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Journal Article

Investigations on Spark and Corona Ignition of Oxymethylene Ether-1 and Dimethyl Carbonate Blends with Gasoline by High-Speed Evaluation of OH* Chemiluminescence

2018-03-01
Abstract Bio-fuels of the 2nd generation constitute a key approach to tackle both Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and air quality challenges associated with combustion emissions of the transport sector. Since these fuels are obtained of residual materials of the agricultural industry, well-to-tank CO2 emissions can be significantly lowered by a closed-cycle of formation and absorption of CO2. Furthermore, studies of bio-fuels have shown reduced formation of particulate matter on account of the fuels’ high oxygen content therefore addressing air quality issues. However, due to the high oxygen content and other physical parameters these fuels are expected to exhibit different ignition behaviour. Moreover, the question is whether there is a positive superimposition of the fuels ignition behaviour with the benefits of an alternative ignition system, such as a corona ignition.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Near Wall Flow Downstream of a Passenger Car Wheel Arch

2018-03-01
Abstract The flow around and downstream of the front wheels of passenger cars is highly complex and characterized by flow structure interactions between the external flow, fluid exiting through the wheelhouse, flow from the engine bay and the underbody. In the present paper the near wall flow downstream of the front wheel house is analyzed, combining two traditional methods. A tuft visualization method is used to obtain the limiting streamline pattern and information about the near wall flow direction. Additionally, time resolved surface pressure measurements are used to study the pressure distribution and the standard deviation. The propagation of the occurring flow structures is investigated by cross correlations of the pressure signal and a spectral analysis provides the characteristic frequencies of the investigated flow.
Journal Article

Bench Testing Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 7.7kW Based on SAE J2954

2017-10-08
Abstract Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) is presently being applied to consumer electronics in the low-power range and is planned to be commercialized in the high-power range for plug-in and electric vehicles in 2018. There are, however, many technology challenges remaining before widespread implementation of high-power WPT will occur. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Technical Information Report J2954 in 2016 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 adopts a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies for SAE TIR J2954.
Journal Article

Parasitic Battery Drain Problems and AUTOSAR Acceptance Testing

2018-04-18
Abstract Battery Drain problems can occur in the vehicle due to improper network management between electronic control units (ECUs). Aim of this paper is to identify the factors that cause transmission and cease of transmission of a network management message of an ECU along with its application messages that controls the sleep/wake-up performance of other ECUs in the network. Strategy used here is, based on the root cause analysis of problems found in Display unit in vehicle environment, the functional CAN signals impacting sleep/wake-up behavior is re-mapped along with the state flow transition of AUTOSAR NM Algorithm. A re-defined test case design and simulation for vehicle model is created. Especially it focuses on validating the impact of functional CAN signals on DUT’s sleep/wake-up performance.
Journal Article

Carbon Monoxide Density Pattern Mapping from Recreational Boat Testing

2018-10-04
Abstract Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas can cause health risks for users of recreational boats and watercraft. Activities such as waterskiing, wakeboarding, tubing, and wakesurfing primarily utilize gasoline engine-driven vessels which produce CO as a combustion by-product. Recent watersports trends show an increase in popularity of activities which take place closer to the stern of the boat (such as wakesurfing) as compared to traditional waterskiing and wakeboarding. Advancements in gas emissions treatment in marine engine exhaust system designs have reduced risks for CO exposure in some boats. This article presents results from on-water testing of three recreational boats, reports average and maximum values of CO levels under various conditions, and exhibits mapping of the density of CO relative to the stern of the test vessels.
Journal Article

Validation of Crush Energy Calculation Methods for Use in Accident Reconstructions by Finite Element Analysis

