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Technical Paper

Strain-Rate Characterization of Automotive Steel and the Effect of Strain-Rate in Component Crush Analysis

1998-09-29
982392
The effects of strain-rate and element mesh size on the numerical simulation of an automotive component impacted by a mass dropped from an instrumented drop tower was investigated. For this study, an analysis of a simple steel rail hat-section impacted by a mass moving at an initial velocity of 28Mph was performed using the explicit finite element code Radioss. Three constitutive material models: Elasto-Plastic (without strain rate), Johnson-Cook, and Zerilli-Armstrong were used to characterize the material properties for mild and high strength steel. Results obtained from the numerical analyses were compared to the experimental data for the maximum crush, final deformation shape, average crush force and the force-deflection curve. The results from this study indicate that the mechanical response of steel can be captured utilizing a constitutive material model which accounts for strain rate effect coupled with an average mesh size of 6 to 9mm.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Analysis Theory of Single Leaf Steel Springs

1988-11-01
881744
The analytical methods for single leaf steel springs should at least include two areas: (1) allowance for any curved or tapered shape, and (2) technologies to precisely predict the geometrical configuration due to large deflection. The last item is an outstanding consideration in automotive application because of the parts alignment requirement. In this paper, a practical analytical method is presented to achieve the goals mentioned above. Basically, the. flexibility method of finite element was employed in the solution technique. In the spring application, this approach can save computer time because of the elimination of matrix inversion in the internal computation. An integration form of the flexibility matrix for each element was given in this paper to allow for a tapered spring shape. This integration-formed flexibility matrix can be approximately evaluated by the Gaussian Quadrature Formula.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Spot Weld Testing

2009-04-20
2009-01-0032
Static and dynamic strength tests were performed on spot welded specimens made of dual-phase (DP) 780 and mild steels (DQSK). Lap-shear (LS) and cross-tension (CT) as well as a new mixed mode specimen were studied using MTS hydraulic universal testing machine for static tests and drop weight tower for dynamic tests. Three weld nugget sizes were made for each steel and CT and LS. DP780 with one weld size was also tested in mixed mode. Load and displacement as functions of time and fracture mode of the spot welds were recorded. Representative data are reported in this paper.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Improvement Using New Simulation Technologies

2009-04-20
2009-01-0981
Springback is a major concern in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The existing computer simulation technology has difficulty predicting this phenomenon accurately even though it is well developed for formability simulations. Great efforts made in recent years to improve springback predictions have achieved noticeable progress in the computational capability and accuracy. In this work, springback simulation studies are conducted using FEA software LS-DYNA®. Various parametric sensitivity studies are carried out and key variables affecting the springback prediction accuracy are identified. Recently developed simulation technologies in LS-DYNA® are implemented including dynamic effect minimization, smooth tool contact and newly developed nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material models. Case studies on lab-scale and full-scale industrial parts are provided and the predicted springback results are compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Robust Analysis of Clamp Load Loss in Aluminum Threads due to Thermal Cycling

2009-04-20
2009-01-0989
A DFSS study identified a new mechanism for clamp load loss in aluminum threads due to thermal cycling. In bolted joints tightened to yield, the difference in thermal expansion between the aluminum and steel threads can result in a loss of clamp load with each thermal cycle. This clamp load loss is significantly greater than the loss that can be explained by creep alone. A math model was created and used to conduct a robust analysis. This analysis led to an understanding of the design factors necessary to reduce the cyclic clamp load loss in the aluminum threads. This understanding was then used to create optimized design solutions that satisfy constraints common to powertrain applications. Estimations of clamp load loss due to thermal cycling from the math model will be presented. The estimates of the model will be compared to observed physical test data. A robust analysis, including S/N and mean effect summary will be presented.
Technical Paper

Forming Simulation and Validation of Laminated Steel Panels

2007-04-16
2007-01-1675
Laminated steel has been increasingly applied in automotive products for vibration and noise reduction. One of the major challenges the laminated steel poses is how to simulate forming processes and predict formability severity with acceptable correlation in production environment, which is caused by the fact that a thin polymer core possesses mechanical properties with significant difference in comparison with that of steel skins. In this study a cantilever beam test is conducted for investigating flexural behavior of the laminated steel and a finite element modeling technique is proposed for forming simulation of the laminated steel. Two production panels are analyzed for formability prediction and the results are compared with those from the try-out for validation. This procedure demonstrates that the prediction and try-out are in good agreement for both panels.
Technical Paper

