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Journal Article

Comparison of Different Boosting Strategies for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines - A Modeling Study

Boosted Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has been modeled and has demonstrated the potential to extend the engine's upper load limit. A commercially available engine simulation software (GT-PowerÖ) coupled to the University of Michigan HCCI combustion and heat transfer correlations was used to model a 4-cylinder boosted HCCI engine with three different boosting configurations: turbocharging, supercharging and series turbocharging. The scope of this study is to identify the best boosting approach in order to extend the HCCI engine's operating range. The results of this study are consistent with the literature: Boosting helps increase the HCCI upper load limit, but matching of turbochargers is a problem. In addition, the low exhaust gas enthalpy resulting from HCCI combustion leads to high pressures in the exhaust manifold increasing pumping work. The series turbocharging strategy appears to provide the largest load range extension.
Technical Paper

Optical and Infrared In-Situ Measurements of EGR Cooler Fouling

The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines has significant impacts on combustion and emissions. EGR can be used to reduce in-cylinder NOx production, reduce emitted particulate matter, and enable advanced forms of combustion. To maximize the benefits of EGR, the exhaust gases are often cooled with on-engine liquid to gas heat exchangers. A common problem with this approach is the build-up of a fouling layer inside the heat exchanger due to thermophoresis and condensation, reducing the effectiveness of the heat exchanger in lowering gas temperatures. Literature has shown the effectiveness to initially drop rapidly and then approach steady state after a variable amount of time. The asymptotic behavior of the effectiveness has not been well explained. A range of theories have been proposed including fouling layer removal, changing fouling layer properties, and cessation of thermophoresis.
Technical Paper

Control of a Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine During Transient Operation by Modulating Residual Gas Fraction to Compensate for Wall Temperature Effects

The thermal conditions of an engine structure, in particular the wall temperatures, have been shown to have a great effect on the HCCI engine combustion timing and burn rates through wall heat transfer, especially during transient operations. This study addresses the effects of thermal inertia on combustion in an HCCI engine. In this study, the control of combustion timing in an HCCI engine is achieved by modulating the residual gas fraction (RGF) while considering the wall temperatures. A multi-cylinder engine simulation with detailed geometry is carried out using a 1-D system model (GT-Power®) that is linked with Simulink®. The model includes a finite element wall temperature solver and is enhanced with original HCCI combustion and heat transfer models. Initially, the required residual gas fraction for optimal BSFC is determined for steady-state operation. The model is then used to derive a map of the sensitivity of optimal residual gas fraction to wall temperature excursions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Cross Flow Compact Heat Exchanger with Louvered Fins using Thermal Resistance Concept

Compact heat exchangers have been widely used in various applications in thermal fluid systems including automotive thermal management systems. Radiators for engine cooling systems, evaporators and condensers for HVAC systems, oil coolers, and intercoolers are typical examples of the compact heat exchangers that can be found in ground vehicles. Among the different types of heat exchangers for engine cooling applications, cross flow compact heat exchangers with louvered fins are of special interest because of their higher heat rejection capability with the lower flow resistance. In this study, a predictive numerical model for the cross flow type heat exchanger with louvered fins has been developed based on the thermal resistance concept and the finite difference method in order to provide a design and development tool for the heat exchanger. The model was validated with the experimental data from an engine cooling radiator.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Load and Speed Transitions in an HCCI Engine Using 1-D Cycle Simulation and Thermal Networks

Exhaust gas rebreathing is considered to be a practical enabler that could be used in HCCI production engines. Recent experimental work at the University of Michigan demonstrates that the combustion characteristics of an HCCI engine using large amounts of hot residual gas by rebreathing are very sensitive to engine thermal conditions. This computational study addresses HCCI engine operation with rebreathing, with emphasis on the effects of engine thermal conditions during transient periods. A 1-D cycle simulation with thermal networks is carried out under load and speed transitions. A knock integral auto-ignition model, a modified Woschni heat transfer model for HCCI engines and empirical correlations to define burn rate and combustion efficiency are incorporated into the engine cycle simulation model. The simulation results show very different engine behavior during the thermal transient periods compared with steady state.
Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of an In-Cylinder Heat Transfer Model with Compressibility Effects on Turbulent Prandtl Number, Eddy Viscosity Ratio and Kinematic Viscosity Variation

In-cylinder heat transfer has strong effects on engine performance and emissions and heat transfer modeling is closely related to the physics of the thermal boundary layer, especially the effects of conductivity and Prandtl number inside the thermal boundary layer. Compressibility effects on the thermal boundary layer are important issues in multi-dimensional in-cylinder heat transfer modeling. Nevertheless, the compressibility effects on kinematic viscosity and the variation of turbulent Prandtl number and eddy viscosity ratio have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, an in-cylinder heat transfer model is developed by introducing compressibility effects on turbulent Prandtl number, eddy viscosity ratio and kinematic viscosity variation with a power-law approximation. This new heat transfer model is implemented to a spark-ignition engine with a coherent flamelet turbulent combustion model and the RNG k- turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