2018-10-04
Abstract The crush energy is a key parameter to determine the delta-V in accident reconstructions. Since an accurate car crush profile can be obtained from 3D scanners, this research aims at validating the methods currently used in calculating crush energy from a crush profile. For this validation, a finite element (FE) car model was analyzed using various types of impact conditions to investigate the theory of energy-based accident reconstruction. Two methods exist to calculate the crush energy: the work based on the barrier force and the work based on force calculated by the vehicle acceleration times the vehicle mass. We show that the crush energy calculated from the barrier force was substantially larger than the internal energy calculated from the FE model. Whereas the crush energy calculated from the vehicle acceleration was comparable to the internal energy of the FE model.
Journal Article

Automated Driving Systems and Their Insertion in the Brazilian Scenario: A Test Track Proposal

2018-06-05
Abstract The conception of Automated Driving Systems is expanding fast with the expectation of the whole society and with heavy investments toward research and development. However, the insertion of these vehicles in real scenarios worldwide is still a challenge for governments, once they require an important evolution of the legal and regulatory framework. Although there are several initiatives to accelerate the insertion process, each country has specificities when considering the traffic scenario. In order to contribute to this emerging problem, this article presents a perspective of how the insertion of these vehicles can be performed considering specificities of the Brazilian scenario, one of the world's biggest car markets. Thus, it is discussed the global scenario of autonomous vehicles, the Brazilian traffic system, and the certification and homologation process, focusing on a new test track proposal.
Journal Article

Development of Component Level Transfer Equations of Simplified Human and ATD Occupant Models

2018-06-05
Abstract Safety systems have historically been evaluated with anthropomorphic test devices for research, development, or regulatory concerns. Human body models are another avenue for use in the investigation of occupant safety. In this study, transfer equations are developed to quantify the response of a human model (Global Human Body Models Consortium average male simplified model) and dummy model (Hybrid-III) in equivalent environments. Environments were selected based on certification test setups used for the Hybrid III ATD as well as a basic frontal sled environment. The tests include a head drop, neck flexion/extension, and chest and knee impacts. Furthermore, models were positioned within a simplified occupant interior for sled tests. In all, 30 matched pair simulations were run, 60 in total.
Journal Article

Numerical Prediction of Various Failure Modes in Spotweld Steel Material

2018-05-11
Abstract Crash simulation is targeted mainly carried out by the collision regulations FMVSS simulation to identify problems in vehicle structures. A modern car structure consist of several thousand weld-type connections, and failure in these connections plays an important role for the crashworthiness of the vehicle. Therefore accurate modeling of these connections is important for the automotive industry in order to improve Vehicle collision characteristics. In pursuit of this key requirement, we introduced a proper methodology for the development detailed weld model to study structural response of the weld when the applied load range is beyond the yield strength. Three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of spot welded joints are developed using the LS-Dyna FE code. In this process the force estimation model of spot welds is explained. The results from this paper shows good agreement between the simulations and the tests.
Journal Article

Dynamic Particle Generation/Shedding in Lubricating Greases Used in Aerospace Applications

2018-08-03
Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the phenomenon of Dynamic Particle Generation in lubricating greases that are used in a variety of critical Aerospace mechanisms. Particle Generation occurs in bearings, ball screws, and other mechanical devices where dynamic conditions are present. This should not be confused with outgassing as particle generation is unrelated to the pressure effects on a system. This is a critical factor in many systems as particle generation can contaminate systems or processes causing them to fail. These failures can lead to excessive costs, production failure, and equipment damage. In this study, several greases made from Multiplyalkylated Cyclopentane and Perfluoropolyether base fluids were tested to evaluate their particle generation properties. This particle generation phenomenon was studied using a custom test rig utilizing a high precision cleanroom ball-screw to simulate true application conditions.
Journal Article

