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Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Flow and Filtration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980545
A 2-D computational model was developed to describe the flow and filtration processes, in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state trap loading, as well as the transient behavior of the flow and filtration processes. The theoretical model includes the effect of a copper fuel additive on trap loading and transient operation. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations. The filtration theory incorporated in the time dependent numerical code included the diffusion, inertia, and direct interception mechanisms. Based on a measured upstream particle size distribution, using the filtration theory, the downstream particle size distribution was calculated. The theoretical filtration efficiency, based on particle size distribution, agreed very well (within 1%) with experimental data for a number of different cases.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980546
A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Ceramic Particulate Trap on the Particulate and Vapor Phase Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1991-02-01
910609
Exhaust emissions were characterized from a Cummins LTA10 heavy-duty diesel engine operated at two EPA steady-state modes with and without an uncatalyzed Corning ceramic particulate trap. The regulated emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), and total particulate matter (TPM) and its components as well as the unregulated emissions of PAH, nitro-PAH, mutagenic activity and particle size distributions were measured. The consistently significant effects of the trap on regulated emissions included reductions of TPM and TPM-associated components. There were no changes in NOx and HC were reduced only at one operating condition. Particle size distribution measurements showed that nuclei-mode particles were formed downstream of the trap, which effectively removed accumulation-mode particles. All of the mutagenicity was direct-acting and the mutagenic activity of the XOC was approximately equivalent to that of the SOF without the trap.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Sulfur Concentration on Regulated and Unregulated Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

1993-03-01
930730
The effects of fuel sulfur concentration on heavy-duty diesel emissions have been studied at two EPA steady-state operating conditions, mode 9 (1900 RPM, 75% Load) and mode 11(1900 RPM, 25% Load). Data were obtained using one fuel at two sulfur levels (Low Sulfur, LS = 0.01 wt% S and Doped Low Sulfur DS = 0.29 wt% S). All tests were conducted using a Cummins LTA10-300 heavy-duty diesel engine. No significant changes were found for the nitrogen oxides (NOx), soluble organic fractions (SOF) and XAD-2 (a copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene) organic component (XOC) due to the fuel sulfur level increase at either engine mode. The hydrocarbon (HC) levels were not significantly affected by sulfur at mode 9; however, at mode 11 the HC levels were reduced by 16%. The total particulate matter (TPM) levels increased by 17% at mode 11 and by 24% at mode 9 (both significantly different).
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine with Low Exhaust Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

1973-02-01
730633
Turbocharging, in addition to increasing an engine's power output, can be effectively used to maintain exhaust emission levels while improving fuel economy. This paper presents the emission and performance results obtained from a turbocharged multicylinder spark ignition engine with thermal reactors and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) operated at steady-state, part-load conditions for four engine speeds. When comparing a turbocharged engine to a larger displacement naturally aspirated engine of equal power output, the emissions expressed in grams per mile were relatively unchanged both with and without EGR. However, turbocharging provided an average of 20% improvement in fuel economy both with and without EGR. When comparing the turbocharged and nonturbocharged versions of the same engine without EGR at a given load and speed, turbocharging increased the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and decreased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of a Porous Ceramic Particulate Trap on the Physical, Chemical and Biological Character of Diesel Particulate Emissions

1983-02-01
830457
Physical, chemical, and biological characterization data for the particulate emissions from a Caterpillar 3208 diesel engine with and without Corning porous ceramic particulate traps are presented. Measurements made at EPA modes 3,4,5,9,lO and 11 include total hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen and total particulate matter emissions including the solid fraction (SOL), soluble organic fraction (SOF) and sulfate fraction (SO4), Chemical character was defined by fractionation of the SOF while biological character was defined by analysis of Ames Salmonella/ microsome bioassay data. The trap produced a wide range of total particulate reduction efficiencies (0-97%) depending on the character of the particulate. The chemical character of the SOF was significantly changed through the trap as was the biological character. The mutagenic specific activity of the SOF was generally increased through the trap but this was offset by a decrease in SOF mass emissions.
Technical Paper

A Model and the Methodology for Determining Wear Particle Generation Rate and Filter Efficiency in a Diesel Engine Using Ferrography

