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Test Method for Seat Wrinkling and Bagginess

2012-05-22
This study evaluates utilizing an accelerated test method that correlates customer interaction with a vehicle seat where bagginess and wrinkling is produced. The evaluation includes correlation from warranty returns as well as test vehicle results for test verification. Consumer metrics will be discussed within this paper with respect to potential application of this test method, including but not limited to JD Power ratings. The intent of the test method is to aid in establishing appropriate design parameters of the seat trim covers and to incorporate appropriate design measures such as tie downs and lamination. This test procedure was utilized in a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project as an aid in optimizing seat parameters influencing trim cover performance using a Design of Experiment approach. Presenter Lisa Fallon, General Motors LLC
Technical Paper

Defining In-Vehicle Location and Functional Attributes of a ‘Button-Style Electronic Automatic Transmission Shifter’ Using DFSS Methodology with Customer Clinic Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1131
The implementation of electronic shifters (e-shifter) for automatic transmissions in vehicles has created many new opportunities for the customer facing transmission interface and in-vehicle packaging. E-shifters have become popular in recent years as their smaller physical size leads to packaging advantages, they reduce the mass of the automatic transmission shift system, they are easier to install during vehicle assembly, and act as an enabler for autonomous driving. A button-style e-shifter has the ability to create a unique customer interface to the automatic transmission, as it is very different from the conventional column lever or linear console shifter. In addition to this, a button-style e-shifter can free the center console of valuable package space for other customer-facing functions, such as storage bins and Human-Machine Interface controllers.
Technical Paper

Self-Tuning PID Design for Slip Control of Wedge Clutches

2017-03-28
2017-01-1112
The wedge clutch takes advantages of small actuation force/torque, space-saving and energy-saving. However, big challenge arises from the varying self-reinforced ratio due to the varying friction coefficient inevitably affected by temperature and wear. In order to improve the smoothness and synchronization time of the slipping process of the wedge clutch, this paper proposes a self-tuning PID controller based on Lyapunov principle. A new Lyapunov function is developed for the wedge clutch system. Simulation results show that the self-tuning PID obtains much less error than the conventional PID with fixed gains. Moreover, the self-tuning PID is more adaptable to the variation of the friction coefficient for the error is about 1/5 of the conventional PID.
Technical Paper

Traditional and Electronic Solutions to Mitigate Electrified Vehicle Driveline Noises

2017-06-05
2017-01-1755
Hybrid powertrain vehicles inherently create discontinuous sounds during operation. The discontinuous noise created from the electrical motors during transition states are undesirable since they can create tones that do not correlate with the dynamics of the vehicle. The audible level of these motor whines and discontinuous tones can be reduced via common noise abatement techniques or reducing the amount of regeneration braking. One electronic solution which does not affect mass or fuel economy is Masking Sound Enhancement (MSE). MSE is an algorithm that uses the infotainment system to mask the naturally occurring discontinuous hybrid drive unit and driveline tones. MSE enables a variety of benefits, such as more aggressive regenerative braking strategies which yield higher levels of fuel economy and results in a more pleasing interior vehicle powertrain sound. This paper will discuss the techniques and signals used to implement MSE in a hybrid powertrain equipped vehicle.
Technical Paper

CalDef System for Automotive Electronic Control Unit Calibrations

2017-03-28
2017-01-1616
Modern automotive manufacturing and after-sale service environments require tailoring of configuration values or “calibrations” within the vehicle’s various electronic control units (ECUs) to that vehicle’s specific option content. Historically, ECU hardware and software limitations have led designers to implement calibratable values using opaque binary blocks tied directly to ECU internal software data structures. Such coupling between calibration data files and ECU software limits traceability and reuse across different software versions and ECU variants. However, more and more automotive ECUs are featuring fast microprocessors, large memories, and preemptive, multi-tasking operating systems that open opportunities to object-oriented approaches. This paper presents the CalDef system for automotive ECU calibration software architecture. CalDef uses XML database methods to define, develop, and deliver calibration values as objects in both manufacturing and service environments.
Technical Paper