Power Quality Test Data Analysis for Aircraft Subsystem

2018-12-21
Abstract Aircraft subsystem development involves various combinations of testing and qualification activities to realize a flight-worthy system. The subsystem needs to be verified for a massive number of customer requirements. Power quality (PQ) testing is also an important testing activity carried out as part of the environmental qualification test. It is intended to verify the functionality of subsystems with various kinds of power disturbances and to determine the ability of a subsystem to withstand PQ disturbances. The subsystem being designed should be reliable enough to handle PQ anomalies. A PQ test results in an enormous amount of data for analysis with millions of data samples depending on the test and can be identified as big data. The engineer needs to analyze each set of test data as part of post-processing to ensure the power disturbances during testing are as per the standard requirements and that the functional performance of the subsystem is met.
Journal Article

Investigation on Underhood Thermal Analysis of Truck Platooning

2018-03-22
Abstract This paper presents a combined aero-thermal computational fluid dynamic (CFD) evaluation of platooning medium duty commercial vehicles in two highway configurations. Thermal analysis comparison is made between an approach that includes vehicle drag reduction on engine heat rejection and one that does not by assuming a constant heat rejection based on open road conditions. The paper concludes that accounting for aerodynamic drag reduction on engine heat load provides a more real world evaluation than assuming a constant heat load based on open road conditions. A 3D CFD underhood thermal simulations are performed in two different vehicle platooning configurations; (i) single-lane and (ii) two-lane traffic conditions. The vehicle platooning consists of two identical vehicles, i.e. leading and trailing vehicle. In this work, heat exchangers are modeled by two different heat rejection rate models.
Journal Article

A Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Influence of Separation Distance, Lateral Stagger, and Trailer Configuration on the Drag-Reduction Potential of a Two-Truck Platoon

2018-06-13
Abstract A wind-tunnel study was undertaken to investigate the drag reduction potential of two-truck platooning, in the context of understanding some of the factors that may influence the potential fuel savings and greenhouse-gas reductions. Testing was undertaken in the National Research Council Canada 2 m × 3 m Wind Tunnel with two 1/15-scale models of modern aerodynamic tractors paired with dry-van trailers configured with and without combinations of side-skirts and boat-tails. Separation distances of 0.14, 0.28, 0.49, 0.70 and 1.04 vehicle lengths were tested (3 m, 6 m, 10.5 m, 15 m, and 22.5 m full scale). Additionally, within-lane lateral offsets up to 0.31 vehicle widths (0.8 m full scale) were evaluated, along with a full-lane offset of 1.42 vehicle widths (3.7 m full scale). This study has made use of a wind-averaged-drag coefficient as the primary metric for evaluating the effect of vehicle platooning.
Journal Article

Vibration Response Properties in Frame Hanging Catalyst Muffler

2018-07-24
Abstract Dynamic stresses exist in parts of a catalyst muffler caused by the vibration of a moving vehicle, and it is important to clarify and predict the vibration response properties for preventing fatigue failures. Assuming a vibration isolating installation in the vehicle frame, the vibration transmissibility and local dynamic stress of the catalyst muffler were examined through a vibration machine. Based on the measured data and by systematically taking vibration theories into consideration, a new prediction method of the vibration modes and parameters was proposed that takes account of vibration isolating and damping. A lumped vibration model with the six-element and one mass point was set up, and the vibration response parameters were analyzed accurately from equations of motion. In the vibration test, resonance peaks from the hanging bracket, rubber bush, and muffler parts were confirmed in three excitation drives, and local stress peaks were coordinate with them as well.
Journal Article

Assessing Road Load Coefficients of a Semi-Trailer Combination Using a Mechanical Simulation Software with Calibration Corrections

2019-01-07
Abstract The study of road loads on trucks plays a major role in assessing the effect of heavy-vehicle design on fuel conservation measures. Coastdown testing with full-scale vehicles in the field offers a good avenue to extract drag components, provided that random instrumentation faults and biased environmental conditions do not introduce errors into the results. However, full-scale coastdown testing is expensive, and environmental biases which are ever-present are difficult to control in the results reduction. Procedures introduced to overcome the shortcomings of full-scale field testing, such as wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), though very reliable, mainly focus on estimating the effects of aerodynamic drag forces to the neglect of other road loads which should be considered.
Journal Article

