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Test Method for Seat Wrinkling and Bagginess

2012-05-22
This study evaluates utilizing an accelerated test method that correlates customer interaction with a vehicle seat where bagginess and wrinkling is produced. The evaluation includes correlation from warranty returns as well as test vehicle results for test verification. Consumer metrics will be discussed within this paper with respect to potential application of this test method, including but not limited to JD Power ratings. The intent of the test method is to aid in establishing appropriate design parameters of the seat trim covers and to incorporate appropriate design measures such as tie downs and lamination. This test procedure was utilized in a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project as an aid in optimizing seat parameters influencing trim cover performance using a Design of Experiment approach. Presenter Lisa Fallon, General Motors LLC
Technical Paper

Modeling the Stiffness and Damping Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

2011-05-17
2011-01-1628
Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR), a copolymer of butadiene and styrene, is widely used in the automotive industry due to its high durability and resistance to abrasion, oils and oxidation. Some of the common applications include tires, vibration isolators, and gaskets, among others. This paper characterizes the dynamic behavior of SBR and discusses the suitability of a visco-elastic model of elastomers, known as the Kelvin model, from a mathematical and physical point of view. An optimization algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of the Kelvin model. The resulting model was shown to produce reasonable approximations of measured dynamic stiffness. The model was also used to calculate the self heating of the elastomer due to energy dissipation by the viscous damping components in the model. Developing such a predictive capability is essential in understanding the dynamic behavior of elastomers considering that their dynamic stiffness can in general depend on temperature.
Technical Paper

Damping Mass Effects on Panel Sound Transmission Loss

2011-05-17
2011-01-1633
The primary function of damping treatment on a vibrating panel in a vehicle is to reduce vibration levels or radiated sound power by the dissipation of energy. However, in automotive applications the mass effects of damping materials should not be ignored, especially with regard to airborne noise performance. In this paper, a Finite Element-Statistical Energy Analysis (FE-SEA) hybrid analysis is used to evaluate the mass effects of applied damping materials on Sound Transmission Loss (STL). The analysis takes into consideration effects on both the elastic properties and modal mass of the panel. It is shown that while uniformly distributing the mass of the damping material over the panel generally over-estimate the mass effects on STL, an area weighting approach underestimates the effects. Results are confirmed by laboratory testing. A nomogram is generated to show the total effect of the mass of the damping material on STL.
Journal Article

Revised ISO 10844 Test Surface: Technical Principles

2011-05-17
2011-01-1607
ISO has revised the 10844 International Standard for test surfaces used in measurement of exterior vehicle and tire noise emission. The revision has a goal to reduce the track to track sound level variation presently observed by 50%, without changing the mean value. ISO has incorporated improved texture measurement procedures, improved acoustic absorption measurement procedures, and has added measurement procedures for track roughness. In addition, specifications for texture, absorption, roughness, planarity, and asphalt mix were revised or added to recognize improved technical methods and to achieve the goal of variation reduction. The specification development was supported by a construction program where four candidate ISO 10844 tracks were constructed in Japan, France, and the US to verify the technical principles and to validate construction process capability. This paper will address the technical changes and reasons for these changes in the revised ISO 10844.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Oil/Gas Flow in Piston Ring-Pack

2011-04-12
2011-01-1406
The oil consumption and blow-by are complex phenomena that need to be minimized to meet the ever changing modern emission standards. Oil flows from the sump to the combustion chamber and the blow-by gases flow from the combustion chamber to the crank case. There are several piston rings on the piston, which form a ring-pack. The ring pack has to be efficiently designed to minimize the oil consumption and blow-by. Since it is difficult and extremely costly to conduct experiments on every series of engines to check for the blow-by and oil consumption, a CFD analysis can be performed on the ring pack to study the blow-by and oil-consumption characteristics. In the CFD analysis described here, the region considered is between the compression chamber and the skirt, between the piston (including the rings) and the cylinder liner. The 3D CFD analysis was conducted for the engine running conditions of 5000 rpm and load of 13.5 kPa, for a 2.4L gasoline engine.
Journal Article