High Performance Vehicle Chassis Structure for NVH Reduction

2006-04-03
2006-01-0708
The main objective of this paper was to determine if the vehicle performance can be maintained with a reduced mass cradle structure. Aluminum and magnesium cradles were compared with the baseline steel cradle. First, the steel chassis alone is analyzed with the refined finite element model and validated with experimental test data for the frequencies, normal modes, stiffnesses and the drive-point mobilities at various attachment mount/bushing locations. The superelement method in conjunction with the component mode synthesis (CMS) technique was used for each component of the vehicle such as Body-In-White, Instrument Panel, Steering Column Housing & Wheel, Seats, Cradles, CRFM, etc. After assemblage of all the superelements, analysis was carried out by changing the front and rear cradle gauges and the material properties. The drive-point mobility response was computed at various locations and the noise (sound pressure) level was calculated at the driver and passenger ears.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Oxidation/Corrosion Performance of Various Materials for Exhaust System Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0605
Durability requirements for exhaust materials have resulted in the increased use of stainless steels throughout the exhaust system. The conversion of carbon steel exhaust flanges to stainless steel has occurred on many vehicles. Ferritic stainless steels are commonly used for exhaust flanges. Flange construction methods include stamped sheet steel, thick plate flanges and powder metal designs. Flange material selection criteria may include strength, oxidation resistance, weldability and cold temperature impact resistance. Flange geometry considerations include desired stiffness criteria, flange rotation, gasket/sealing technique and vehicle packaging. Both the material selection and flange geometry are considered in terms of meeting the desired durability and cost. The cyclic oxidation performance of the material is a key consideration when selecting flange materials.
Technical Paper

Prestrain Effect on Fatigue of DP600 Sheet Steel

2007-04-16
2007-01-0995
The component being formed experiences some type of prestrain that may have an effect on its fatigue strength. This study investigated the forming effects on material fatigue strength of dual phase sheet steel (DP600) subjected to various uniaxial prestrains. In the as-received condition, DP600 specimens were tested for tensile properties to determine the prestraining level based on the uniform elongation corresponding to the maximum strength of DP600 on the stress-strain curve. Three different levels of prestrain at 90%, 70% and 50% of the uniform elongation were applied to uniaxial prestrain specimens for tensile tests and fatigue tests. Fatigue tests were conducted with strain controlled to obtain fatigue properties and compare them with the as-received DP600. The fatigue test results were presented with strain amplitude and Neuber's factor.
Technical Paper

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of Press Hardened Boron Steel using Digital Image Correlation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0790
Tensile measurements and fracture surface analysis of low carbon heat-treated boron steel are reported. Tensile coupons were quasi-statically deformed to fracture in a miniature tensile testing stage with custom data acquisition software. Strain contours were computed via a digital image correlation method that allowed placement of a digital strain gage in the necking region. True stress-true strain data corresponding to the standard tensile testing method are presented for comparison with previous measurements. Fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy and the deformation mechanisms were identified.
Technical Paper

Stretch-Bend Forming Limits of 1008 AK Steel

2003-03-03
2003-01-1157
A series of tests were performed to determine the influence of curvature on the forming limits of 1008 AK steel. Rectangular blanks cut from three thicknesses of the material from 0.69 mm to 1.04 mm were securely clamped at opposite edges and stretched over wedge shaped punches of different radii. A series of punches were used with radii that varied from 0.508 mm to 12.7 mm to produce bending effects that range from severe to mild. Measurements show that the neck forms on the convex surface when the strain on the concave side of the sheet reaches a value consistent with the forming limit in plane-strain for in-plane deformation.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Panel Vibro-Acoustic Behavior and Damping

2003-05-05
2003-01-1406
Damping treatments are widely used in passenger vehicles, but the knowledge of damping treatments is often fragmentary in the industry. In this study, vibro-acoustics behavior of a set of vehicle floor and dash panels with various types of damping treatments was investigated. Sound transmission loss, sound radiation efficiency as well as damping loss factor were measured. The damping treatments ranged from laminated steel construction (thin viscoelastic layer) and doubler plate construction (thick viscoelastic layer) to less structural “bake-on” damping and self-adhesive aluminum foil-backed damping treatments. In addition, the bare vehicle panels were tested as a baseline and the fully carpeted floor panel was tested as a reference. The test data were then examined together with analytical modeling of some of the test configurations. As expected, the study found that damping treatments add more than damping. They also add mass and change body panel stiffness.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Strain Rate Effects in Automotive Impact

2003-03-03
2003-01-1383
This paper deals with the effects of various approaches for modeling of strain rate effects for mild and high strength steels (HSS) on impact simulations. The material modeling is discussed in the context of the finite element method (FEM) modeling of progressive crush of energy absorbing automotive components. The characteristics of piecewise linear plasticity strain rate dependent material model are analyzed and various submodels for modeling of impact response of steel structures are investigated. The paper reports on the ranges of strains and strain rates that are calculated in typical FEM models for tube crush and their dependence on the material modeling approaches employed. The models are compared to the experimental results from drop tower tests.
Technical Paper