Design of High-Lift Airfoil for Formula Student Race Car

2018-12-05
Abstract A two-dimensional model of three elements, high-lift airfoil, was designed at a Reynolds number of ?????? using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to generate downforce with good lift-to-drag efficiency for a formula student open-wheel race car basing on the nominal track speeds. The numerical solver uses the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation model coupled with the Langtry-Menter four-equation transition shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. Such model adds two further equations to the ?? − ?? SST model resulting in an accurate prediction for the amount of flow separation due to adverse pressure gradient in low Reynolds number flow. The ?? − ?? SST model includes the transport effects into the eddy-viscosity formulation, whereas the two equations of transition momentum thickness Reynolds number and intermittency should further consider transition effects at low Reynolds number.
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part II: Assessment of the Battery Capacity

2019-01-25
Abstract Recently, electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTTs) have assumed significance as they present an immediate solution to decarbonize the transportation sector. Hence, to illustrate the economic viability of electrifying the freight industry, a detailed numerical model to estimate the battery capacity for an EHDTT is proposed for a route between Washington, DC, to Knoxville, TN. This model incorporates the effects of the terrain, climate, vehicular forces, auxiliary loads, and payload in order to select the appropriate motor and optimize the battery capacity. Additionally, current and near-future battery chemistries are simulated in the model. Along with equations describing vehicular forces based on Newton’s second law of motion, the model utilizes the Hausmann and Depcik correlation to estimate the losses caused by the capacity offset of the batteries. Here, a Newton-Raphson iterative scheme determines the minimum battery capacity for the required state of charge.
Journal Article

An Approach for Heavy-Duty Vehicle-Level Engine Brake Performance Evaluation

2019-01-08
Abstract An innovative analysis approach to evaluate heavy-duty vehicle downhill engine brake performance was developed. The vehicle model developed with GT-Drive simulates vehicle downhill control speeds with different engine brake retarding powers, transmission gears, and vehicle weights at sea level or high altitude. The outputs are then used to construct multi-factor parametric design charts. The charts can be used to analyze the vehicle-level engine brake capabilities or compare braking performance difference between different engine brake configurations to quantify the risk of engine retarding power deficiency at both sea level and high altitude downhill driving conditions.
Journal Article

Development of a Standard Testing Method for Vehicle Cabin Air Quality Index

2019-05-20
Abstract Vehicle cabin air quality depends on various parameters such as number of passengers, fan speed, and vehicle speed. In addition to controlling the temperature inside the vehicle, HVAC control system has evolved to improve cabin air quality as well. However, there is no standard test method to ensure reliable and repeatable comparison among different cars. The current study defined Cabin Air Quality Index (CAQI) and proposed a test method to determine CAQI. CAQIparticles showed dependence on the choice of metrics among particle number (PN), particle surface area (PS), and particle mass (PM). CAQIparticles is less than 1 while CAQICO2 is larger than 1. The proposed test method is promising but needs further improvement for smaller coefficient of variations (COVs).
Journal Article

Flow Analysis between Two Bluff Bodies in a Close Distance Platooning Configuration

2019-07-08
Abstract This article analyses the flow field between two 1/8-scale Generalized European Transport System (GETS) models which are placed in a two-vehicle platoon at close distances. Numerical simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method together with a wind tunnel experiment (open jet facility, OJF) were executed. Next, to balance measurements, coaxial volumetric velocimetry (CVV) measurements were performed to obtain information about the flow field. Three intervehicle distances, 0.10, 0.45 and 0.91 times the vehicle length, were tested for various platoon configurations where the vehicles in the platoon varied in terms of front-edge radius and the addition of tails. At the smallest intervehicle distance, the greatest reductions in drag were found for both the leading and trailing vehicles. The flow in the gap between the two vehicles follows an S-shaped path with small variations between the configurations.
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