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Technical Paper

Employing natural plant based fiber in interior automotive parts for cost & weight benefit

2019-11-21
2019-28-2559
The Automotive industry is in ever more need for a lesser weight car due to progressively stringent emission norms and the demand of customer to have better mileage. It can be a gargantuan challenge for automotive manufacturers to search for lesser weight material to meet both customers as well as regulatory norms. But in some cases such lower weight material can increase the cost and adding a expensive material which increases overall cost to a price sensitive market like India is not favorable. One such solution is using the indigenous plant fiber (Jute) in combination with propylene (PP) to make Interior plastics components. Jute a vegetable fiber also referred to as "the golden fiber" has high tensile strength, low extensibility and is well established in fabric, packing, agriculture, construction industries. The biodegradable Jute lesser weight & abundance (India is the leading manufacturer of the Jute) can be utilized in making automobile trim parts in India.
Technical Paper

Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds From a Combined Dual Port Injection/Direct-Injection Technology Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle

2019-09-09
2019-24-0051
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has changed the exhaust composition in comparison with the older port fuel injection (PFI) systems. More recently, light-duty vehicle engine manufactures have combined these two technologies to take advantage of the knock benefits and fuel economy of GDI with the low particulate emission of PFI. These dual injection strategy engines have made a significant change in the combustion emission composition produced by these engines. Understanding the impact of these changes is essential for automotive companies and aftertreatment developers. A novel sampling system was designed to sample the entire exhaust generated by a dual injection strategy gasoline vehicle using the United States Federal Test Procedure (FTP). This sampling system was capable of measuring the regulated emissions as well as collecting the entire exhaust from the vehicle for unregulated emissions.
Technical Paper

On Soot Sampling: Considerations When Sampling for TEM Imaging and Differential Mobility Spectrometer

2019-09-09
2019-24-0159
Particulate matter (PM) has been sampled from a compression ignition engine using a differential mobility spectrometer (Cambustion DMS 500) and for imaging in a TEM with the aim to couple these two measuring techniques. A known issue when coupling these two methods is that a devise like the DMS samples all PM, and the TEM only soot. To resolve this issue, a thermal denuder was designed and built to remove all volatile organic compounds from the sample prior to entering the DMS with the intention to allow the DMS to sample only soot. For TEM imaging, soot was either collected directly onto a TEM grid using the thermophoretic effect or collected onto quartz filters with the soot then transferred onto the TEM grids. The direct to grid technique did not work after the denuder due to the gas temperature being too low for the thermophoretic effect; hence the reason to collect some soot using the quartz filters. Soot was removed from the filters using an ethanol wash/sonication technique.
Standard

Standard Requirements for Aerospace Organic Coatings Applicator Certification

2019-07-23
WIP
AS7489A
This standard establishes the minimum requirements for training, examination, and certification of aerospace coatings application personnel applying liquid organic coatings to interior structural or exterior substrates. It establishes criteria for the certification of personnel requiring appropriate knowledge of the technical principles underlying aircraft surface preparation and coatings application for both protective and decorative purposes. Persons certified under this document shall receive documentation of certification by the Certifying Agency. Persons who successfully complete the requirements of this certification standard are considered to be able to successfully and consistently perform a broad spectrum of aerospace coatings application tasks to achieve the desired engineering purposes.
Standard

Heat Resistant Aluminized Paint

2019-06-11
CURRENT
AMS3604A
This specification establishes requirements for a heat resistant aluminized organic coating with sufficient corrosion and erosion resistance for the finished substrate.
Standard

Primer Zinc Molybdate

2019-06-06
CURRENT
AMS3117A
This specification covers a zinc molybdate primer in the form of a liquid.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions in a GDI with an Upstream Fuel Source

2019-04-02
2019-01-1180
Public health risk and resulting stringent emission regulations for internal combustion engines pose a need for solutions to reduce particle emissions (PN). Current PN control approaches include increasing fuel injection pressure, optimizing spray targeting, multiple injection strategies, and the use of tumble flaps together with gasoline particulate filters (GPF). Experiments were performed using a single-cylinder spark-ignited GDI engine equipped with a custom inlet manifold and a port fuel injector located 500 mm upstream. Particulate emissions were measured during stationary medium/high load operation to evaluate the effect of varying the mass split between the direct and upstream injectors. Mixing quality is improved substantially by upstream injection and can thus be controlled by altering the mass split between the injectors.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics in a Constant Volume Chamber of Diesel Blended with HTL

2019-04-02
2019-01-0578
There are a few different ways in which biofuels can be sourced, with the most popular coming from agricultural sources. An alternative approach is to utilize biowaste. An estimated 20 million dry tons of volatile organic compounds, or biowaste, is annually deposited in US municipal wastewaters. Most of this biowaste energy content is not recovered and, as a result, the biowaste could be a massive potential source of renewable energy. Biocrude diesel is converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Three types of feedstocks (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste) were converted into biocrude oil via HTL. From the previous experiments done in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend performed similarly during combustion to pure diesel. By studying these mixtures in a constant volume chamber, these observations could be compared to the results in the diesel engine.
Standard

Ship Systems and Equipment - Threaded Fasteners - Inspection, Test, and Installation Guidance

2019-02-13
WIP
J2270

This SAE Standard covers both quality assurance and installation requirements for fasteners.

This document establishes engineering criteria and guidance for quality assurance requirements (including Test and Inspection) for procurement of threaded fasteners where such criteria and guidance is not otherwise provided by existing fastener standards or specifications. The document also provides requirements and test procedures for self-locking fasteners including those manufactured by the installing activity.

