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Technical Paper

Modeling, Design and Validation of an Exhaust Muffler for a Commercial Telehandler

2009-05-19
2009-01-2047
This paper describes the design, development and validation of a muffler for reducing exhaust noise from a commercial tele-handler. It also describes the procedure for modeling and optimizing the exhaust muffler along with experimental measurement for correlating the sound transmission loss (STL). The design and tuning of the tele-handler muffler was based on several factors including overall performance, cost, weight, available space, and ease of manufacturing. The analysis for predicting the STL was conducted using the commercial software LMS Virtual Lab (LMS-VL), while the experimental validation was carried out in the laboratory using the two load setup. First, in order to gain confidence in the applicability of LMS-VL, the STL of some simple expansion mufflers with and without extended inlet/outlet and perforations was considered. The STL of these mufflers were predicted using the traditional plane wave transfer matrix approach.
Technical Paper

Calibrating and Protecting Microphones to Allow Acoustic Measurements in Hazardous Environments

2009-05-19
2009-01-2163
Performing acoustic measurements on or near engines, transmissions, as well as in other circumstances where the environment is hazardous and harsh for microphones requires special precautions. Fluids inevitably leak, and the possibility of transducer damage can be very high without proper protection. Properly protecting microphones during testing allows for consistent data quality in these hazardous and difficult environments. While this paper will present the use of a 5 mil Nitrile cover which protects against many fluids within the scope of automotive testing, including water, hydrocarbons, and alcohols, as well as having good heat resistance and high strength, the concepts developed are applicable to other types of microphone protective mechanisms. Acoustic sensitivity was measured and used to calculate the change of the microphone's response after the treatment is applied, as well as after being exposed to various contaminants.
Technical Paper

Adequacy of Reduced Order Models for Model-Based Control in a Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0617
Model-based control strategies are important for meeting the dual objective of maximizing NOx reduction and minimizing NH3 slip in urea-SCR catalysts. To be implementable on the vehicle, the models should capture the essential behavior of the system, while not being computationally intensive. This paper discusses the adequacy of two different reduced order SCR catalyst models and compares their performance with a higher order model. The higher order model assumes that the catalyst has both diffusion and reaction kinetics, whereas the reduced order models contain only reaction kinetics. After describing each model, its parameter identification and model validation based on experiments on a Navistar I6 7.6L engine are presented. The adequacy of reduced order models is demonstrated by comparing the NO, NO2 and NH3 concentrations predicted by the models to their concentrations from the test data.
Technical Paper

Sound Power Measurement in a Semi-Reverberant, Volume Deficient Chamber

2015-06-15
2015-01-2359
Sound power can be determined using a variety of methods, but precision methods require the volume of the noise source to be less than 1% of the chamber volume leading to relatively large test chambers. Automotive torque converter performance and noise testing is completed in an enclosed metallic test fixture which inhibits the use of precision methods due to volume and space limitations. This paper describes a new method developed to accurately determine sound power of an automotive torque converter in a relatively small enclosure through characterization of the test environment. The test environment was characterized using two reference noise sources designed to represent torque converter noise output and physical geometry. Sound pressure levels of the sources were measured at multiple microphone locations and at three source amplitude levels to characterize the environment.
Technical Paper

Model Integration and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation Design for the Testing of Electric Power Steering Controllers

2016-04-05
2016-01-0029
The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of an Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to decide how much assistance an electric motor applies on a steering wheel. The EPS ECU plays an important role in EPS systems. The effectiveness of an ECU needs to be thoroughly tested before mass production. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation provides an efficient way for the development and testing of embedded controllers. This paper focuses on the development of a HiL system for testing EPS controllers. The hardware of the HiL system employs a dSPACE HiL simulator. The EPS plant model is an integrated model consisting of a Vehicle Dynamics model of the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) and the Nexteer Steering model. The paper presents the design of an EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors and actuators, the functions of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with a Steering model.
Technical Paper

Torsional Vibration Analysis of Six Speed MT Transmission and Driveline from Road to Lab

