavenging process in the loop-scavenged two-stroke cycle engine. The theoretical calculation uses the k - ε turbulence model and all calculations are confined to the in-cylinder region. The calculation geometry is oriented towards five actual engine cylinders which have been tested under firing conditions for the normal performance characteristics of power, torque, and specific fuel consumption. The same five engine cylinders have also been experimentally tested on a single-cycle gas testing rig for their scavenging efficiency - scavenge ratio characteristics. The ranking of the cylinders in order of merit in terms of scavenging efficiency by both the rig and the theoretical calculations is shown to be in good agreement with the evidence provided by the actual firing engine test results.