Direct Aeroacoustic Simulation of Flow Impingement Noise in an Exhaust Opening

2011-05-17
2011-01-1517
Unusual noises during vehicle acceleration often reflect poorly on customer perception of product quality and must be removed in the product development process. Flow simulation can be a valuable tool in identifying root causes of exhaust noises created due to tailpipe openings surrounded by fascia structure. This paper describes a case study where an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the combined flow and acoustic radiation from an exhaust opening through fascia components provided valuable insight into the cause of an annoying flow noise. Simulation results from a coupled thermal/acoustic analysis of detailed tailpipe opening geometry were first validated with off-axis microphone spectra under wide open throttle acceleration. After studying the visualizations of unsteady flow velocity and pressure from the CFD, a problem that had proved difficult to solve by traditional “cut and try” methods was corrected rapidly.
Technical Paper

HEV Architectures - Power Electronics Optimization through Collaboration Sub-topic: Inverter Design and Collaboration

2010-10-19
2010-01-2309
As the automotive industry quickly moves towards hybridized and electrified vehicles, the optimal integration of power electronics in these vehicles will have a significant impact not only on the cost, performance, reliability, and durability; but ultimately on customer acceptance and market success of these technologies. If properly executed with the right cost, performance, reliability and durability, then both the industry and the consumer will benefit. It is because of these interdependencies that the pace and scale of success, will hinge on effective collaboration. This collaboration will be built around the convergence of automotive and industrial technology. Where real time embedded controls mixes with high power and voltage levels. The industry has already seen several successful collaborations adapting power electronics to the automotive space in target vehicles.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Hardware-in-the-Loop Technology in Support of Complex Integration Testing of Embedded System Software

2011-04-12
2011-01-0443
Automotive technology is rapidly changing with electrification of vehicles, driver assistance systems, advanced safety systems etc. This advancement in technology is making the task of validation and verification of embedded software complex and challenging. In addition to the component testing, integration testing imposes even tougher requirements for software testing. To meet these challenges dSPACE is continuously evolving the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) technology to provide a systematic way to manage this task. The paper presents developments in the HIL hardware technology with latest quad-core processors, FPGA based I/O technology and communication bus systems such as Flexray. Also presented are developments of the software components such as advanced user interfaces, GPS information integration, real-time testing and simulation models. This paper provides a real-world example of implication of integration testing on HIL environment for Chassis Controls.
Journal Article

Study of High Speed Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) Engine Operation in the LTC Regime

2011-04-12
2011-01-1182
An investigation of high speed direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine combustion fueled with gasoline (termed GDICI for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition) in the low temperature combustion (LTC) regime is presented. As an aid to plan engine experiments at full load (16 bar IMEP, 2500 rev/min), exploration of operating conditions was first performed numerically employing a multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA-ERC-Chemkin, that features improved sub-models and the Chemkin library. The oxidation chemistry of the fuel was calculated using a reduced mechanism for primary reference fuel combustion. Operation ranges of a light-duty diesel engine operating with GDICI combustion with constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions were identified as functions of injection timings, exhaust gas recirculation rate and the fuel split ratio of double-pulse injections.
Technical Paper

Particulate Characteristics for Varying Engine Operation in a Gasoline Spark Ignited, Direct Injection Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1220
The objective of this research is a detailed investigation of particulate sizing and number count from a spark-ignited, direct-injection (SIDI) engine at different operating conditions. The engine is a 549 [cc] single-cylinder, four-valve engine with a flat-top piston, fueled by Tier II EEE. A baseline engine operating condition, with a low number of particulates, was established and repeatability at this condition was ascertained. This baseline condition is specified as 2000 rpm, 320 kPa IMEP, 280 [°bTDC] end of injection (EOI), and 25 [°bTDC] ignition timing. The particle size distributions were recorded for particle sizes between 7 and 289 [nm]. The baseline particle size distribution was relatively flat, around 1E6 [dN/dlogDp], for particle diameters between 7 and 100 [nm], before dropping off to decreasing numbers at larger diameters. Distributions resulting from a matrix of different engine conditions were recorded.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Hybrid Battery Tray Design Optimization