2017-06-05
2017-01-1845
When a manual transmission (MT) powertrain is subjected to high speeds and high torques, the vehicle driveshaft, and other components experience an increase in stored potential energy. When the engine and driveshaft are decoupled during an up or down shift, the potential energy is released causing clunk during the shift event. The customer desires a smooth shift thus reduction of clunk will improve experience and satisfaction. In this study, a six-speed MT, rear-wheel-drive (RWD) passenger vehicle was used to experimentally capture acoustic and vibration data during the clunk event. To replicate the in-situ results, additional data was collected and analyzed for powertrain component roll and pitch. A lumped parameter model of key powertrain components was created to replicate the clunk event and correlate with test data. The lumped parameter model was used to modify clutch tip-out parameters, which resulted in reduced prop shaft oscillations.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Piston Inter-ring Pressure on the Ring Pack Behaviour in a Medium Speed Diesel Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3847
The present work aims to determine the gas pressure acting in the ring pack area in a medium-speed four stroke diesel engine. The experimental part of the study was carried out as firing engine tests, with an instrumented piston, with telemetric data transmission, and an instrumented cylinder liner in a 6-cylinder test engine. The results, in terms of inter-ring gas pressure are compared with the results of computer simulations. Moreover, the computer simulations were carried out to predict and compare the effects of the piston running clearance and the ring face wear on the inter-ring pressures. The study comprises aspects on inter-ring pressures under a set of loads. The measured inter-ring gas pressures indicate steady ring operation. The simulation results show good agreement with measurement results.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Effect of Automotive Torque Converter Design Parameters on the Onset of Cavitation at Stall

2007-05-15
2007-01-2231
This paper details a study of the effects of multiple torque converter design and operating point parameters on the resistance of the converter to cavitation during vehicle launch. The onset of cavitation is determined by an identifiable change in the noise radiating from the converter during operation, when the collapse of cavitation bubbles becomes detectable by nearfield acoustical measurement instrumentation. An automated torque converter dynamometer test cell was developed to perform these studies, and special converter test fixturing is utilized to isolate the test unit from outside disturbances. A standard speed sweep test schedule is utilized, and an analytical technique for identifying the onset of cavitation from acoustical measurement is derived. Effects of torque converter diameter, torus dimensions, and pump and stator blade designs are determined.
Technical Paper

Threshold Level as an Index of Squeak and Rattle Performance

1999-05-17
1999-01-1730
A practical approach for evaluating and validating global system designs for Squeak and Rattle performance is proposed. Using simple slip and rattle models, actual sound and vibration data, and the fundamentals of audiological perception, analysis tools adapted from Chaos Theory are used to establish threshold levels of performance and identify system characteristics which are significant contributors to Squeak and Rattle. Focus on system design is maintained by using a simple rattle noise indicator and relating rattle events to levels of dynamic motion (acceleration, velocity, etc.). The threshold level is defined as the level of acceleration at which the system moves from a non-rattling state to a rattling state. The approach is demonstrated with a simple analytical model applied to an experimental structure under dynamic load.
Technical Paper

Development of the MTU Automatic Shifting Manual Six Speed Transmission

2006-04-03
2006-01-0747
The purpose of this report is to describe the process for the development of the automatically shifting manual transmission control system hardware and software to be used in the MTU Challenge X Equinox, a through-the-road parallel hybrid electric vehicle. The automatically shifting manual transmission was chosen for development, as it combines the ease of use of an automatic transmission with the fuel efficiency of a manual, while eliminating the parasitic losses in the torque converter and the transmission hydraulic pump. This report illustrates the process used to develop the software-in-the loop modeling that was developed for the initial proof of concept. In addition, it describes the development of the control strategy and hardware build for the prototype transmission. To begin the design process research was preformed on existing automatically shifting manuals and manual transmissions in general. From there vehicle subsystems were assembled using Simulink block diagrams.
Technical Paper

Adaptation of Four-Stroke Motorcycle Engine to Continuously Variable Transmission for Snowmobile Application

2003-09-15
2003-32-0083
The successful implementation of a clean, quiet, high-performance four-stroke motorcycle engine into an existing snowmobile chassis has been achieved. The snowmobile is easy to start, easy to drive, and environmentally friendly. The following paper describes the conversion process in detail with actual dynamometer and field test data. The vehicle meets the proposed 2010 EPA snowmobile emissions regulations and is quieter than a stock snowmobile. The snowmobile not only addresses environmental concerns, it is economical as well, with an approximate cost of $5874.
Technical Paper

Cavitation Detection in Automotive Torque Converters Using Nearfield Acoustical Measurements

2005-05-16
2005-01-2516
As automotive torque converters decrease in both diameter and axial length, the effects of cavitation in the torque converter becomes increasingly important on noise, efficiency, and performance goals. Cavitation is the formation and collapse of vapor bubbles in a working fluid when local static pressure falls below the vapor pressure of the working fluid. A technique to detect cavitation in automotive torque converters using nearfield acoustical measurements is presented. The technique concentrates on high frequency noise that is associated with the collapse of vapor bubbles. The nearfield acoustical technique is compared to two other techniques using static pressure measurements inside the torque converter; one on the torque converter stator blades and the other on the torque converter pump blades. A microwave telemetry transmitter was used to obtain data from inside the torque converter in both previous investigations.
Technical Paper

