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Characterization of a New Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst with Low Temperature NOx Storage Capability for LD Diesel

2012-06-18
Currently, two consolidated aftertreatment technologies are available for the reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines: Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems and LNT (Lean NOx Trap) systems. Urea SCR technology, which has been widely used for many years at stationary sources, is becoming nowadays an attractive alternative also for light-duty diesel applications. However, SCR systems are much more effective in NOx reduction efficiency at high load operating conditions than light load condition, characterized by lower exhaust gas temperatures.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Three Different Ceramic Substrate Materials for a Diesel Particulate Filter

2013-09-08
2013-24-0160
Three different ceramic substrate materials (Silicon Carbide, Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate) for a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) for a European passenger car diesel engine have been experimentally investigated in this work. The filters were soot loaded under real world operating conditions on the road and then regenerated in two different ways that simulate the urban driving conditions, which are the most severe for DPF regeneration, since the low exhaust flow has a limited capability to absorb the heat generated by the soot combustion. The tests showed higher temperature peaks, at the same soot loading, for Cordierite and Aluminum Titanate compared to the Silicon Carbide, thus leading to a lower soot mass limit, which in turn required for these components a higher regeneration frequency with draw backs in terms of fuel consumption and lube oil dilution.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0141
In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Journal Article

The Effects of Neat Biodiesel Usage on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a Small Displacement Passenger Car Diesel Engine

2010-05-05
2010-01-1515
The effects of using neat FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) in a modern small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. In particular the effects on engine performance at full load with standard (i.e., without any special tuning) ECU calibration were analyzed, highlighting some issues in the low end torque due to the lower exhaust gas temperatures at the turbine inlet, which caused a remarkable decrease of the available boost, with a substantial decrease of the engine torque output, far beyond the expected engine derating due to the lower LHV of the fuel. However, further tests carried out after ECU recalibration, showed that the same torque levels measured under diesel operation can be obtained with neat biodiesel too, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance.
Technical Paper

Nano-Sized Additive Synthesis for Lubricant Oils and Compatibility Tests with After-Treatment Catalysts

2011-09-11
2011-24-0101
Molybdenum sulfide nanoparticles have been successfully obtained, for lubricant applications, by means of a wet chemical synthesis in an aqueous solution employing ammonium molybdate, citric acid and ammonium sulfide as the reactants. Some molybdenum-citrate complexes were formed and they reacted with the ammonium sulfide to form MoS₂ nanoparticles. Mo:citrate molar ratio was identified as being the most relevant of the synthesis parameters that affected the phase and morphology of the final products. The optimized nanopowders were softly agglomerated and amorphous, with a mean size of the primary particles of about 30 nm. The compatibility between the thus obtained MoS₂ nanopowders and some commercial after-treatment catalysts for diesel vehicle engines was tested. Diesel oxidation, soot combustion and ammonia-SCR de-NOx catalysts were considered as were the possible effects on the catalytic activity and their possible reaction to the MoS₂ additive.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy-Efficient Management of a Light-Duty Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2011-09-11
2011-24-0080
The paper presents the main results of a study on the simulation of energy efficient management of on-board electric and thermal systems for a medium-size passenger vehicle featuring a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. A set of advanced technologies has been considered on the basis of very aggressive fuel economy targets: base-engine downsizing and friction reduction, combustion optimization, active thermal management, enhanced aftertreatment and downspeeding. Mild-hybridization has also been added with the goal of supporting the downsized/downspeeded engine performance, performing energy recuperation during coasting phases and enabling smooth stop/start and acceleration. The simulation has implemented a dynamic response to the required velocity and manual gear shift profiles in order to reproduce real-driver behavior and has actuated an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM).
Journal Article

Model-Based Control of BMEP and NOx Emissions in a Euro VI 3.0L Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0057
A model-based approach to control BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and NOx emissions has been developed and assessed on a FPT F1C 3.0L Euro VI diesel engine for heavy-duty applications. The controller is based on a zero-dimensional real-time combustion model, which is capable of simulating the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, BMEP and NOx engine-out levels. The real-time combustion model has been realized by integrating and improving previously developed simulation tools. A new discretization scheme has been developed for the model equations, in order to reduce the accuracy loss when the computational step is increased. This has allowed the required computational time to be reduced to a great extent.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Multi-Event Injection Strategies in a Solenoid Common-Rail Injector