2011-04-12
2011-01-0671
Hybrid high voltage battery pack is not only heavy mass but also large in dimension. It interacts with the vehicle through the battery tray. Thus the battery tray is a critical element of the battery pack that interfaces between the battery and the vehicle, including the performances of safety/crash, NVH (modal), and durability. The tray is the largest and strongest structure in the battery pack holding the battery sections and other components including the battery disconnect unit (BDU) and other units that are not negligible in mass. This paper describes the mass optimization work done on one of the hybrid batteries using CAE simulation. This was a multidisciplinary optimization project, in which modal performance and fatigue damage were accessed through CAE analysis at both the battery pack level, and at the vehicle level.
Technical Paper

NVH Development of EU5 2.0L and 2.2L Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0932
There is higher and higher demand by customers for vehicles with the maximum level of comfort, this aspect being a target to be achieved together with the general trend to increase performance and also with the necessity to reduce engine out emissions to satisfy the new environmental regulations. GMDAT has recently developed new EU5 2.0 and 2.2 liter L4-cylinder turbocharged Diesel engines that, to address customer demands, have improved power, lower exhaust gas emissions and NVH performance aligned to best in class in its segment. With the final aim of making this engine best in class from an NVH perspective, the NVH development has been executed in a very structured way, going through target setting and deployment, concept and design, combustion and mechanical development through computational analysis first and subsequently experimental tests.
Technical Paper

Tensile Material Properties of Fabrics for Vehicle Interiors from Digital Image Correlation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1422
Fabric materials have diverse applications in the automotive industry which include upholstery, carpeting, safety devices, and interior trim components. The textile industry has invested substantial effort toward development of standard testing techniques for characterizing mechanical properties of different fabric types (e.g. woven and knitted). However, there are presently no standards for determination of Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and tensile stress-strain properties required for the detailed modeling of fabric materials in vehicle structural simulations. This paper presents results from uniaxial tensile tests of different automotive seat cover fabric materials. Digital image correlation, a full field optical method for measuring surface deformation, was used to determine tensile properties in both the warp/wale and the weft/course directions. The fabrics were tested with and without the foam backing.
Technical Paper

Cascaded Dual Extended Kalman Filter for Combined Vehicle State Estimation and Parameter Identification

2013-04-08
2013-01-0691
This paper proposes a model-based “Cascaded Dual Extended Kalman Filter” (CDEKF) for combined vehicle state estimation, namely, tire vertical forces and parameter identification. A sensitivity analysis is first carried out to recognize the vehicle inertial parameters that have significant effects on tire normal forces. Next, the combined estimation process is separated in two components. The first component is designed to identify the vehicle mass and estimate the longitudinal forces while the second component identifies the location of center of gravity and estimates the tire normal forces. A Dual extended Kalman filter is designed for each component for combined state estimation and parameter identification. Simulation results verify that the proposed method can precisely estimate the tire normal forces and accurately identify the inertial parameters.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a Wedge Clutch in an Automatic Transmission

2010-04-12
2010-01-0186
A wedge clutch with a wedge ramp transfers the tangential force to an axial force. It has unique features of self-reinforcement and small actuation force, and can be packaged into tight spaces. This wedge clutch can be developed to apply to an automatic transmission (AT) or a hybrid transmission. This paper focuses on the simulation of one wedge clutch in AT during shifting. A mathematical formula is given to describe the self-reinforcement principle of the wedge. The dynamic model of a motor actuated wedge clutch during shifting is built to simulate and develop the control algorithm. The model is implemented in Matlab/Simulink, which includes a DC motor model, a dynamic model of the wedge mechanism and clutch pack, and a driveline model of AT which can simulate a gear shift process. The key characteristics such as variation of normal pressure, response time and energy consumption are evaluated, and the results show a favorable comparison with the traditional hydraulic clutch.
Technical Paper