1982-02-01
821195
Monitoring of the wear rate of a diesel engine will yield valuable information regarding the wear mechanism within a diesel engine and ultimately will improve the predictions of failing engines and/or their components to allow preventive maintenance which will prolong the life of the engine. A mathematical model was developed that describes the wear particle concentration as a function of time in a diesel engine. This model contains engine and lubrication system parameters that determine the concentration of wear particles in the engine sump. These variables are the oil system volume, oil flow rate, particle generation rate, filtering efficiency and the initial particle concentration. The model has been employed to study the wear particle concentrations in the sump and the mass of particles in the filter for the Cummins VT-903 diesel engine.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Pt-Pd Ratio on Oxidation Catalysts Under Simulated Diesel Exhaust

2011-04-12
2011-01-1134
With a tighter regulatory environment, reduction of hydrocarbon emissions has emerged as a major concern for advanced low-temperature combustion engines. Currently precious metal-based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) containing platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are most commonly used for diesel exhaust hydrocarbon oxidation. The efficiency of hydrocarbon oxidation is greatly enhanced by employing both Pt and Pd together compared to the case with Pt or Pd alone. However, there have been few systematic studies to investigate the effects of the ratio of platinum to palladium on catalytic oxidation over the DOC. The present study illustrates the relationship between the Pt-Pd ratio and catalyst activity and stability by evaluating a series of catalysts with various Pt to Pd ratios (1:0, 7:1, 2:1, 1:2, 1:5, 0:1). These catalysts were tested for their CO and hydrocarbon light-off temperatures under simulated conditions where both unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons were present.
Technical Paper

The Development of Advanced 2-Way SCR/DPF Systems to Meet Future Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1140
Diesel engines have the potential to significantly increase vehicle fuel economy and decrease CO₂ emissions; however, efficient removal of NOx and particulate matter from the engine exhaust is required to meet stringent emission standards. A conventional diesel aftertreatment system consists of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), a urea-based Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) catalyst and a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and is widely used to meet the most recent NOx (nitrogen oxides comprising NO and NO₂) and particulate matter (PM) emission standards for medium- and heavy-duty sport utility and truck vehicles. The increasingly stringent emission targets have recently pushed this system layout towards an increase in size of the components and consequently higher system cost. An emerging technology developed recently involves placing the SCR catalyst onto the conventional wall-flow filter.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Current Concepts for Press Hardened Steel Tailor Welded Blanks and Tailor Rolled Blanks on Center Pillar Reinforcements

2011-04-12
2011-01-1059
Press hardened steels (PHS) are commonly used in automotive structural applications because of their combination of extremely high strength, load carrying capacity and the ability to form complex shapes in the press hardening process. Recent adoption of increased roof crush standards, side impact requirements and the increased focus on CO2 emissions and mass reduction have led autmotive manufacturers to significantly increase the amount of PHS being designed into future vehicle designs. As a way to further optimize the use of these steels, multi-gauge welded blanks of PHS and multi-material blanks of PHS to microalloyed steels of various thickness have been developed to help achieve these requirements. More recently, tailor rolled PHS, whereby the steel is rolled such that the thickness changes across the width of the sheet, have been developed.
Technical Paper

Conditional Analysis of Enhanced Combustion Luminosity Imaging in a Spray-Guided Gasoline Engine with High Residual Fraction

2011-04-12
2011-01-1281
High-speed (12 kHz) imaging of combustion luminosity (enhanced by using a sodium fuel additive) has been analyzed and compared to crank angle resolved heat release rates and mass fraction burn profiles in a spray-guided spark-ignited direct-injection (SG-SIDI) optical single-cylinder engine. The addition of a sodium-containing additive to gasoline greatly increases the combustion luminosity, which allows unintensified high-speed (12 kHz) imaging of early partially premixed flame kernel growth and overall flame propagation with excellent signal-to-noise ratio for hundreds of consecutive engine cycles. Ignition and early flame kernel growth are known to be key to understanding and eliminating poor burn cycles in SG-SIDI engines.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study Comparing Particle Size and Mass Concentration Data for a Cracked and Un-Cracked Diesel Particulate Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-0629
Steady state loading characterization experiments were conducted at three different engine load conditions and rated speed on the cracked catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). The experiments were performed using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM-330 heavy duty diesel engine. The CPF underwent a ring off failure, commonly seen in particulate filters, due to high radial and axial temperature gradients. The filters were cracked during baking in an oven which was done to regenerate PM collected after every loading characterization experiment. Two different configurations i.e. with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of the CPF were studied. The data were compared with that on an un-cracked CPF at similar engine conditions and configurations. Pressure drop, transient filtration efficiency by particle size and PM mass and gaseous emissions measurements were made during each experiment.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Particulate Thermal Oxidation in a Catalyzed Filter During Active Regeneration