Cavitation Prediction in Automotive Torque Converters

2005-05-16
2005-01-2557
As automotive torque converters decrease in both diameter and axial length, the effects of cavitation in the torque converter becomes increasingly important on noise, efficiency, and performance goals. Therefore, a cavitation prediction technique is developed in this investigation. In a previous investigation it was shown that cavitation is effected by inlet temperature, charge pressure, and K-factor. The prediction technique is devolved to encompass these variables. A dimensional analysis using the power product method is performed with all relevant variables. The nearfield acoustical cavitation detection technique, discussed in the previous investigation, is used to obtain experimental results from a torque converter test lab. The test matrix for the experimental results was constructed to include effects from inlet temperature, charge pressure, and K-factor. The data obtained experimentally is used to curve fit the results found through the power product method.
Journal Article

The Model Integration and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation Design for the Analysis of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Electrochemical Battery Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0001
This paper studies the hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) design of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) for the research of HEV lithiumion battery aging. In this paper, an electrochemical model of a lithium-ion battery pack with the characteristics of battery aging is built and integrated into the vehicle model of Autonomie® software from Argonne National Laboratory. The vehicle model, together with the electrochemical battery model, is designed to run in a dSPACE real-time simulator while the powertrain power distribution is managed by a dSPACE MicroAutoBoxII hardware controller. The control interface is designed using dSPACE ControlDesk to monitor the real-time simulation results. The HiL simulation results with the performance of vehicle dynamics and the thermal aging of the battery are presented and analyzed.
Journal Article

Model-Based Estimation and Control System Development in a Urea-SCR Aftertreatment System

2008-04-14
2008-01-1324
In this paper, a model-based linear estimator and a non-linear control law for an Fe-zeolite urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for heavy duty diesel engine applications is presented. The novel aspect of this work is that the relevant species, NO, NO2 and NH3 are estimated and controlled independently. The ability to target NH3 slip is important not only to minimize urea consumption, but also to reduce this unregulated emission. Being able to discriminate between NO and NO2 is important for two reasons. First, recent Fe-zeolite catalyst studies suggest that NOx reduction is highly favored by the NO 2 based reactions. Second, NO2 is more toxic than NO to both the environment and human health. The estimator and control law are based on a 4-state model of the urea-SCR plant. A linearized version of the model is used for state estimation while the full nonlinear model is used for control design.
Technical Paper

Route Optimized Energy Management of a Connected and Automated Multi-mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle using Dynamic Programming

2019-04-02
2019-01-1209
This paper presents a methodology to optimize the blending of Charge Depleting (CD) and Charge Sustaining (CS) modes in a multi-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that reduces overall energy consumption when the selected route cannot be drive purely electric. The PHEV used in this investigation is the second generation Chevrolet Volt and as many as four instrumented vehicles were utilized simultaneously on road to acquire validation data. The optimization method utilized is dynamic programming (DP) and is paired with a reduced fidelity propulsion system and vehicle dynamics model to enable compatibility with embedded controllers and be computationally efficient of the optimal blended operating scheme over an entire drive route.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Modeling of a Vehicle Drivetrain for Shuffle and Clunk Mitigation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0345
Flexibility and backlash of vehicle drivelines typically cause unwanted oscillations and noise, known as shuffle and clunk, during tip-in and tip-out events. Computationally efficient and accurate driveline models are necessary for the design and evaluation of torque shaping strategies to mitigate this shuffle and clunk. To accomplish these goals, this paper develops a full-order physics-based model and uses this model to develop a reduced-order model (ROM), which captures the main dynamics that influence the shuffle and clunk phenomena. The full-order model (FOM) comprises several components, including the engine as a torque generator, backlash elements as discontinuities, and propeller and axle shafts as compliant elements. This model is experimentally validated using the data collected from a Ford vehicle. The validation results indicate less than 1% error between the model and measured shuffle oscillation frequencies.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy and Energy Recovery Potential for P2 Parallel Hybrid Step Gear Automatic Transmissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1302
The purpose of this investigation is to present a control strategy and energy recovery potential for P2 parallel hybrid step gear automatic transmissions. The automatic transmission types considered for the investigation are rear wheel drive 8 speed dual clutch transmission and 8 speed planetary automatic equipped each equipped with an electric motor between the engine and transmission. The governing equations of clutch-to-clutch upshift controls are presented and are identical for each transmission type. Various strategies are explored for executing the upshift under a range of input torques, shift times and engine torque management approaches. The differences in energy recovery potential based upon control strategy is explored piecewise as well as through a DFSS study. On a comprehensive drive cycle consisting of FTP 75, US06 and HWFET test cycles, it is shown that upshift regen torque management can be equivalent to approximately 0.8% of the total fuel energy used.
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