This document also provides requirements for the selection and use of fastener lubricants, additional corrosion protection treatments, fastener tightening procedures, and the use of thread-locking compounds.

Technical Paper

Development of a Cost-Effective Micro-SHED System for Determining Fuel Evaporative Emissions of Components

2019-01-18
2018-01-5048
Regulations regarding evaporative emissions have set more and more stringent limits over the last years. To fulfill these specifications, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) now tend to break down the sum value of evaporative emissions for the whole car onto single parts or components. Especially small, fuel-containing components (fuel lines, pressure sensors, injection systems, etc.) are challenging. Very low emission rates (<1 mg/24 h) must be measured precisely, and also the stability of these values must be verified due to fuel equilibration effects. Standard SHED (sealed housing evaporative determination) systems or test chambers for measuring volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are often too big and have too high background levels to achieve reliable results. In addition they are quite expensive which affects the costs per measurement. Our aim was to develop a low-cost Micro-SHED system which fulfills the abovementioned requirements.
Journal Article

Diminishing Benefits of Federal Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) Compared to Conventional Gasoline (CG)

2018-12-20
Abstract The Federal reformulated gasoline (RFG) program originated with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments to address high ozone and air toxics levels in major urban areas. These areas include portions of 17 states and represent approximately 30% of the total U.S. gasoline volume. Initially, formulation changes were limited to addition of oxygen and reductions in benzene and fuel Reid vapor pressure (RVP) levels. These reformulations were intended to meet minimum emissions reduction targets for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), air toxics, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) when compared to a 1990 baseline gasoline in a “1990’s technology” vehicle fleet. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) developed two computational models, the Simple Model in 1995 and the Complex Model in 1998, for use in demonstrating compliance with the regulations. This article reviews the derivation and evolution of the RFG program.
Standard

Procedure for Sampling and Measurement of Aircraft Propulsion Engine and APU Generated Contaminants in Bleed Air

2018-11-12
CURRENT
ARP4418B
This ARP outlines recommended practices to quantify the concentrations of a subset of bleed air contaminant marker compounds on an aircraft propulsion engine or APU prior to delivery and installation on civil and military aircraft. Testing is specified during steady state (non-transient) operation only, in a ground level test bed. Included are recommended test setup, test procedures, techniques for sampling ambient air and bleed air, and one or more specific analytical methodologies for each of the suggested bleed air contaminant marker compounds at quantification levels, given practical constraints.
Standard

Air Quality for Commercial Aircraft Cabin Particulate Contaminants

2018-10-17
WIP
AIR4766/1A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) covers airbone particulate contaminants that may be present in commercial aircraft cabin air during operation. Discussions cover sources of contaminants, methods of control and design recommendations. Air quality, ventilation requirements and standards are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Cementitious-Based Brake Pads Technology: Performance, Low Energy Consumption, Emission Drop

2018-10-05
2018-01-1867
Brake pads employing innovative hydraulic inorganic binders in place of common state-of-the-art thermosetting phenolic resins have been produced by means of a unique prototypal equipment and a distinctive manufacturing process. The unicity of the process enables us to exclude completely any thermal cycle in the manufacturing steps, with a considerable positive energy balance compared to the standard counterpart. Realized brake pads have indeed been successfully tuned to meet the braking performances of phenolic counterparts. In the present work our latest efforts in this field are illustrated, focusing our attention to three main areas of interest: performance, energy consumption, volatile organic emissions.
Standard

Air Conditioning Systems for Subsonic Airplanes

2018-06-14
WIP
ARP85G
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains guidelines and recommendaitons for subsonic airpolane air conditioning systems and components, including requirements, design philosophy, testing and ambient conditions. The airplane air conditioning system comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls and indicators that supply and distribute air to the occupied compartments for ventilation, pressurization, and temperature and moisture control. The principal features of the system are: a. A supply of fresh air from at least two sources with independent control valves b. A means for heating c. A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers) d. A means for removign excess moisture from the air supply e. A ventilation subsystem f. A temperature control subsystem g.
Standard

Primer, Anodic Electrodeposition for Aircraft Applications

2018-05-08
WIP
AMS3144A
This specification establishes the requirements for a waterborne, corrosion inhibiting, chemical and solvent resistant, anodic electrodeposition epoxy primer capable of curing at 200 to 210 °F (93 to 99 °C).
Standard

Handling and Packaging of Materials and Components for Emissions Testing

2018-04-05
CURRENT
J2989_201804
This standard is intended for the automotive industry. Testing methods may specifically define the handling and packaging conditions for the material to be analyzed. In these cases, follow the method as closely as possible. Use this standard as a guide, where the protocol for handling and packaging the samples between part production and testing may be undefined.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of White Smoke Generation Derived from Hydrocarbons Accumulations on Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-0641
White smoke emission is observed at the tailpipe of diesel vehicles when unburned hydrocarbons (HCs) are adsorbed on a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) under low exhaust gas temperature. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of white smoke emission derived from HCs, and to reduce emission levels. First, the components of HCs and the particle size distribution of white smoke emission were analyzed. It was clarified that semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) and water are condensed around soluble organic fraction and the order of particle size in white smoke is submicron scale. Additionally, the correlation between the behavior of white smoke emission and the amount/quality of HCs adsorbed on a DOC were investigated by examining the change of zeolite content in the DOC. It was found that the heavy HCs ratio in adsorbed HCs on DOC increases with a decrease in zeolite content when DOC inlet gas temperature is 120 °C.
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