A Novel Design Concept of a Lateral Sliding Bucket Seat on Roller Mechanisms

2003-10-27
2003-01-2753
A novel lateral sliding vehicle bucket seat was developed to address consumer needs for improved facile access to third row seats in minivans and sport utility vehicles. The concept provides for a second row bucket seat to slide laterally across a vehicle floor by roller mechanisms that roll across steel rails that transverse the vehicle floor. The system consists of two T-section type steel rails mounted parallel to each other at a distance equal to the seat riser support attachment features. The seat risers contain a roller mechanism that enables contact with the cylindrical portion of the steel rails. Each steel rail contains rectangular openings spaced appropriately to allow the seat latching mechanisms to engage securely. The seat riser supports at the rear include a releasable clamping mechanism hook that engages and disengages into the rectangular openings of the steel rails.
Technical Paper

Update on the Developments of the SAE J2334 Laboratory Cyclic Corrosion Test

2003-03-03
2003-01-1234
The Corrosion Task Force of the Automotive/Steel Partnership has developed the SAE J2334 cyclic laboratory test for evaluating the cosmetic corrosion resistance of auto body steel sheet. [Ref. 1] Since the publishing of this test in 1997, further work has improved the precision of J2334. In this paper, the results of this work along with the revisions to the J2334 test will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Wear Test Method for Developing Plastic Materials for Applications Wherein a Plastic Part is Rotating or Reciprocating Against a Metal Surface

2005-04-11
2005-01-0876
The wear test introduced in this paper can be used to determine and rank PV (pressure time velocity) capability of plastic materials for applications where a plastic part is rotating or reciprocating against a metal surface. It provides an accelerated test method to evaluate the wear performance of plastic materials. A single test can provide tribological information at multiple PV conditions. The tribological information obtained from this method includes coefficient of friction, PV (pressure times velocity) limits, and interface temperature profile. This test is currently used by General Motors Corporation to develop plastic materials for transmission thrust washer and dynamic seal applications. The test is running in two sequences (A & B), capable of a PV range from 50,000 psi-ft/min 500,000 psi-ft/min, under dry conditions. The PV steps in sequence A are combinations of high pressure and low velocity - for applications where high loads are expected, such as thrust washers.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Crush Performance of A Hat Section Component Using Dual Phase and Martensitic Steels

2005-04-11
2005-01-0837
Drop tower axial crush testing was performed on hat section samples of various steel grades ranging in minimum tensile strength from 410 MPa to 1300 MPa. It was demonstrated that the energy absorption capability increases with the tensile strength of the steel. However, steels of very high strength, greater than 980 MPa tensile strength, exhibited a greater tendency for weld button pullout or material fracture, and thus limited energy the absorption capability. The effect of the closeout plate and the yield strength of the steel on energy absorption were also investigated. FEA simulations were performed and correlated to the experimental results. A flow stress based material criterion is introduced based on the analytical approach to compare the crush performance of steels.
Technical Paper

Pad Insulator Modeling for Brake Squeal Analysis

2005-05-16
2005-01-2314
Brake insulators often offer optimal solutions to squeal noise. In the process of engineering solutions to reduce the brake noise, a system-level finite element complex eigenvalue analysis is often used and has gained popularity in recent years. Models of insulators have also been proposed for system-level evaluation, however many challenges remain in efficiently implementing an insulator model, owing to complexities of the insulator component model. The complexities arise from the visco-elastic behavior (primarily the frequency and temperature dependence), and the thin polymer/steel multi-layer nature of the construction - typical in an insulator. As a first part of a joint investigation, this paper explores the nature of frequency and temperature dependence in insulator models and reduces the cumbersome multi-layer model into a simpler form that can be more easily implemented in a typical brake system stability analysis.
Technical Paper

Formability Analysis of High Strength Steel Laser Welded Blanks

2005-04-11
2005-01-1326
This paper will describe an investigation of the formability of high strength steel (HSS) laser welded blanks (LWBs). Anticipated combinations of thickness and steel grades, including high strength low alloy (HSLA) and dual phase (DP) steels were selected. The blanks were characterized through chemical analysis and mechanical testing, as well as microstructural analysis of the weld. Samples were strained in a limiting dome height tester. Weld line movement, dome height and strain at failure were then measured. Data from these tests resulted in development of forming limit diagrams, and allowed correlation of weld line movement to forming conditions. In part, the results showed that the presence of the weld has a negative influence on formability, and that balancing the load carrying capacity of each side of the blank results in minimum weld line movement in the blanks.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Friction on Bursting of Tubes in Corner Filling

2003-03-03
2003-01-0688
Corner filling is a benchmark experiment in tube hydroforming. It was designed to gain knowledge pertinent of this new fabrication process. The corner filling benchmark has been widely used in the automotive and steel industries. Common sense as well as physical tests suggests that friction is an important parameter that affects the deformation of the tube and the bursting of the tubes. However, numerical simulations have yet to verify this fact. In this paper, the stress/strain states in the tube were computed using a finite element model. The dependence of bursting on friction for corner filling was estimated by using the forming limit diagram and a tensile-based failure criterion.
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