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Technical Paper

Fatigue of Spot Friction Welded Joints of Mg-Mg, Al-Al and Al-Mg Alloys

Spot friction welding shows advantages over resistance spot welding for joining light alloys for automotive applications. In this research, fatigue behaviors of spot friction welded joints in lap shear specimens of AM-60 magnesium alloy and AA 5754 aluminum alloy were investigated. Static and fatigue tests were conducted with Mg-Mg, Al-Al and Al-Mg specimens. Fatigue S-N curves were obtained for all these specimens using load-controlled fatigue tests. Finite element analysis was conducted to investigate the stress distribution and the location of maximum stresses in spot friction welded joints in Mg-Mg specimens.
Technical Paper

Effects of Surface Treatment (Lubricant) on Spot Friction Welded Joints Made of 6111-T4 Aluminum Sheets

The effects of lubricant on lap shear strength of Spot Friction Welded (SFW) joints made of 6111-T4 alloys were studied. Taguchi L8 design of experiment methodology was used to determine the lubricant effects. The results showed that the lap shear strength increased by 9.9% when the lubricant was present at the top surface compared to that of the baseline (no lubricant) whereas the lap shear strength reduced by 10.2% and 10.9% when the lubricant was present in the middle and at the bottom surfaces compared to that of the baseline (no lubricant), respectively. The microstructure analysis showed a zigzag interface at the joint between the upper and the lower sheet metal for the baseline specimen, the specimens with the lubricant at the top and at the bottom. However, a straight line interface is exhibited at the joint between the upper and the lower sheet for the specimen with the lubricant in the middle. The weld nugget sizes of the lap shear tested specimens were measured.
Technical Paper

Joining Aluminum to Nylon Using Frictional Heat

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the potential of spot joining aluminum with nylon using frictional heat. The process utilizes the heat generated by friction between a rotating tool surface and the aluminum sheet surface to melt nylon locally in the joining area and create a mechanical interlock between the aluminum and nylon sheets. Lap shear joint specimens were prepared using this process to investigate the effect of several parameters such as tool geometry, tool RPM, tool hold time, tool plunge depth and tool feed rate. Tensile tests were conducted to evaluate the joint strength and to investigate the failure mechanisms of the joint. Furthermore, the effects of cleaning the aluminum surface and baking of the nylon on the joint strength were also studied in this paper. Finally, friction heat generated joints were compared with adhesively bonded joints between aluminum and nylon.
Technical Paper

Spot Friction Welding of Mg-Mg, Al-Al and Mg-Al Alloys

Spot friction welding is considered a cost-effective method for joining lightweight automotive alloys, such as magnesium and aluminum alloys. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the strength of spot friction welded joints of magnesium to magnesium, aluminum to aluminum, magnesium to aluminum and aluminum to magnesium. The joint structures and failure modes were also studied.
Technical Paper

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites for Structural Automotive Applications

This paper presents cost-benefit analysis of glass and carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites for structural automotive applications based on press forming operation. Press forming is very similar to stamping operation for steel. The structural automotive applications involve beam type components. The part selected for a case study analysis is a crossbeam support for instrument panels.
Technical Paper

Fatigue of Friction-Stir Welded Joints in Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks

This paper presents the results of fatigue tests conducted on tailor-welded aluminum blanks consisting of 1.66 mm thick and 1.06 mm thick AA 5754-O sheets. The method of joining the sheets was friction-stir welding. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of tensile pre-strains on the fatigue performance of the welded joint. The welded specimens as well as unwelded 1.06-mm thick specimens were subjected to tensile pre-strains of 60 and 80% of their respective uniform strains before the fatigue tests. Fatigue S-N data of all these specimens were compared with similar data for unstrained specimens. Microscopic examinations were conducted to understand the failure modes.
Technical Paper

Effect of Weld Pitch Variation on the Performance of a Two-Piece Spot-Welded Body Structure

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of spot weld spacing on the stiffness and natural frequency of a two-piece welded body structure. The variation in spot weld spacing may occur either by design or due to assembly mistakes. In this study, rectangular beam cross sections with six different weld flange orientations are first considered. Finite element analysis is performed to compare the fundamental frequencies of these sections in bending and torsion. Weld pitch and sheet thickness are varied on two of the sections considered, namely the L-shaped and the clamshell sections. The effects of spot weld spacing on the bending stiffness, torsional stiffness, frequency response and mode shapes of these two sections are determined. Comparisons are made with seam welded sections. It is shown that the torsional stiffness and first torsional frequency can be severely affected by weld pitch, but the effect on the bending performance is not as severe.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Thermoforming as a Method of Manufacturing Plastic Air Intake Manifolds

Current plastic intake manifolds are manufactured using the injection molding process. In this paper, thermoforming is explored as an alternative to injection molding for making intake manifold shells, which can then be joined by one of the welding techniques used for thermoplastic materials. The investigation reported here includes press-forming experiments of a simple bowl shaped shell and subsequent welding experiments to join these shells.
Technical Paper

Design of Mechanically Fastened (Bolted) Joints in Automotive Composites

This paper discusses the design issues related to bolted joints in automotive composites. Pin bearing strength and fatigue test results of bolted joints in both random fiber as well as continuous fiber sheet molding compound composites are reviewed. Fatigue failure modes in bolted joints of these composites are presented. Based on these tests, design guidelines for bolted joints in sheet molding compound composites are proposed. Sheet molding compound (SMC) composites and resin transfer molded (RTM) composites are being considered for applications in automotive chassis components, such as cross members, wheels, and front end structures. Mechanical fasteners will be used to attach these composite components to their supports or other structures. While adhesive joints are preferred in body applications, mechanical fasteners, such as bolts and screws, have some distinct advantages in chassis applications.
Technical Paper

Static and Fatigue Strength Evaluation of Clinched Joints in an Aluminum Alloy

This paper presents the static and fatigue strength evaluation of clinched joints in 6111-T4 aluminum alloy sheets. Clinched joints are mechanical joints produced a cold forming technique using a small die-punch combination. A design of experiments approach is used to determine the optimum die-punch combination that produces the least variation in the static pull-out load in single lap shear tests. Fatigue S-N curves are determined for several different clinched joints in load-controlled fatigue tests with the load ratio equal to 0.1. The effect of heat exposure, typically experienced in paint ovens, on the static strength as well as fatigue S-N behavior are also examined.