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Technical Paper

A Comparison Study of Car-to-Pedestrian and Car-to-E-Bike Accidents: Data Source: The China In-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS)

2014-04-01
2014-01-0519
The aim of the study was to investigate the difference between car-to-e-bikes and car-to-pedestrian accidents. The China In-depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database was searched from 2011 to 2013 for pedestrians and e-bikes struck by car, van and SUV fronts, which resulted in 104 pedestrian and 85 e-bike cases where information was sufficient for in-depth analysis. Reconstruction by PC-Crash was performed for all of the sampled cases. Pre-crash parameters were calculated by a MATLAB code. Focus was on prototypical accident scenarios and causes; speed as well as possible prevention countermeasures. It has been shown that traffic light violations, road priority violations, and unsure safety (these situations included misjudgments, unpreparedness, proximity to other road users, inappropriate speeds, etc.…) are the main causes in both the VRU groups. Distinctions were found for aspects of car collision speed, accident scenario, distribution of head contact points and so on.
Technical Paper

Saving Lives with V2X versus On-Board Sensing Systems -Which will be More Effective?: Technology Leadership Brief

2012-10-08
2012-01-9017
Infrastructure systems such as vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication can theoretically prevent nearly all accidents by gathering the speed, locations, and travel directions of traffic participants, and intervening to control vehicle motion as required to help prevent collisions. However, during the phase-in of the communication systems, there will be many vehicles and many roads that do not have the communication systems in place, and therefore the system will not be effective in those cases. This lack of availability is likely the main disadvantage. On-board sensing (autonomous) systems such as cameras and radar sensors may not detect all potential hazards (e.g. due to weather, or hidden hazards), but they are effective in many situations and can help prevent crashes without depending on communication with infrastructure or other vehicles.
Technical Paper

Rear Seat Occupant Safety: An Investigation of a Progressive Force-Limiting, Pretensioning 3-Point Belt System Using Adult PMHS in Frontal Sled Tests

2009-11-02
2009-22-0002
Rear seat adult occupant protection is receiving increased attention from the automotive safety community. Recent anthropomorphic test device (ATD) studies have suggested that it may be possible to improve kinematics and reduce injuries to rear seat occupants in frontal collisions by incorporating shoulder-belt force-limiting and pretensioning (FL+PT) technologies into rear seat 3-point belt restraints. This study seeks to further investigate the feasibility and potential kinematic benefits of a FL+PT rear seat, 3-point belt restraint system in a series of 48 kmh frontal impact sled tests (20 g, 80 ms sled acceleration pulse) performed with post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Three PMHS were tested with a 3-point belt restraint with a progressive (two-stage) force limiting and pretensioning retractor in a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant environment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan.
Technical Paper

Whole-body Kinematic and Dynamic Response of Restrained PMHS in Frontal Sled Tests

2006-11-06
2006-22-0013
The literature contains a wide range of response data describing the biomechanics of isolated body regions. Current data for the validation of frontal anthropomorphic test devices and human body computational models lack, however, a detailed description of the whole-body response to loading with contemporary restraints in automobile crashes.
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