Self-Certification Requirements for Adaptive Driving Beam Headlamps

2017-03-28
2017-01-1365
Vehicle certification requirements generally fall into 2 categories: self-certification and various forms of type approval. Self-certification requirements used in the United States under Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) regulations must be objective and measurable with clear pass / fail criteria. On the other hand, Type Approval requirements used in Europe under United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regulations can be more open ended, relying on the mandated 3rd party certification agency to appropriately interpret and apply the requirements based on the design and configuration of a vehicle. The use of 3rd party certification is especially helpful when applying regulatory requirements for complex vehicle systems that operate dynamically, changing based on inputs from the surrounding environment. One such system is Adaptive Driving Beam (ADB).
Technical Paper

Application of Computer Aided Engineering Tools for Insight into Electromagnetic Compatibility Characteristics of Electrical and Electronic Components for Automotive Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-1667
With the increasing content of electronics in automobiles and faster development times, it is essential that electronics hardware design and vehicle electrical architecture is done early and correctly. Today, the first designs are done in the electronic format with circuit and CAD design tools. Once the initial design is completed, several iterations are typically conducted in a “peer review” methodology to incorporate “best practices” before actual hardware is built. Among the many challenges facing electronics design and integration is electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Success in EMC starts at the design phase with a relevant “lessons learned” data set that encompasses component technology content, schematic and printed circuit board (PCB) layout, and wiring using computer aided engineering (CAE) tools.
Technical Paper

Latest Advances in Aluminum Shape Casting

2017-03-28
2017-01-1665
With the increasing use of aluminum shape castings in structural applications in automobiles, assurance of cast product integrity and performance has become critical in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, the latest understanding of the relationship between casting quality and mechanical properties of aluminum castings is summarized. Examples of newly developed technologies for alloy design, melting and melt treatment, casting and heat treatment processes in aluminum casting are reviewed. Robust design and development of high integrity aluminum castings through an Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) approach is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Supervisory Model Predictive Control of a Powertrain with a Continuously Variable Transmission

2018-04-03
2018-01-0860
This paper describes the design of a supervisory multivariable constrained Model Predictive Control (MPC) system for driver requested axle torque tracking with real-time fuel economy optimization that is scheduled for production by General Motors starting in 2018. The control system has been conceived and co-developed by General Motors and ODYS. The control approach consists of a set of linear MPC controllers scheduled in real-time based on powertrain operating conditions. For each MPC controller, a linear model is obtained by system identification with vehicle and dynamometer data. The supervisory MPC coordinates in real time desired Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) ratio and desired engine torque to satisfy the system requirements, based on estimates of axle torque and engine fuel rate, by solving a constrained optimization problem at each sampling step. Each linear MPC controller is equipped with a Kalman filter to reconstruct the system state from available measurements.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Twist Spring-back Control with an Unbalanced Post-stretching Approach for Advanced High Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0806
Twist spring-back would interfere with stamping or assembling procedures for advanced high strength steel. A “homeopathic” resolution for controlling the twist spring-back is proposed using unbalanced post-stretching configuration. Finite element forming simulation is applied to evaluate and compare the performance for each set of unbalanced post-stretching setup. The post-stretching is effectuated by stake bead application. The beads are separated into multiple independent segments, the height and radii of which can be adjusted individually and asymmetrically. Simulation results indicate that the twist spring-back can be effectively controlled by reducing the post-stretching proximate to the asymmetric part area. Its mechanism is qualitatively revealed by stress analyses, that an additional but acceptable cross-sectional spring-back re-balances the sprung asymmetrical geometry to counter the twist effect.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Factors Controlling the Attainable Equivalent Plastic Strain in the Gauge Region of Cruciform Specimens