2017-09-04
2017-24-0012
Nowadays, injection rate shaping and multi-pilot events can help to improve fuel efficiency, combustion noise and pollutant emissions in diesel engine, providing high flexibility in the shape of the injection that allows combustion process control. Different strategies can be used in order to obtain the required flexibility in the rate, such as very close pilot injections with almost zero Dwell Time or boot shaped injections with optional pilot injections. Modern Common-Rail Fuel Injection Systems (FIS) should be able to provide these innovative patterns to control the combustion phases intensity for optimal tradeoff between fuel consumption and emission levels.
Journal Article

Active Tire Pressure Control (ATPC) for Passenger Cars: Design, Performance, and Analysis of the Potential Fuel Economy Improvement

2018-04-03
2018-01-1340
Active tire pressure control (ATPC) is an automatic central tire inflation system (CTIS), designed, prototyped, and tested at the Politecnico di Torino, which is aimed at improving the fuel consumption, safety, and drivability of passenger vehicles. The pneumatic layout of the system and the designed solution for on board integration are presented. The critical design choices are explained in detail and supported by experimental evidence. In particular, the results of experimental tests, including the characterizations of various pneumatic components in working conditions, have been exploited to obtain a design, which allows reliable performance of the system in a lightweight solution. The complete system has been tested to verify its dynamics, in terms of actuation time needed to obtain a desired pressure variation, starting from the current tire pressure, and to validate the design.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Exhaust Manifold Gasket

2006-04-03
2006-01-1210
The paper presents experimental investigation and numerical simulation of a commercial exhaust manifold gasket. Non-linearities in geometric and material behavior make exhaust manifold gasket modeling quite complicated. In the paper, two different FE modeling techniques are compared in order to suggest the best modeling way. Experimental data are collected in order to validate the numerical models. Differences between the two modeling techniques are emphasized and a choice criterion is suggested.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Different Internal EGR Solutions for Small Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0128
Although the use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is nowadays mandatory for automotive diesel engines to achieve NOx emissions levels complying with more and more stringent legislation requirements, electronically controlled EGR systems still represent an expensive technology, often unsuitable for small diesel engines for off-road applications or for two/three wheelers. An interesting option for these categories of small diesel engines is the so-called “internal EGR”, which is obtained by modifying the intake or the exhaust valve lift profile, in order to increase the fraction of exhaust residuals at the end of the intake stroke. Different valve lift profiles were therefore evaluated for a 2 cylinders, 700 cc, Lombardini IDI diesel engine, equipping a light 4 wheelers vehicle.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Variable Geometry Exhaust System Through Design of Experiment

2008-04-14
2008-01-0675
Experimental Design methodologies have been applied in conjunction with objective functions for the optimization of the internal geometry of a rear muffler of a subcompact car equipped with a 1.4 liters displacement s.i. turbocharged engine. The muffler also features an innovative variable geometry design. The definition of an objective function summarising the silencing capability of the muffler has been driving the optimization process with the aim to reduce the tailpipe noise while maintaining acceptable pressure losses and complying with severe space constraints. Design of Experiments techniques for the reduction of experimental plans have been shown to be extremely effective to find out the optimum values of the design parameters, allowing a remarkable reduction of the time required by the design process in comparison with full factorial designs.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling and Room Temperature Experimental Measurements of the Exhaust System Backpressure: Limits and Advantages in the Prediction of Backpressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0676
It is well known that backpressure is one of the important parameters to be minimised during the exhaust system development. Unfortunately, during the first phases of an engineering process of a new engine, engine prototypes are not available yet. Due to this the exhaust system backpressure is generally evaluated using simulation software, and/or measuring the backpressure by a flow rig test at room temperature. Goal of this paper is to compare exhaust backpressure results obtained respectively: i) at the room temperature flow rig; ii) at the engine dyno bench; iii) by simulation with one of the most common 1D fluidodynamics simulation tool (Gt-Power). A correlation of the three different techniques is presented.
Journal Article

An Experimental and Numerical Study of an Advanced EGR Control System for Automotive Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0208
In this study, a new EGR control technique, based on the estimate of the oxygen concentration in the intake manifold, was firstly investigated through numerical simulation and then experimentally tested, both under steady state and transient conditions. The robustness of the new control technique was also tested and compared with that of the conventional EGR control technique by means of both numerical simulation and experimental tests. Substantial reductions of the NOx emissions under transient operating conditions were achieved, and useful knowledge for controlling the EGR flow rate more accurately was obtained.
Journal Article