Effect of Different Magnesium Powertrain Alloys on the High Pressure Die Casting Characteristics of an Automatic Transmission Case

2010-04-12
2010-01-0409
The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how flow and solidification simulation were used in the development of a new gating system design for three different magnesium alloys; and to determine the relative castability of each alloy based on casting trials. Prototype tooling for an existing 3-slide rear wheel drive automatic transmission case designed for aluminum A380 was provided by General Motors. Flow and solidification simulation were performed using Magmasoft on the existing runner system design using A380 (baseline), AE44, MRI153M and MRI230D. Based on the filling results, new designs were developed at Meridian for the magnesium alloys. Subsequent modeling was performed to verify the new design and the changes were incorporated into the prototype tool. Casting trials were conducted with the three magnesium alloys and the relative castability was evaluated.
Technical Paper

SAE Low-Frequency Brake Noise Test Procedure

2010-10-10
2010-01-1696
This paper presents the work of the SAE Brake NVH Standards Committee in developing a draft Low-Frequency Brake Noise Test Procedure. The goal of the procedure is to be able to accurately measure noise issues in the frequency range below 900 Hz using a conventional shaft brake noise dynamometer. The tests conducted while evaluating alternative test protocols will be discussed and examined in detail. The unique issues encountered in developing a suitable test procedure for low-frequency noise will be discussed, and the results of tests using both shaft brake dynamometers and chassis dynamometers will be described. The current draft procedure incorporating the knowledge gained from this development effort will be described in detail and conclusions as to its applicability will also be presented
Journal Article

Truck Utility & Functionality in the GM 2-Mode Hybrid

2010-04-12
2010-01-0826
The present production General Motors 2-Mode Hybrid system for full-size SUVs and pickup trucks integrates truck utility functions with a full hybrid system. The 2-mode hybrid system incorporates two electro-mechanical power-split operating modes with four fixed-gear ratios. The combination provides fuel savings from electric assist, regenerative braking and low-speed electric vehicle operation. The combination of two power-split modes reduces the amount of mechanical power that is converted to electric power for continuously variable transmission operation, meeting the utility required for SUVs and trucks. This paper describes how fuel economy functionality was blended with full-size truck utility functions. Truck functions described include: Manual Range Select, Cruise Control, 4WD-Low and continuous high load operation.
Journal Article

Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Aluminum Autobody Panels: Final Report

2010-04-12
2010-01-0726
Over the past several years a task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has conducted extensive on-vehicle field testing and numerous accelerated lab tests with the goal of establishing a standard accelerated test method for cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. This project has been a cooperative effort with OEM, supplier, and consultant participation and was also supported in part by DOE through USAMP (AMD 309). The focus of this project has been the identification of a standardized accelerated cosmetic corrosion test that exhibits the same appearance, severity, and type of corrosion products that are exhibited on identical painted aluminum panels exposed to service relevant environments. Multi-year service relevant exposures were conducted by mounting panels on-vehicles in multiple locations in the US and Canada.
Technical Paper

Varying the Polyurethane Foam Ratio for Better Acoustic Performance and Mass Savings

2011-05-17
2011-01-1736
Flexible molded polyurethane foams are widely used in automotive industry. As porous-elastic materials, they can be used as decoupler layers in conventional sound insulation constructions or as sound absorbers in vehicle trim parts. Flexible molded polyurethane foams are produced by reacting of liquid Isocyanate (Iso) with a liquid Polyol blend, catalysts, and other additives. Their acoustic performance can be changed by varying the mixing ratio, the weight proportion of two components: Iso and Polyol. Consequently, the sound insertion loss (IL) of barrier/foam constructions and acoustic absorption of a single foam layer will vary. In this paper, based on one industry standard flexible molded polyurethane foam process, the relationship between foam mixing ratio and foam acoustic performance is studied in terms of IL and sound absorption test results.
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