2009-04-20
2009-01-1474
Active regeneration experiments were performed on a Cummins 2007 aftertreatment system by hydrocarbon dosing with injection of diesel fuel downstream of the turbocharger. The main objective was to characterize the thermal oxidation rate as a function of temperature and particulate matter (PM) loading of the catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Partial regeneration tests were carried out to ensure measureable masses are retained in the CPF in order to model the oxidation kinetics. The CPF was subsequently re-loaded to determine the effects of partial regeneration during post-loading. A methodology for gathering particulate data for analysis and determination of thermal oxidation in a CPF system operating in the engine exhaust was developed. Durations of the active regeneration experiments were estimated using previous active regeneration work by Singh et al. 2006 [1] and were adjusted as the experiments progressed using a lumped oxidation model [2, 3].
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Study of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) under Transient and CPF Active Regeneration Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1046
In this study, a DOC catalyst was experimentally studied in an engine test cell with a2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB diesel and a production aftertreatment system. The test matrix consisted of steady state, active regeneration with in-cylinder fuel dosing and transient conditions. Conversion efficiencies of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, and NO were quantified under each condition. A previously developed high-fidelity DOC model capable of predicting both steady state and transient active regeneration gaseous emissions was calibrated to the experimental data. The model consists of a single 1D channel where mass and energy balance equations were solved for both surface and bulk gas regions. The steady-state data were used to identify the activation energies and pre-exponential factors for CO, NO and HC oxidation, while the steady-state active regeneration data were used to identify the inhibition factors. The transient data were used to simulate the thermal response of the DOC.
Technical Paper

Cellulosic Ethanol Fuel Quality Evaluation and its Effects on PFI Intake Valve Deposits and GDI Fuel Injector Plugging Performance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0885
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) mandates the use of advanced renewable fuels such as cellulosic ethanol to be blended into gasoline in the near future. As such, determining the impact of these new fuel blends on vehicle performance is important. Therefore, General Motors conducted engine dynamometer evaluations on the impact of cellulosic ethanol blends on port fuel injected (PFI) intake valve deposits and gasoline direct injected (GDI) fuel injector plugging. Chemical analysis of the test fuels was also conducted and presented to support the interpretation of the engine results. The chemical analyses included an evaluation of the specified fuel parameters listed in ASTM International's D4806 denatured fuel ethanol specification as well as GC/MS hydrocarbon speciations to help identify any trace level contaminant species from the new ethanol production processes.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Light-Medium Load Operating Sensitivity in a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0896
The light-medium load operating range (4-7 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies utilizing low cetane fuels (specifically, 87-octane gasoline) in light-duty, high-speed engines. The overly lean overall air-fuel ratio (Φ≺0.4) sometimes requires unrealistically high inlet temperatures and/or high inlet boost conditions to initiate autoignition at engine speeds in excess of 1500 RPM. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the effects of variation in input parameters on overall engine operation. Input parameters including inlet temperature, inlet pressure, injection timing/duration, injection pressure, and engine speed were varied in a ~0.5L single-cylinder engine based on a production General Motors 1.9L 4-cylinder high-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling and Effectiveness Recovery

2013-04-08
2013-01-0533
Diesel engine developers are continually striving to reduce harmful NOx emissions through various calibration and hardware strategies. One strategy being implemented in production Diesel engines involves utilizing cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Although there is a significant NOx reduction potential by utilizing cooled EGR, there are also several issues associated with it, such as EGR cooler fouling and a reduction in cooler effectiveness that can occur over time. The exact cause of these issues and many others related to cooler fouling are not clearly understood. One such unanswered issue or phenomenon that has been observed in both field tested and lab tested EGR coolers is that of a recovery in EGR cooler effectiveness after a shutdown or after cycling between various conditions.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Analysis of Condensation in Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers

2013-04-08
2013-01-0540
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to control engine-out NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions. A portion of the exhaust gases is re-circulated into the intake manifold of the engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger. EGR cooler heat exchangers, however, tend to lose efficiency and have increased pressure drop as deposit forms on the heat exchanger surface due to transport of soot particles and condensing species to the cooler walls. In this study, condensation of water vapor and hydrocarbons at the exit of the EGR cooler was visualized using a fiberscope coupled to a camera equipped with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) color sensor. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to produce a range of engine-out hydrocarbon concentrations. Both surface and bulk gas condensation were observed with the visualization setup over a range of EGR cooler coolant temperatures.
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