2018-04-03
2018-01-0809
The maximum equivalent plastic strain (EPSmax), which can be achieved in the gauge region of a cruciform specimen during in-plane biaxial tensile tests, is limited due to early fracture on the cruciform specimen arm. In this paper, a theoretical model was proposed to determine the factors related to the EPSmax of a cruciform specimen following ISO 16842: 2014. Biaxial tensile tests were carried out to verify the theoretical analyses. Results show that the material strength coefficient (k) has no effect on the EPSmax, and EPSmax increases with the increase of the material hardening exponent (n) and the cross-sectional-area ratio (c) of the arm region to the gauge region. It is found that the applied load ratio (α) has an effect on EPSmax, which decreases as the load ratio increases from 0:1 (i.e. uniaxial tension) to 1:2 (i.e. plane strain state) and then increases as the load ratio increases to 1:1 (i.e. balanced biaxial tension).
Technical Paper

A System of Systems Approach to Automotive Challenges

2018-04-03
2018-01-0752
The automotive industry is facing many significant challenges that go far beyond the design and manufacturing of automobile products. Connected, autonomous and electric vehicles, smart cities, urbanization and the car sharing economy all present challenges in a fast-changing environment which the automotive industry must adapt to. Cars no longer are just standalone systems, but have become constituent systems (CS) in larger System of Systems (SoS) context. This is reflected in the emergence of several acronyms such as vehicle-to-everything (V2X), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) expressions. System of Systems are defined systems of interest whose elements (constituent systems) are managerially and operationally independent systems. This interoperating and/or integrated collection of constituent systems usually produce results unachievable by the individual systems alone, for example the use of car batteries as virtual power plants.
Technical Paper

Lockheed Martin Low Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Upgrade

2018-04-03
2018-01-0749
The Lockheed Martin Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) is a closed-return wind tunnel with two solid-wall test sections. This facility originally entered into service in 1967 for aerodynamic research of aircraft in low-speed and vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL) flight. Since this time, the client base has evolved to include a significant level of automotive aerodynamic testing, and the needs of the automotive clientele have progressed to include acoustic testing capability. The LSWT was therefore acoustically upgraded in 2016 to reduce background noise levels and to minimize acoustic reflections within the low speed test section (LSTS). The acoustic upgrade involved detailed analysis, design, specification and installation of acoustically treated wall surfaces and turning vanes in the circuit as well as low self-noise acoustic wall and ceiling treatment in the solid-wall LSTS.
Technical Paper

“Taguchi Customer Loss Function” Based Functional Requirements

2018-04-03
2018-01-0586
Understanding customer expectations is critical to satisfying customers. Holding customer clinics is one approach to set winning targets for the engineering functional measures to drive customer satisfaction. In these clinics, customers are asked to operate and interact with vehicle systems or subsystems such as doors, lift gates, shifters, and seat adjusters, and then rate their experience. From this customer evaluation data, engineers can create customer loss or preference functions. These functions let engineers set appropriate targets by balancing risks and benefits. Statistical methods such as cumulative customer loss function are regularly applied for such analyses. In this paper, a new approach based on the Taguchi method is proposed and developed. It is referred to as Taguchi Customer Loss Function (TCLF).
Technical Paper

Use of Active Rear Steering to Achieve Desired Vehicle Transient Lateral Dynamics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0565
This paper studies the use of active rear steering (4-wheel steering) to change the transient lateral dynamics and body motion of passenger cars in the stable or linear region of the tires. Rear steering systems have been used for several decades to improve low speed turning maneuverability and high speed stability, and various control strategies have been previously published. With a model-based, feed-forward rear steer control strategy, the lateral transient can be influenced separately from the steady-state steering gain. This lateral transient is influenced by many vehicle parameters, but we will look at the influence of active rear steer and various tire types such as all-season, snow, and summer. This study will explore the ability for a rear steering system to change the lateral transient to a step steer input, compared to the effect of changing tire types.
Technical Paper