New Heat Transfer Correlation for an HCCI Engine Derived from Measurements of Instantaneous Surface Heat Flux

An experimental study has been carried out to provide qualitative and quantitative insight into gas to wall heat transfer in a gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Fast response thermocouples are embedded in the piston top and cylinder head surface to measure instantaneous wall temperature and heat flux. Heat flux measurements obtained at multiple locations show small spatial variations, thus confirming relative uniformity of in-cylinder conditions in a HCCI engine operating with premixed charge. Consequently, the spatially-averaged heat flux represents well the global heat transfer from the gas to the combustion chamber walls in the premixed HCCI engine, as confirmed through the gross heat release analysis. Heat flux measurements were used for assessing several existing heat transfer correlations. One of the most popular models, the Woschni expression, was shown to be inadequate for the HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Reconstruction and its Application to Heat Transfer Analysis

In this paper, a new method for cylinder pressure reconstruction is proposed based on the concept of a dimensionless pressure curve in the frequency domain. It is shown that cylinder pressure profiles, acquired over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, exhibit similarity. Hence, cylinder pressure traces collapse into a set of dimensionless curves within a narrow range after normalization in the frequency domain. The dimensionless pressure traces can be described by a curve-fit family, which can be used for reconstructing pressure diagrams back into the time domain at any desired condition. The accuracy associated with this method is analyzed and its application to engine heat transfer analysis is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

The Potential of the Variable Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

A comprehensive quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the spark-ignition (SI) engine was used to explore part-load, fuel economy benefits of the Variable Stroke Engine (VSE) compared to the conventional throttled engine. First it was shown that varying stroke can replace conventional throttling to control engine load, without changing the engine characteristics. Subsequently, the effects of varying stroke on turbulence, burn rate, heat transfer, and pumping and friction losses were revealed. Finally these relationships were used to explain the behavior of the VSE as stroke is reduced. Under part load operation, it was shown that the VSE concept can improve brake specific fuel consumption by 18% to 21% for speeds ranging from 1500 to 3000 rpm. Further, at part load, NOx was reduced by up to 33%. Overall, this study provides insight into changes in processes within and outside the combustion chamber that cause the benefits and limitations of the VSE concept.
Technical Paper

Correlation Between Knock Intensity and Heat Transfer Under Light and Heavy Knocking Conditions in a Spark Ignition Engine

Instantaneous piston surface temperatures and heat flux rates were measured inside and outside the end-gas zone of a single-cylinder research engine operated under light and heavy knocking conditions. The engine was run with center and rear side spark-plug configurations, thus alternating the position of the heat flux probes relative to the end gas. Heat transfer data were collected over 88 engine cycles for each of which knock intensity was determined by heat release analysis. Under light knock, the ensemble-averaged peak heat-flux at locations near the end-gas increased with spark advance towards heavier knock, showing significant departure from its trend prior to the onset of knock. Under heavy knock, the ensemble-averaged peak heat-flux increased throughout the piston crown. Despite showing significant scatter, individual cycle, peak heat-flux values near the end-gas region were found to follow an increasing trend with knock intensity under light knocking conditions.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Modeling the Effects of Gas Exchange Processes on HCCI Combustion and Its Application in Evaluating Variable Valve Timing Control Strategies

The present study introduces a modeling approach for investigating the effects of valve events and gas exchange processes in the framework of a full-cycle HCCI engine simulation. A multi-dimensional fluid mechanics code, KIVA-3V, is used to simulate exhaust, intake and compression up to a transition point, before which chemical reactions become important. The results are then used to initialize the zones of a multi-zone, thermo-kinetic code, which computes the combustion event and part of the expansion. After the description and the validation of the model against experimental data, the application of the method is illustrated in the context of variable valve actuation. It has been shown that early exhaust valve closing, accompanied by late intake valve opening, has the potential to provide effective control of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Development of a Two-Zone HCCI Combustion Model Accounting for Boundary Layer Effects

The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion concept is currently under widespread investigation due to its potential to increase thermal efficiency while greatly decreasing harmful exhaust pollutants. Simulation tools have been developed to explore the implications of initial mixture thermodynamic state on engine performance and emissions. In most cases these modeling efforts have coupled a detailed fuel chemistry mechanism with empirical descriptions of the in-cylinder heat transfer processes. The primary objective of this paper is to present a fundamentally based boundary layer heat transfer model. The two-zone combustion model couples an adiabatic core zone with a boundary layer heat transfer model. The model predicts film coefficient, with approximately the same universal shape and magnitudes as an existing global model.
Technical Paper