Computational Analysis of Internal and External EGR Strategies Combined with Miller Cycle Concept for a Two Stage Turbocharged Medium Speed Marine Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1142
In this work different internal and external EGR strategies, combined with extreme Miller cycles, were analyzed by means of a one-dimensional CFD simulation code for a Wärtsilä 6-cylinder, 4-strokes, medium-speed marine diesel engine, to evaluate their potential in order to reach the IMO Tier 3 NOx emissions target. By means of extreme Miller cycles, with Early Intake Valve Closures (up to 100 crank angle degrees before BDC), a shorter compression stroke and lower charge temperatures inside the cylinder can be achieved and thanks to the cooler combustion process, the NOx-specific emissions can be effectively reduced. EIVC strategies can also be combined with reductions of the scavenging period (valve overlap) to increase the amount of exhaust gases in the combustion chamber. However, the remarkably high boost pressure levels needed for such extreme Miller cycles, require mandatorily the use of two-stage turbocharging systems.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Different Hybrid Powertrain Solutions for an European Mid-Size Passenger Car

2010-04-12
2010-01-0818
Different hybrid powertrains for a European mid-size passenger car were evaluated in this paper through numerical simulation. Different degrees of hybridizations, from micro to mild hybrids, and different architectures and power sources management strategies were taken into account, in order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the potentialities of different hybrid systems for the European passenger car market. Both diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines were considered: a 1.6 dm₃ Common Rail turbocharged diesel, and a 1.4 dm₃ spark ignition turbocharged engine, equipped with an innovative Variable Valve Actuation system. Diesel hybrid powertrains, although being subject to NOx emissions constraints that could jeopardize their benefits, offered substantial advantages in comparison with gasoline hybrid powertrains. Potentialities for fuel consumption reductions up to 25% over the NEDC were highlighted, approaching the 2020 EU 95 g/km CO₂ target.
Technical Paper

Speed and Acceleration Impact on Pollutant Emissions

1996-05-01
961113
This paper intends to analyze the simultaneous impact of speed and acceleration on exhaust pollutant emissions. For this purpose, actual driving recording were used. Kinematic sequences were randomly selected amongst the recorded data, in order to constitute a representative set of driving conditions. For each sequence, average levels of speed and positive acceleration were calculated. Instantaneous and integrated pollutant emissions were calculated using an existing emission model, developed for calculating pollutant emissions and fuel consumption as functions of instantaneous speed and acceleration. This model is based on instantaneous emission measurements on a chassis dynamometer using actual driving cycles, over a sample of 150 European cars. Emissions of CO, CO2, HC, NOx were analyzed considering the average speed and positive acceleration, for different categories of vehicles Diesel, conventional and catalyst vehicles.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Soot and NOx Formation in a DI Common Rail Diesel Engine with Pilot Injection

2001-03-05
2001-01-0657
The influence of pilot injection timing and quantity on soot, NOx, combustion noise and bsfc has been analyzed on a passenger car DI Diesel engine prototype equipped with a common rail fuel injection system. The investigated engine operating points were 1500/5, 2000/2, 2500/8 rpm/bar, which are quite typical of EC driving cycles. For each of these operating conditions, the pilot injection quantity was varied by up to 15% of the total injected quantity and the pilot injection timing was varied between 32° and 1° crank angle degrees. The principal combustion characteristics were determined on the basis of the heat release, and a thorough statistical analysis was performed to infer the correlation between the combustion parameters and soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Contribution to the Improvement of Individual Cylinder AFR Control in a 4 Cylinder S.I. Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1009
Numerical simulation can be effectively used to reduce the experimental tests which are nowadays required for the analysis and calibration of engine control systems. In particular in this paper the use of a one-dimensional engine model to analyze the response of an UEGO sensor in the exhaust manifold of a 4 cylinder s.i. engine (with multipoint fuel injection) is described: numerical simulation has been used to simulate a misfunction of the fuelling system, which caused one of the four cylinders to be fuelled with an air/fuel ratio that was 10% richer than the others. The simulated UEGO response was then compared with experimental measurements, and after this validation process, the sensor model can be used to study a proper fuel injection control strategy thus reducing the required experimental tests, as outlined in a test case presented at the end of the paper.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis and Experimental Validation of the Inlet Flow Distribution in Close Coupled Catalytic Converters

2003-10-27
2003-01-3072
The unsteady flow effects in two different close coupled catalytic converters were investigated in order to achieve a better understanding of the steady state experimental tests which are usually performed to evaluate a flow distribution. Firstly the validity of a CFD model was achieved through a comparison of some steady state simulations with the results of HWA experimental measurements. Several different formulations of the uniformity index, that were found in literature, were then compared, trying to highlight the strengths and shortcomings of each one. Further information was derived from a comparison of the two catalysts that were tested to achieve a general methodology that would be useful for future analysis. Finally, a new approach to evaluate the flow distribution using a steady state analysis was proposed by comparing the results of a transient simulation that was obtained for a whole engine cycle.
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