Modified Experimental Approach to Investigate Coefficient of Friction and Wear under Lubricated Fretting Condition by Utilizing SRV Test Machine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0835
Fretting is an important phenomenon that happens in many mechanical parts. It is the main reason in deadly failures in automobiles, airliners, and turbine engines. The damage is noticed between two surfaces clamped together by bolts or rivets that are nominally at rest, but have a small amplitude oscillation because of vibration or local cyclic loading. Fretting damage can be divided into two types. The first type is the fretting fatigue damage where a crack would initiate and propagate at specific location at the interface of the mating surfaces. Cracks usually initiate in the material with lower strength because of the local cyclic loading conditions which eventually lead to full failure. The second type is the fretting wear damage because of external vibration. Researchers have investigated this phenomenon by theoretical modeling and experimental approaches. Although a lot of research has been done on fretting damage, some of the parameters have not been well studied.
Technical Paper

A Nonlinear Slip Ratio Observer Based on ISS Method for Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0557
Knowledge of the tire slip ratio can greatly improve vehicle longitudinal stability and its dynamic performance. Most conventional slip ratio observers were mainly designed based on input of non-driven wheel speed and estimated vehicle speed. However, they are not applicable for electric vehicles (EVs) with four in-wheel motors. Also conventional methods on speed estimation via integration of accelerometer signals can often lead to large offset by long-time integral calculation. Further, model uncertainties, including steady state error and unmodeled dynamics, are considered as additive disturbances, and may affect the stability of the system with estimated state error. This paper proposes a novel slip ratio observer based on input-to-state stability (ISS) method for electric vehicles with four-wheel independent driving motors.
Technical Paper

Combined Drag and Cooling Optimization of a Car Vehicle with an Adjoint-Based Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0721
The main objective of this work is to present an adjoint-based methodology to address combined optimization of drag force and cooling flow rate of an industrial vehicle. In order to cope with cooling effect, the volumetric flow rate is treated through a newly introduced cost function and the corresponding adjoint source term is derived. Also an alternative strategy is presented to tackle aerodynamic vehicle design improvement that relies on a so-called indirect force computation. The overall optimization is treated as a Multi-Objective problem and an original approach, called Optimize Both Favor One (OBFO), is introduced that allows selective emphasis on one or another objective without resorting to artificial cost function balancing. Finally, comparative results are presented to demonstrate the merit of the proposed methodology.
Technical Paper

A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Model for Gear Churning

2018-04-03
2018-01-0401
This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for predicting power losses associated with churning of oil by gears or other similar rotating components. The modeling approach and parameters are optimized to ensure the accuracy, robustness, and computational efficiency of these predictions. These studies include a look at two types of mesh and a turbulence model selection. The focus is on multiple reference frame (MRF) modeling technique for its computational efficiency advantage. Model predictions are compared to previously published experimental data [1] under varying operating conditions typical for an automotive transmission application. The model shows good agreement with the hardware both quantitatively and qualitatively, capturing the trends with speed and submersion level. The paper concludes with presenting some key lessons learned, and recommendation for future work to ultimately build a highly reliable tool as part of the virtual product development.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Torque Feedback Device for Driving Simulator Based on MR Fluid and Coil Spring Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0689
Since steering wheel torque feedback is one of the crucial factors for drivers to gain road feel and ensure driving safety, it is especially important to simulate the steering torque feedback for a driving simulator. At present, steering wheel feedback torque is mainly simulated by an electric motor with gear transmission. The torque response is typically slow, which can result in drivers’ discomfort and poor driving maneuverability. This paper presents a novel torque feedback device with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and coil spring. A phase separation control method is also proposed to control its feedback torque, including spring and damping torques respectively. The spring torque is generated by coil spring, the angle of coil spring can be adjusted by controlling a brushless DC motor. The damping torque is generated by MR fluid, the damping coefficient of MR fluid can be adjusted by controlling the current of excitation coil.
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