A Four-Stroke Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Simulation for Combustion and Performance Studies

A computer simulation of the Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) four-stroke engine has been developed for combustion and performance studies. The simulation couples models for mass, species, and energy within a zero-dimensional framework. The combustion process is described via a user-defined chemical kinetic mechanism. The CHEMKIN libraries have been used to formulate a stiff chemical kinetic solver suitable for integration within a complete engine cycle simulation, featuring models of gas exchange, turbulence and wall heat transfer. For illustration, two chemical kinetics schemes describing hydrogen and natural gas chemistry have been implemented in the code. The hydrogen scheme is a reduced one, consisting of 11 species and 23 reactions. The natural gas chemistry is described via the GRI-mechanism 3.0 that considers 53 species and 325 reactions, including NOx chemistry.
Technical Paper

A Prototype Thin-Film Thermocouple for Transient Heat Transfer Measurements in Ceramic-Coated Combustion Chambers

A prototype chromel-alumel overlapping thin-film thermocouple (TFTC) has been developed for transient heat transfer measurements in ceramic-coated combustion chambers. The TFTC has been evaluated using various metallurgical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray detection, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The sensor was calibrated against a standard thermocouple in ice, boiling water, and a furnace at 1000°C. The microstructural and chemical analysis of the thin-films showed the alumel film composition was very similar to the bulk material, while the chromel film varied slightly. An initial set of ceramic plug surface temperatures was taken while motoring and firing the engine at 1900 rpm to verify thermocouple operation. The data shows a 613 K mean temperature and a 55 K swing for the ceramic surface compared with a 493 K mean temperature and a 20 K swing for the metal surface at the same location.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Alternative Thermocouple Designs for Transient Heat Transfer Measurements in Metal and Ceramic Engines

Finite element models of various fast-response thermocouple designs have been developed. Due to the small differences in thermal properties between thermoelements and metal engine components, standard co-axial thermocouples can measure transient temperatures of metal components within an accuracy of 98%. However, these relatively small errors in total temperature measurement translate into as high as 30% errors in indicated peak-to-peak-temperature swings for iron surfaces. The transient swing errors result in up to 30% errors in peak heat flux rates to iron surfaces. These peak heat flux errors can be substantially larger if coaxial thermocouples are used for heat flux measurements in aluminum or ceramic surfaces. Increasing the thin film thickness is a compromise solution to reduce the discrepancy in peak heat flux measured with coaxial designs in metal engines. An alternative overlapping thin film thermocouple design has also been evaluated.
Technical Paper

Development and Use of a Computer Simulation of the Turbocompounded Diesel System for Engine Performance and Component Heat Transfer Studies

A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbocompounded direct-injection diesel engine system has been developed in order to study the performance characteristics of the total system as major design parameters and materials are varied. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, turbines, manifolds, intercooler, and ducting are coupled with a multi-cylinder reciprocator diesel model where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. Appropriate thermal loading models relate the heat flow through critical system components to material properties and design details. This paper describes the basic system models and their calibration and validation against available experimental engine test data. The use of the model is illustrated by predicting the performance gains and the component design trade-offs associated with a partially insulated engine achieving a 40 percent reduction in heat loss over a baseline cooled engine.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Heat Transfer Studies in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

An experimental investigation is being conducted to study the heat release and transient heat transfer characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine. Pressure and transient temperature data from two stationary locations in the cylinder head were used to calculate heat release and transient heat flux rates for various injection timings, speeds, and loads. As injection timing is retarded, the heat release indicates a shift from predominantly pre-mixed combustion to largely diffusion limited combustion. Changes in load affected mainly the diffusion phase of combustion, while changes in speed more strongly affected the pre-mixed portion of combustion. Fluxes calculated at both locations reflect the prominent traits of the heat release profiles, but lag several crank angle in phase. The surface temperature and flux over the bowl were greater than over the crown. The flux at the outer location exhibited greater variation as engine operating conditions were changed.
Technical Paper

Transient Analysis of Piston-Linear Heat Transfer in Low-Heat-Rejeetion Diesel Engines

A two-dimensional finite element program has been developed to analyze the transient heat flow paths in low-heat-rejection engine combustion chambers. This analysis tool is used to study the transient heat transfer performance of a ceramic-coated piston with steel-alloy rings reciprocating within a ceramic-coated iiner at a speed of 1900 revolutions per minute. Throughout the cycle, the instantaneous boundaries of the combustion chamber are defined based on the position of the piston against the liner. Then, appropriate boundary conditions are applied to the component surfaces at every instant. Instantaneous piston and liner temperature distributions, heat transfer rates from the working fluid to these two components, as well as heat transfer rates between the two components are calculated by the program. The results are compared against the performance of a baseline cast-iron piston-liner assembly.